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Kernite

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Formula:
Na2[B4O6(OH)2] · 3H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless to white.
Hardness:
Name:
After Kern County, California, USA, where it was first discovered.
This page provides mineralogical data about Kernite.

Classification of Kernite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
6.DB.05

6 : BORATES
D : Tetraborates
B : Ino-tetraborates
26.4.5.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : Tetraborates
9.1.6

9 : Borates
1 : Borates of the alkalis and boric acid
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http://www.mindat.org/min-2188.html
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Type Occurrence of Kernite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Metamorphosed bedded borate deposit in clay-shales.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Kernite

Geological Setting:
Sedimentary borate deposits.

Physical Properties of Kernite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Comment:
Satinly on fibrous cleavages
Colour:
Colourless to white.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100} perfect; {001} less perfect; on {201} fair. NOTE: The cleavable masses exhibit a simulated fibrous structure due to development of excellent cleavages. Cleavage fragments usually bent or warped around [001].
Fracture:
Splintery
Density:
1.906(3) g/cm3 (Measured)    1.905 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Kernite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.0172(2) Å, b = 9.1582(2) Å, c = 15.6774(5) Å
β = 108.861(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.766 : 1 : 1.712
Unit Cell Volume:
V 953.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals nearly equant, commonly slightly elongated [100] and deeply striated [010], with irregular form development. Wedge-shaped at times or rounded due to repetition of faces. Cleavable masses. Massive.
Twinning:
On {011}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Kernite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.454 nβ = 1.472 nγ = 1.488
2V:
Measured: 80° , Calculated: 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.034
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of Kernite

Formula:
Na2[B4O6(OH)2] · 3H2O
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Kernite to other Species

9.1.1SassoliteH3BO3
9.1.2MetaboriteHBO2
9.1.3DiomigniteLi2[B4O7]
9.1.4BiringucciteNa2B5O8(OH) · H2O
9.1.5NasiniteNa2[B5O8(OH)] · 2H2O
9.1.7EzcurriteNa4B10O17 · 7H2O
9.1.8TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2O
9.1.9BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
9.1.10AmeghiniteNa(H4B3O7)
9.1.11SborgiteNa[B5O6(OH)4] · 3H2O
9.1.12AristarainiteNa2MgB12O20 · 8H2O
9.1.13SantiteK[B5O6(OH)4] · 2H2O
9.1.14Larderellite(NH4)B5O7(OH)2 · H2O
9.1.15Ammonioborite(NH4)2[B5O6(OH)4]2 · H2O
9.1.16Rhodizite(K,Cs)Al4Be4(B,Be)12O28

Other Names for Kernite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Alters to metakernite (Na2B4O7·5H2O) upon heating to 100° - 120° C, as a non-reversible change.
Other Information:
Slowly soluble in cold water, readily so in hot water.

Alters to tincalconite upon dehydration.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kernite

Reference List:
Palmer (1927) Engineering and Mining Journal: 123: 494 (as rasorite).

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24-25.

Schaller (1930) USGS Professional Paper 158: 137.

Garrido, J. (1932), Symmetrie und Raumgruppe des Kernite: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, band 82: 468-470.

Minder (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 92: 301.

Minder, Schulz and Deckert (1935) Die Naturwissenschaften, Berlin: 23: 832.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1936), The origin of kernite and borax in the Kramer borate field, California (abstract) American Mineralogist: 21: 192.

Menzel and Schulz (1940) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 245: 157.

Amorós (1947) Inst. Invest. Geol. Barcelona, no. 7.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 335-337.

Muessig, S. & R.D. Allen (1957), The hydration of kernite (Na3B4O7·4H2O), American Mineralogist: 42: 699-701.

American Mineralogist (1973): 58: 21-31.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 352.

Internet Links for Kernite

Localities for Kernite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Muhs, D.R. (1990) Antarctic Journal of the United States, 24 (5), 63-65.
Argentina
 
  • Salta
    • Los Andes department
      • Salar del Hombre Muerto
Am Min 58:308-313; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
China
 
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Eskişehir Province
      • Kirka
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
USA
 
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
Rock Currier collection
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1929), Probertite, a new borate: American Mineralogist: 14: 427; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 147-148, 153, 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 259.
Meier, D. C., Davis, J. M., & Vicenzi, E. P. (2011). An examination of kernite (Na 2 B 4 O 6 (OH) 2· 3H 2 O) using X-ray and electron spectroscopies: quantitative microanalysis of a hydrated low-z mineral. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 17(05), 718-727.
Frondel C, Morgan V (1956) Inderite and gerstleyite from the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California. American Mineralogist 41, 839-843
Boslough, M. B., Weldon, R. J., & Ahrens, T. J. (1980). Impact-induced water loss from serpentine, nontronite and kernite. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference Proceedings (Vol. 11).
            • West Baker
Am Min 49:543-555
        • Rich
American Mineralogist (1927): 12: 24-25.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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