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Kirschsteinite

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Formula:
CaFe
2+
 
SiO
 
4
System:OrthorhombicHardness:
Member of:Olivine Group


Olivine Group. Kirschsteinite-Monticellite Series.

Not to uncommon in Fe-rich slags.

Classification of Kirschsteinite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.05-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AC.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
C : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.3.2.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.22.4

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca
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Type Occurrence of Kirschsteinite

Type Locality:Mt Shaheru, Mt Nyiragongo, Goma, Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Year of Discovery:1957

Physical Properties of Kirschsteinite

Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Kirschsteinite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:a = 6.44Å, b = 11.15Å, c = 4.87Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.578 : 1 : 0.437
Unit Cell Volume:V 349.70 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Kirschsteinite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.674 - 1.693 nβ = 1.694 - 1.734 nγ = 1.706 - 1.735
2V:Measured: 50° , Calculated: 16° to 74°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.032 - 0.042

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of Kirschsteinite

Formula:
CaFe
2+
 
SiO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:CaFe2+SiO4
Essential elements:Ca, Fe, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Fe, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Al,Mn,Mg,Na,K,P,H2O

Relationship of Kirschsteinite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Monticellite (see here)
Member of:Olivine Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Calcio-Olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
Fayalite
Fe
2+
2
SiO
 
4
Forsterite
Mg
 
2
SiO
 
4
Glaucochroite
CaMn
2+
 
SiO
 
4
Laihunite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
Liebenbergite
(Ni,Mg)
 
2
SiO
 
4
Monticellite
CaMgSiO
 
4
Olivine
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
SiO
 
4
Roepperite (of Brush)
(Fe
2+
2
,Mn,Zn)SiO
 
4
Tephroite
Mn
2+
2
SiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AC.05Fayalite
Fe
2+
2
SiO
 
4
9.AC.05Forsterite
Mg
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AC.05Glaucochroite
CaMn
2+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AC.05Laihunite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AC.05Liebenbergite
(Ni,Mg)
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AC.05Tephroite
Mn
2+
2
SiO
 
4
9.AC.10Monticellite
CaMgSiO
 
4
9.AC.15Brunogeierite
Fe
2+
2
Ge
4+
 
O
 
4
9.AC.15Ringwoodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AC.20Chesnokovite
Na
 
2
[SiO
 
2
(OH)
 
2
] · 8H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.22.1Hedenbergite
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
14.22.2Pyroxferroite
(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO
 
3
14.22.3 Ferro-akermanite
Ca
 
2
FeSi
 
2
O
 
7
14.22.5Tungusite
Ca
 
4
Fe
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
(OH)
 
6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.22.7Ilvaite
CaFe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O(OH)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.22.9Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3

Other Names for Kirschsteinite

Synonyms:
Fe-monticelliteLime-Iron-Olivine
Other Languages:
German:Kirschsteinit
Russian:Кирштейнит
Simplified Chinese:钙铁橄榄石
Spanish:Kirschsteinita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kirschsteinite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1958): 43: 790.

European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 969-973.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1970): 190: 932-935.

Best Localities for Kirschsteinite

Best of Species:Kirschsteinite

Internet Links for Kirschsteinite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Kirschsteinite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Kirschsteinite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Buckley Island quadrangle
      • Lewis Cliff
    Crozaz, G., Lundberg, L. L. & McKay, G. (1988) Rare Earth Elements (REE) in the Unique Achondrite LEW 86010. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XIX: p. 231. (March 1988)
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
        • Sør Rondane Mts
    Yanai, K. (1994) Angrite Asuka-881371: Preliminary examination of a unique meteorite in the Japanese collection of Antarctic meteorites. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 7: 30-41 (March 1994) ; Mikouchi, T., Miyamoto, M. & McKay, G. A. (1996) Mineralogical study of Angrite Asuka-881371: Its possible relation to Angrite Lew87051. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 9:174-188.
      • Transantarctic Mts
        • Buckley Island quadrangle
          • Lewis Cliff
    McKay, G., Crozaz, G., Wagstaff, I., Yang, S. R. & Lundberg, L. (1990) A Petrographic, Electron Microprobe, Study of Mini-Angrite Lewis Cliff 87051: Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXI: p. 771. (Mar 1990) ; McKay, G., Le, L. & Wagstaff, J. (1991) Olivines in angrite LEW 87051: Phenos or xenos. In Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, p 151.
    Argentina
     
    • Buenos Aires
    http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=7714
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
    Brazil
     
    • Rio de Janeiro
      • Angra dos Reis
        • Ilha Grande
    Prinz, M., Keil, K., Hlava, P. F., Berkely, J. L., Gomes, C. B. & Curvello, W. S. (1977) Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra DOS Reis achondrite: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 35 (2): 317-330. (June 1977) ; Fittipaldo, M. M., Jones, R. H. & Shearer, C. K. (2003) Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIV: abstract no.1229. (March 2003)
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Kivu
      • Goma
    Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.
    Mineral. Mag. (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
    France
     
    • Centre
      • Loir-et-Cher
    Sara S. Russell, Richard C. Greenwood, A. J. Fahey, Gary R. Huss & Gerald J. Wasserburg (1994). An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. Meteoritics 29, #4, p. 525-526. (Jul 1994).
    India
     
    • Andhra Pradesh
      • Mahabubnagar district
    Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 513-516
    Italy
     
    • Emilia-Romagna
      • Ferrara Province
    M. R. Lee, R. Hutchinson & A. L. Graham (1996). Aqueous alteration in the matrix of the Vigarano (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31, #4, 477-483.
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
        • Alban Hills
    Melluso, L.; Conticelli, S.; de' Gennaro, R. (2010): Kirschsteinite in the Capo di Bove melilite leucitite lava. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 887-902.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    Andrea MANASSE, Marcello MELLINI and Cecilia VITI (2001): The copper slags of the Capattoli Valley, Campiglia Marittima, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 949-960.
    • Umbria
      • Terni Province
        • San Venanzo
    Sharygin probeb
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
    Krot, A. N., Brearley, A. J., Biryukov, V. V., Ulyanov, A. A., Keil, K., Swindle, T. D. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (1997). Dark inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka - Evidence for various degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII, pdf#1346, 769-770. (March 1997)
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Pueblito de Allende
    www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2002/pdf/5053.pdf.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Aoult
    http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=44983
      • Zagora Province
    Connolly, Jr., H. C. et al., (2007) Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 92, 2007 September: MAPS 42 (9), 1647-1694. (Sept 2007)
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
        • Kombat
    Sid Williams data
    Poland
     
    • Małopolskie
      • Olkusz District
    Ref.: Kucha H., Jędrzejczyk B. 1995: Primary minerals of mining and metallurgical Zn-Pb dumps at Bukowno, Poland, and their stability during weathering. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 26, No 2, 75-99
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Katowice
        • Świętochłowice
    Zainoun K., Puziewicz J. & Bril H. 2003: Primary Pb-Zn-bearing phases in pyrometallurgical slag from Świętochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland). Mineralogiacal Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 33, 189-191
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Lake Baikal area
    B Otter collection: Konev, A. A., Ushchapovskaya, Z.F. and Lebedeva V. S.(1970): First find of magnesian kirschsteinite in the USSR. Dokl. Acad. Sci.USSR, Earth Sci. Sect.,190, 136-138
    Sahara
     
    Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
    Spain
     
    • Murcia
      • Mazarrón-Águilas
        • Pastrana
    Rruff.info
    Sweden
     
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
        • Persberg district
          • Pajsberg
    M.E. Ciriotti (2005) Probed
    USA
     
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
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