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Member of:
Olivine Group. Kirschsteinite-Monticellite Series.

Not to uncommon in Fe-rich slags.

Classification of Kirschsteinite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
C : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] coordination

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Kirschsteinite

Year of Discovery:

Physical Properties of Kirschsteinite

Hardness (Mohs):

Crystallography of Kirschsteinite

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.44Å, b = 11.15Å, c = 4.87Å
a:b:c = 0.578 : 1 : 0.437
Unit Cell Volume:
V 349.70 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Kirschsteinite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.674 - 1.693 nβ = 1.694 - 1.734 nγ = 1.706 - 1.735
Measured: 50° , Calculated: 16° to 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.032 - 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of Kirschsteinite

Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:

Relationship of Kirschsteinite to other Species

Forms a series with Monticellite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Roepperite (of Brush)(Fe22+,Mn,Zn)SiO4
9.AC.20ChesnokoviteNa2[SiO2(OH)2] · 8H2O
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O

Other Names for Kirschsteinite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:钙铁橄榄石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kirschsteinite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1958): 43: 790.

European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 969-973.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1970): 190: 932-935.

Internet Links for Kirschsteinite

Localities for Kirschsteinite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Bechar
Connolly Jr., H. C. et al. (2007) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 92, 2007 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 4 (9): 1647-1694. (Sept 2007); Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
    • Lewis Cliff
Crozaz, G., Lundberg, L. L. & McKay, G. (1988) Rare Earth Elements (REE) in the Unique Achondrite LEW 86010. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XIX: p. 231. (March 1988)
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
      • Sør Rondane Mts
Yanai, K. (1994) Angrite Asuka-881371: Preliminary examination of a unique meteorite in the Japanese collection of Antarctic meteorites. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 7: 30-41 (March 1994) ; Mikouchi, T., Miyamoto, M. & McKay, G. A. (1996) Mineralogical study of Angrite Asuka-881371: Its possible relation to Angrite Lew87051. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 9:174-188. ; C. Floss, G. Crozaz, G. McKay, T. Mikouchi & M. Killgore (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
    • Transantarctic Mts
      • Buckley Island quadrangle
        • Lewis Cliff
McKay, G., Crozaz, G., Wagstaff, I., Yang, S. R. & Lundberg, L. (1990) A Petrographic, Electron Microprobe, Study of Mini-Angrite Lewis Cliff 87051: Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXI: p. 771. (Mar 1990) ; McKay, G., Le, L. & Wagstaff, J. (1991) Olivines in angrite LEW 87051: Phenos or xenos. In Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, p 151.
  • Buenos Aires
    • Coronel Suaréz
      • D'Orbigny; Keil, K. (2012) Angrites, a small but diverse suite of ancient, silica-undersaturated volcanic-plutonic mafic meteorites, and the history of their parent asteroid: Chemie der Erde, geochemistry 71:191-218.
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Rio de Janeiro
    • Angra dos Reis
      • Ilha Grande
Prinz, M., Keil, K., Hlava, P. F., Berkely, J. L., Gomes, C. B. & Curvello, W. S. (1977) Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra DOS Reis achondrite: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 35 (2): 317-330. (June 1977) ; Fittipaldo, M. M., Jones, R. H. & Shearer, C. K. (2003) Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIV: abstract no.1229. (March 2003)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Kivu
    • Goma
Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Mineral. Mag. (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
  • Centre
    • Loir-et-Cher
Sara S. Russell, Richard C. Greenwood, A. J. Fahey, Gary R. Huss & Gerald J. Wasserburg (1994). An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. Meteoritics 29, #4, p. 525-526. (Jul 1994).
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Mahabubnagar district
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 513-516
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
M. R. Lee, R. Hutchinson & A. L. Graham (1996). Aqueous alteration in the matrix of the Vigarano (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31, #4, 477-483.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Melluso, L.; Conticelli, S.; de' Gennaro, R. (2010): Kirschsteinite in the Capo di Bove melilite leucitite lava. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 887-902.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
Andrea MANASSE, Marcello MELLINI and Cecilia VITI (2001): The copper slags of the Capattoli Valley, Campiglia Marittima, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 949-960.
  • Umbria
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
Sharygin probeb
  • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
Krot, A. N., Brearley, A. J., Biryukov, V. V., Ulyanov, A. A., Keil, K., Swindle, T. D. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (1997). Dark inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka - Evidence for various degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII, pdf#1346, 769-770. (March 1997)
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
  • Guelmim-Es Semara Region
Agee, C. B., Miley, H. M., Ziegler, K. & Spilde, M. N. (2015) Northwest Africa 8535: Unique Dunitic Angrite. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLVI, LPI Contribution No. 1832, pdf.2681. (Mar 2015).
Russell, S. S. & 6 others (2003) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 87, 2003 July: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38 (7, Suppl.): A189–A248. ; Jambon, A., Barrat, J. A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Badia, D., Göpel, C. & Bohn, M. (2005) Mineralogy and petrology of the angrite Northwest Africa 1296. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40 (3) :361–375. (March 2005). -NWA1670@MetBullDatabase; Jambon A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Le Guillou, C., Badia D. & Barrat, J. A. (2008) Petrology and mineralogy of the angrite Northwest Africa 1670. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43:1783–1795. (Nov 2008).
  • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Aoult
    • Zagora Province
Connolly, Jr., H. C. et al., (2007) Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 92, 2007 September: MAPS 42 (9), 1647-1694. (Sept 2007)
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Sid Williams data
  • Małopolskie
    • Olkusz District
Ref.: Kucha H., Jędrzejczyk B. 1995: Primary minerals of mining and metallurgical Zn-Pb dumps at Bukowno, Poland, and their stability during weathering. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 26, No 2, 75-99
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Katowice
      • Świętochłowice
Zainoun K., Puziewicz J. & Bril H. 2003: Primary Pb-Zn-bearing phases in pyrometallurgical slag from Świętochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland). Mineralogiacal Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 33, 189-191
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
B Otter collection: Konev, A. A., Ushchapovskaya, Z.F. and Lebedeva V. S.(1970): First find of magnesian kirschsteinite in the USSR. Dokl. Acad. Sci.USSR, Earth Sci. Sect.,190, 136-138
Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
  • Murcia
    • Mazarrón-Águilas
      • Pastrana
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
M.E. Ciriotti (2005) Probed
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
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