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Kieserite

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Formula:
MgSO4 · H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Member of:
Name:
After Dietrich Georg Kieser (1779-1862), former President, Jena Academy.
Kieserite Group
A solid solution with cobaltkieserite is known at least in the synthetic state, lacking miscibility gap and cation ordering (Bechtold and Wildner, 2016).


Classification of Kieserite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.CB.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.6.2.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
25.3.1

25 : Sulphates
3 : Sulphates of Mg

Kieserite in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

Type Occurrence of Kieserite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Salt deposit of oceanic origin.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Physical Properties of Kieserite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, greyish-white, yellowish; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Fragile
Cleavage:
Perfect
{110} and {111} perfect, {_111}, {_101}, and {011} imperfect.

Crystallography of Kieserite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.51Å, b = 7.61Å, c = 6.92Å
β = 116.17°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.987 : 1 : 0.909
Unit Cell Volume:
V 354.94 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals rare; mostly bipyramidal {_111}, {110}, and {011}. Highly modified at times. Mostly massive, coarse to fine-granular.
Twinning:
Contact twins on {001} rare. Polysynthetic twinning, with twin axis [110] (?), commonly observed in grains under magnification.

Optical Data of Kieserite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.520 nβ = 1.533 nγ = 1.584
2V:
Measured: 55° , Calculated: 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.064
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Kieserite

Formula:
MgSO4 · H2O
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Dissolves very slowly in water.

Relationship of Kieserite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2O
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2O
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2O
25.3.2SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
25.3.3StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
25.3.4PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
25.3.5HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
25.3.6EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
25.3.7CaminiteMg7(SO4)5(OH)4 · H2O
25.3.8VanthoffiteNa6Mg(SO4)4
25.3.9BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.3.10KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2O
25.3.11LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2O
25.3.12UklonskoviteNaMg(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
25.3.13LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3
25.3.14LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.3.15PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.3.16Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
25.3.17Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.3.18PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O

Other Names for Kieserite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Kieserita
Dutch:Kieseriet
German:Kieserit
Italian:Kieserite
Polish:Kizeryt
Simplified Chinese:水镁矾
硫镁矾
Spanish:Kieserita
Ukrainian:Кізерит

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kieserite

Reference List:
Kenngott, G.A. (1859) Ubersichte der Resultate mineralogischer Forschungen For the years 1856-57, Leipzig: 23 (as Martinsite).

Reichardt (1860) Nova Acta Leopold. Ac.: 27: 634.

Tschermak (1871) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Ber.: [1]: 63: 314.

Bücking (1899) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der), Ber.: 28: 533.

Görgey (1910) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 29: 205.

Lück (1910) Kali: 4: 540.

Grandinger (1917) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 49.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 27.

Schaller and Henderson (1933) USGS Bull. 833: 40.

Weinert (1939) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Beil.-Bd.: A75: 297.

Lepeshkov and Bodaleva (1940) Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad: 27: 978.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 477.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen (1987): 157: 121.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1991): 296-306.

Bechtold, A. and Wildner, M. (2016): Crystal chemistry of the kieserite-cobaltkieserite solid solution, Mg1-xCox(SO4)⋅H2O: well-behaved oddities. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28 (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12082 (2016)

Internet Links for Kieserite

mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-2204.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Kieserite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
[MinRec 19 p469-490 - "Sielecki, R: The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field"]
    • Mount Isa City Shire
Sielecki, R. (1988) The Mount Isa-Cloncurry mineral field. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 19, pg. 469-490.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Hallein
      • Dürrnberg
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Styria
    • Bad Aussee
      • Altaussee
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
Spötl (1989)
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Canada
 
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
CM 43, 1469-1487
      • Studholm Parish
Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/1336.pdf
  • Shandong Province
    • Tai'an Prefecture
      • Daiyue District
        • Dawenkou depression
Zhongde Zhu (1988): Mineral Deposits 7(1), 87-96
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
      • Brno (Brünn)
David Parfitt collection
      • Oslavany
Hršelová, P., Cempírek, J., Houzar, S., Sejkora, J. (2013): S,F,Cl-rich mineral assemblages from burned spoil heaps in the Rosice-Oslavany coalfield, Czech Republic. Can. Mineral.: 51(1): 171-188
Denmark
 
  • Midtjylland Region
    • Skive
      • Nissum
Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 203-216.
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
      • Neuhof
Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
    • Werra valley
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hanover
      • Lehrte
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hildesheim
      • Diekholzen Potash works
Dana 7:II:478.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 388.
[Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index", p360]
Dana 6:A3:14,43,46; Dana 7:II:430; Zr. Kr.:50(1911):139.
C. Zinken (1865) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 310
  • Thuringia
    • Bleicherode
Effmert, G. & Wurth, L. (2007). Bleicherode, Thüringen: Ein Feuerwerk von Gips-Kristallen. Mineralien-Welt, Jg.18, Nr.6, S.42-47.
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    • Thuringian Forest
      • Merkers-Kieselbach
W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Plaka
          • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
No reference listed
Branko Rieck Collection
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
Hungary
 
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Pécs
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (2008): Ammonium sulphates from burning coal dumps at Komló and Pécs-Vasas, Mecsek Mts., South Hungary. Mineralogia, Special Papers, Vol. 32 (2nd Central-European Mineralogical Conference 2008 (CEMC)), 154.
Iceland
 
  • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
    • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Iran
 
  • Kerman Province
    • Rafsanjan County
      • Pariz
Khorasanipour, M. (2015). Environmental mineralogy of Cu-porphyry mine tailings, a case study of semi-arid climate conditions, Sarcheshmeh mine, SE Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 153, 40-52.
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province (Girgenti Province)
      • Racalmuto
        • Racalmuto saliferous deposit
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170.
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170
    • Caltanissetta Province
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170
    • Enna Province
      • Calascibetta
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 478.
      • Enna (Castrogiovanni)
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Aktobe Province (Aqtöbe Oblysy; Aktubinskaya Oblast')
    • Aksai Valley
Handbook of Mineralogy Vol V p 6; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; ERCOSPAN (2011) Independent Geological Report on the Zhilianskoe and Chelkar Potash Deposits in Kazakhstan EGB 11-012
ERCOSPAN (2011) Independent Geological Report on the Zhilianskoe and Chelkar Potash Deposits in Kazakhstan EGB 11-012
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
  • Western Kazakhstan Province (Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Oral Rayon (Uralsk Rayon)
Handbook of Mineralogy; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Netherlands
 
  • Gelderland
    • Winterswijk
      • Ratum
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
  • Groningen
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    • Zuidwending
http://nlog.nitg.tno.nl/resources/zout/0310300%20Zuidwending%20openbaar%20scan.pdf
Nicaragua
 
  • León Department
Hynek, B. M., McCollom, T. M., Marcucci, E. C., Brugman, K., & Rogers, K. L. (2013). Assessment of environmental controls on acid‐sulfate alteration at active volcanoes in Nicaragua: Applications to relic hydrothermal systems on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 118(10), 2083-2104.
Pakistan
 
  • Punjab
    • Salt Range
      • Khewra
Dana 6: 899; Dana 7:II:432 & 449.
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Katowice area
        • Łaziska
Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska, Upper Silesia.Mag. Thesis (unpublished)
      • Rybnik Coal Area
        • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
  • Wielkopolskie
Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.); Wachowiak, J., Pieczka, A. (2016): Motukoreaite from the Kłodawa Salt Dome, Central Poland. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 277-289
Romania
 
  • Buzău Co.
    • Mânzăleşti Commune
Slavoaca, R., Slavoaca, D.C., 2000. Water chemistry and hydrochemical processes assessment in zones with Land slip in Buzău and Vrancea, SE Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 79, Suppl. I, 2000, p.99-101
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Chelyabinsk coal basin
Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
UK
 
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • Eskdale
Mineralogical Magazine 1951 29 : 667-689.
      • Loftus
No reference listed
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
Ukraine
 
  • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 478.
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • L'viv-Volynskii Coal Basin (L'vov-Volynskii Coal Basin)
      • Chervonograd
Srebrodol’skii, B.I. (1974): Lausenite, first find in the USSR. Doklady Acad. Nauk SSSR, 219, 441–442 (in Russian); Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Grand Canyon District
Corbett, R.G., Hanner, B.M., and Quick, T.J. (1989) Seeps and efflorescent minerals in the Grand Canyon: Predicted vs. identified phases [abs.]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 21, no. 4, p. 8; Quick, T.J., R.G. Corbett, and B.M. Manner (1989) Efflorescent minerals occurring in the gorge of the Grand Canyon, Abstract with Programs, Geological Society of America: 21(4): 44-45; Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005.
  • Colorado
    • Mesa Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 478.
  • Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Lynn District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Eddy and Lea Counties
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Eddy Co.
      • Carlsbad Potash District
SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
Van King
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Utah
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 478.
    • San Juan Co.
      • Paradox Valley
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon District
        • Red Canyon
Joe Marty (2015) Minerals of the Blue Lizard Mine and other Western Localities, NCMA Annual Symposium 2015
    • Tooele Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Mars
 
Vivien Gornitz (2005) Mineral News, 21, #4, 1-11.
  • Terra Meridiani
    • Meridiani Planum
      • Endeavour Crater
        • Murray Ridge
Farrand, W.H., Johnson, J.R., Rice, M.S., Wang, A., Bell III, J.F. (2016): VNIR Multispectral Observations of Aqueous Alteration Materials by the Pancams on the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers. American Mineralogist, in press
  • Valles Marineris
Vivien Gornitz (2005) Mineral News, 21, #4, 1-11.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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