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Kesterite

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Formula:
Cu
 
2
(Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
System:TetragonalColour:Greenish black
Hardness:
Member of:Stannite Group


Stannite Group. The zinc analogue of Ferrokesterite.

Classification of Kesterite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.06-80
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CB.15a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:2.9.2.9

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:6.1.11

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
1 : Sulphostannates and other sulfides containing Sn
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Type Occurrence of Kesterite

Type Locality:Kester Deposit, Arga-Ynnakh-Khaya granite Massif, Yana-Adycha Region, Yana River Basin, Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia), Eastern-Siberian Region, Russia

Physical Properties of Kesterite

Lustre:Metallic
Colour:Greenish black
Streak:Black
Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Kesterite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4 - Disphenoidal
Space Group:I4
Cell Parameters:a = 5.427Å, c = 10.871Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.003
Unit Cell Volume:V 320.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Comment:Pseudocubic.

Chemical Properties of Kesterite

Formula:
Cu
 
2
(Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu2(Zn,Fe)SnS4
Essential elements:Cu, S, Sn, Zn
All elements listed in formula:Cu, Fe, S, Sn, Zn

Relationship of Kesterite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Stannite (see here)
Member of:Stannite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Briartite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)GeS
 
4
Černýite
Cu
 
2
(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
Famatinite
Cu
 
3
SbS
 
4
Ferrokesterite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
Ge-stannoidite
Cu
 
8
Fe
 
2
ZnGe
 
2
S
 
12
Hocartite
Ag
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)SnS
 
4
Kesterite Subgroup
Kuramite
Cu
 
3
SnS
 
4
Luzonite
Cu
 
3
AsS
 
4
Permingeatite
Cu
 
3
SbSe
 
4
Pirquitasite
Ag
 
2
ZnSnS
 
4
Sakuraiite
(Cu,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(In,Sn)S
 
4
Stannite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
Velikite
(Cu,Hg)
 
11
Sn
 
4
S
 
16
Structurally related to group(s):
Kesterite Subgroup
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CB.05aColoradoite
HgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyite
CdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabar
HgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite
(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite
(Cu,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(In,Sn)S
 
4
2.CB.05aSphalerite
ZnS
2.CB.05aStilleite
ZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemannite
HgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZn
Cu
 
2
Fe
 
3
Zn
 
5
S
 
10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite
(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aChalcopyrite
CuFeS
 
2
2.CB.10aEskebornite
CuFeSe
 
2
2.CB.10aGallite
CuGaS
 
2
2.CB.10bHaycockite
Cu
 
4
Fe
 
5
S
 
8
2.CB.10aLenaite
AgFeS
 
2
2.CB.10bMooihoekite
Cu
 
9
Fe
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10bPutoranite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10aRoquesite
CuInS
 
2
2.CB.10bTalnakhite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
8
S
 
16
2.CB.10aLaforêtite
AgInS
 
2
2.CB.15aČernýite
Cu
 
2
(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aFerrokesterite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aHocartite
Ag
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aIdaite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
6
2.CB.15aKuramite
Cu
 
3
SnS
 
4
2.CB.15bMohite
Cu
 
2
SnS
 
3
2.CB.15aPirquitasite
Ag
 
2
ZnSnS
 
4
2.CB.15aStannite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15cStannoidite
Cu
+
6
Cu
2+
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
3
Sn
 
2
S
 
12
2.CB.15aVelikite
(Cu,Hg)
 
11
Sn
 
4
S
 
16
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZn
Cu
 
8
(Fe,Zn)
 
3
Ge
 
2
S
 
12
(?)
2.CB.20Chatkalite
Cu
 
6
FeSn
 
2
S
 
8
2.CB.20Mawsonite
Cu
 
6
Fe
 
2
SnS
 
8
2.CB.30Colusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(As,Sn,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Germanite
Cu
 
13
Fe
 
2
Ge
 
2
S
 
16
2.CB.30Germanocolusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Ge,As)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Nekrasovite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Sn,As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Stibiocolusite
Cu
 
13
V
 
4
(Sb,Sn,As)
 
3
S
 
16
2.CB.30Ovamboite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu,Zn)
 
6
W
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Maikainite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu)
 
6
Mo
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.35aHemusite
Cu
 
6
SnMoS
 
8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekite
Cu
 
6
SnWS
 
8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite
(Fe,Pb)
 
3
(Ge,Fe)
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35aRenierite
(Cu,Zn)
 
11
(Ge,As)
 
2
Fe
 
4
S
 
16
2.CB.35aVinciennite
Cu
+
7
Cu
2+
3
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Sn(As,Sb)S
 
16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite
(Pb,Fe)
 
3
Ge
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaite
Cu
 
6
GeWS
 
8
2.CB.40Lautite
CuAsS
2.CB.45Cadmoselite
CdSe
2.CB.45Greenockite
CdS
2.CB.45Wurtzite
(Zn,Fe)S
2.CB.45Rambergite
MnS
2.CB.45Buseckite
(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.55bIsocubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Picotpaulite
TlFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Raguinite
TlFeS
 
2
2.CB.65Argentopyrite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.65Sternbergite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.70Sulvanite
Cu
 
3
VS
 
4
2.CB.75Vulcanite
CuTe
2.CB.80Empressite
AgTe
2.CB.85Muthmannite
AuAgTe
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
6.1.1Kuramite
Cu
 
3
SnS
 
4
6.1.2Mohite
Cu
 
2
SnS
 
3
6.1.3Velikite
(Cu,Hg)
 
11
Sn
 
4
S
 
16
6.1.4Hemusite
Cu
 
6
SnMoS
 
8
6.1.5Kiddcreekite
Cu
 
6
SnWS
 
8
6.1.6Stannite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
6.1.7Rhodostannite
Cu
 
2
FeSn
 
3
S
 
8
6.1.8Mawsonite
Cu
 
6
Fe
 
2
SnS
 
8
6.1.9Chatkalite
Cu
 
6
FeSn
 
2
S
 
8
6.1.10Ferrokesterite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
6.1.12Stannoidite
Cu
+
6
Cu
2+
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
3
Sn
 
2
S
 
12
6.1.13Černýite
Cu
 
2
(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
6.1.14Vinciennite
Cu
+
7
Cu
2+
3
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Sn(As,Sb)S
 
16
6.1.15Pirquitasite
Ag
 
2
ZnSnS
 
4
6.1.16Hocartite
Ag
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)SnS
 
4
6.1.17Teallite
(Pb,Sn)SnS
 
2
6.1.18Franckeite
Fe
2+
 
(Pb,Sn
2+
 
)
 
6
Sn
4+
2
Sb
 
2
S
 
14
6.1.19Lévyclaudite
Pb
 
8
Sn
 
7
Cu
 
3
(Bi,Sb)
 
3
S
 
28
6.1.20Cylindrite
Pb
 
3
Sn
 
4
FeSb
 
2
S
 
14
6.1.21Potosíite
Pb
 
6
Sn
 
3
FeSb
 
3
S
 
16
6.1.22Sakuraiite
(Cu,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(In,Sn)S
 
4
6.1.23Petrukite
(Cu,Fe,Zn,Ag)
 
3
(Sn,In)S
 
4
6.1.24Incaite
(Pb,Ag)
 
4
Sn
 
4
FeSb
 
2
S
 
15

Other Names for Kesterite

Synonyms:
IsostanniteKhinganite
Other Languages:
German:Isostannit
Kësterit
Khinganit
Russian:Кестёрит
Simplified Chinese:硫锡锌铜矿
硫铜锡锌矿
Spanish:Isostannita
Kësterita
Khinganita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kesterite

Reference List:

- +
Ivanov, V.V. and Y.A. Pyatenko (1958): On the so-called kësterite [kesterite]. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 88, 165-168.

American Mineralogist (1958): 43: 1222.

American Mineralogist (1959): 44: 1329.

Hall, S.R., J.T. Szymański, and J.M. Stewart (1978): Kesterite, Cu2(Zn, Fe)SnS4, and stannite, Cu2(Fe, Zn)SnS4, structurally similar but distinct minerals. Can. Mineral., 16, 131–137.

Kissin, S.A. and D.R. Owens (1979): New data on stannite and related tin sulfide minerals. Can. Mineral., 17, 125–135.

Kissin, S. A. & Owens, D. R. (1989) The relatives of stannite in the light of new data. Canadian Mineralogist, 27, 673-688. [includes discreditation of isostannite and its recognition as being identical to kesterite]

Canadian Mineralogist: 27: 689-697.

Bonazzi, P., L. Bindi, G.P. Bernardini, and S. Menchetti (2003): A model for the mechanism of incorporation of Cu, Fe and Zn in the stannite-kësterite series, Cu2FeSnS4−Cu2ZnSnS4. Can. Mineral., 41, 639–649.

S. Schorr, H.-J. Höbler, M. Tovar (2007): A neutron diffraction study of the stannite-kesterite solid solution series. Eur. J. Mineral., 19, 65-73.

S. Schorr & G. Gonzalez-Aviles (2009): In-situ investigation of the structural phase transition in kesterite. Physica Status Solidi a 206, 1054-1058.

Internet Links for Kesterite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Kësterite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Kesterite specimens for sale - minfind.com
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  • Fabre Minerals - search for Kesterite specimens
  • Specimens:The following Kesterite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Kesterite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Andalgalá Department
        • Cerro Atajo
    MARQUEZ-ZAVALIA, M. F. and GALLISKI, M. A.. Chatkalita, nekrasovita y otros minerales del grupo de la estannita de veta María Eugenia, Cerro Atajo, Catamarca. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.2, pp. 289-298.
    • Córdoba
      • Minas Department
    Sureda (1978): Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina 33(4):299-324
      • Punilla Department
        • Pampa de Olaen
          • Quebrada del Contrabandista
    Sureda, R., Lira, R., & Colombo, F. (2010). Gustavite, PbAgBi3S6-P21/c, with the bismuth and silver minerals at Los Guindos mining group, Pampa de Olaen, Córdoba, Argentina (31° 11'S/64° 33'W). Andean Geology, 33(1).
    • Jujuy
      • Humahuaca Department
        • Aguilar district
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
      • Rinconada Department
    DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
    Amer.Min.(2000) 85, 1066-1075
    • Río Negro
      • Valcheta
        • San Martin Pluton
    Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina, Milka K. de Brodtkorb, Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina 2002; DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; GOZALVEZ, Martín Ricardo. Characterizationof San Martín pluton and associated tungsten deposits, Valcheta Department, Río Negro Province. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 409-425.
    • Salta
      • Organullo Mining District
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
    • Santa Cruz
      • Macizo del Deseado
    FERNANDEZ, Raúl R. et al. Gold and silver deposits related to Jurassic Patagonian volcanism: review and perspectives for exploration. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2008, vol.63, n.4, pp. 665-681.
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Industrieviertel
        • Semmering
    Hackenberg 2003
    • Salzburg
      • Abtenau
        • Webing
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    Bolivia
     
    • Oruro Department
      • Cercado Province
    [MinRec 32:476]
    [MinRec 32:479]; Keutsch, F., & Brodtkorb, M. D. (2008). Metalliferous paragenesis of the San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 25(4), 485-491.
    • Potosí Department
      • Cornelio Saavedra Province
        • Machacamarca District (Colavi District)
    Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
    Bulgaria
     
    • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
      • Chelopech
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 29-36
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Revelstoke Mining Division
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
      • Skeena Mining Division
        • Iskut River
          • Sulphurets District
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    • Manitoba
      • Lac-du-Bonnet area
        • Bernic Lake
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 16, pp, 625-640 (1978)
    • New Brunswick
      • Charlotte Co.
        • Saint George Parish
    Parrish, I. S., 1977, Mineral Catalog for the Mount Pleasant Deposit of Brunswick Tin Mines, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 15, p. 121-126.
    • Ontario
      • Cochrane District
        • Timmins area
          • Kidd Township
    ontariominerals.com; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484; Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 353-360
    China
     
    • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
      • Hechi Prefecture
        • Nandan Co.
    Weining Zhou (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(4), 233-244
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Ganzhou Prefecture
        • Xingguo Co.
    Xianchang Luo (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(8), 16-20
    • Sichuan Province
      • Mianyang Prefecture
        • Pingwu Co.
          • Mt Xuebaoding
            • Huya township
    Hedland, A. (2004): Das Scheelit-Beryll-Kassiterit-Fluorit-Vorkommen von Huya-Zibeisha bei Pingwu, Provinz Sichuan, China. Mineralien Welt 15 (6), 46-57.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Benešov (Beneschau)
          • Český Šternberk (Böhmisch Sternberg)
    Šrein, V. et al.: Mineralogická charakteristika metasomatického rudního ložiska Malovidy u Českého Šternberka. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2007, roč. 14-15, s. 149-158.
        • Jílové (Eule)
          • Jílové Gold mining District
            • Bohuliby
    Sejkora J., Litochleb J.: První výskyt Sn-sulfidů v jílovském zlatonosném revíru (Česká republika). Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2009, roč. 17, č. 1, s. 91-94.
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Aš (Asch)
    Čech, F., Hak, J.: Ferroan kesterite from Vernéřov, near Aš, Western Bohemia, Czechoslovakia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1982, vol. 26, nos. 1-2, s. 45-51.
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
    Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Gabašová A, Hloušek J, Šrein V, Vavrín I, Skála R, Sejkora J, Drábek M (2003) Primary minerals of the Jáchymov ore district, Journal of the Czech Geological Society 48, 19-147
    Finland
     
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Ylivieska
    Kojonen Kari 1989. The early Proterozoic Zn-Cu-Zn sulphide deposit of Rauhala in Ylivieska Western Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 11
    • Southwestern Finland Region
      • Pargas (Parainen)
    Hangala Leake S. 1987 The early proterozoic Zn-Pb-Cu massive sulfide deposit at Attu, SW Finland Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 341 61s
    France
     
    • Brittany
      • Finistère
        • Huelgoat (Locmarria-Berrien)
    R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
    • Burgundy
      • Saône-et-Loire
        • Bourbon-Lancy
          • Chalmoux
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Hérault
    M. Munoz, Y.Moëlo : "Etude paragénétique de la minéralisation sulfurée complexe (Sb-Pb-Zn-...) de Bournac (Hérault, France)", Bull. Minéral. , 1982, 105, 625-632.
    • Limousin
      • Haute-Vienne
        • Nantiat
          • Vaulry
    P. Cantinolle et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 245-248
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Oberpfälzer Wald
          • Waldsassen
            • Pfaffenreuth
    Lapis, 10 (9), 13-20+50.
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Annaberg District
          • Dörfel
    Lapis 37(2) 2012, p. 10
    Germany & Czech Republic
     
    • Saxony & Ústí Region (Bohemia; Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Erzgebirge; Krusné Hory Mts
    Lapis 17(2), 31-35 (1992)
    Greece
     
    • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
      • Évros Prefecture
        • Alexandroupoli (Alexandroupolis)
    Panagiotis Christos Voudouris, Vasilios Melfos, Paul G. Spry, Robert Moritz, Constantinos Papavassiliou und George Falalakis (2011): Mineralogy and geochemical environment of formation of the Perama Hill high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag-Te-Se deposit, Petrota Graben, NE Greece. Mineralogy and Petrology 103, 79-100.
        • Kirki Mines (Kirka)
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; European Journal of Mineralogy (1990): 2: 711-723.; N. Skarpelis (1998) Bull. Geol Soc. Greece 33:51-60
    Greenland
     
    • Sermersooq
      • Arsuk Fjord
        • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
    Petersen, O. V and K Secher (1993) The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24:36
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Susa Valley
          • Oulx
            • Signols
    Orlandi, P. (2011). Zibaldone di mineralogia italiana 2010. Micro 1/2011, 39-42
    • Tuscany
      • Massa-Carrara Province
        • Apuan Alps
    Orlandi P., Franzini M., 1994. I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Amilcare Pizzi S.p.A., Milano. ; Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
    Orlandi P., Franzini M., 1994. I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Amilcare Pizzi S.p.A., Milano.
          • Massa
    Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Sapporo
    Min. Jour. (Japan): 15:222-232.
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Hyogo Prefecture
          • Asago City
            • Ikuno-cho-ono
    No reference listed
    Namibia
     
    • Kunene Region
      • Damaraland District
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern: 417 (in English).
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern: 417 (in English).
    Norway
     
    • Nordland
      • Hemnes
        • Bleikvassli
    Cook, N.J., Spry, P.G., and Vokes, F.M. (1998): Mineralogy and textural relationships among sulphosalts and related minerals in the Bleikvassli Zn-Pb-(Cu) deposit, Nordland, Norway. Mineralium Deposita 34, 35-56.
    Peru
     
    • Huancavelica Department
      • Castrovirreyna Province
        • Castrovirreyna District
    American Mineralogist 87:753-764
    • Huánuco Department
      • Dos de Mayo Province
        • Huallanca District
    Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
    • Lima Department
      • Oyon Province
    EDS Analysis Frank Keutsch:
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
        • Czarnów
          • Rędziny
    Pieczka A., Gołębiowska B., Parafiniuk J. 2006: The stannite-group minerals from Rędziny (Lower Silesia, Poland). Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 175 - 177
    Portugal
     
    • Beja District
      • Castro Verde
        • Santa Bárbara de Padrões
    Relvas, J. M. R. S. et al. (2006): Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralization in the Neves-Corvo Volcanic-Hosted Massive Sulfide Deposit, Portugal. I. Geology, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry. Econ. Geology 101, 753-790.
    • Viseu District
    Ing Soen Oen : "Paragenetic relations of some Cu-Fe-Sn-Sulfides in the Mangualde Pegmatite, North Portugal", Mineral. Deposita (Berl.) 5, 59-84, 1970.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Verkhoyansk
          • Yana River Basin
            • Yana-Adycha Region
              • Arga-Ynnakh-Khaya granite Massif
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
          • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
            • Deputatsky ore cluster
    Pavlova, G.G., and Borisenko, A.S. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 164-185.
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Binn Valley
        • Im Feld (Imfeld; Feld; Fäld)
    http://binn.strahlen.org/php/frame.php?section=loc&sub=1&infoid=2&name=M%E4sserbach
        • Imfeld (Im Feld; Feld; Fäld)
    Graeser, et al. (2008) Faszination Lengenbach. KristalloGrafik-Verl., Achberg
      • Sion (Sitten)
        • Granges (Lens)
    Ansermet, S., Meisser, N. & Cuchet, S. (2011): Ein Hauch Carrara im Wallis - zur Mineralogie des Steinbruchs La Plâtrière in Lens. Schweizer Strahler 2/2011, 2-17 (in German/French).
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Callington District
          • Calstock
            • Gunnislake
    Dr. Kurt Greenwall collection (Dr. Werner H. Paar analyses)
        • Mount's Bay District
          • Marazion
    F. Moore and R. A. Howie (1984) Tin-Bearing Sulphides from St Michael's Mount and Cligga Head, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine 48:389-396
        • St Agnes District
          • Perranzabuloe
            • Cligga Head
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; F. Moore and R. A. Howie (1984) Tin-Bearing Sulphides from St Michael's Mount and Cligga Head, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine 48:389-396
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    [MinRec 24:421]; Josef Vajdak (2008) Mineral News, 24, #3, 15.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 267; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
    • Nevada
      • Lander Co.
        • McCoy District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • South Dakota
      • Pennington Co.
        • Keystone District
          • Keystone
    Rocks & Minerals: 57: 160; Rocks & Minerals: 60: 110 & 112.
    Rocks & Min.:60:110,112 & 116.
    Am Min 70:9-10 pp 1044-1049
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Tashkent Viloyati (Toshkent)
      • Angren Region
        • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
    Kovalenker, V. et al New Data on Minerals (2003): 38: 45-56
    Pasi Eilu (2003) Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003 Rovaniemi, Finland December 2003
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