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Andradite

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Formula:
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
System:IsometricColour:Yellow, greenish yellow ...
Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous, DullHardness:6½ - 7
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Name:
Named in 1868 by James Dwight Dana in honor of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva [June 13, 1763 Santos, Brazil - April 6, 1838 Niterói, Brazil], Brazilian mineralogist.

Classification of Andradite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.08-110
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.4.3b.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.22.9

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca
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Type Occurrence of Andradite

Type Locality:Drammen, Buskerud, Norway
Year of Discovery:1868

Occurrences of Andradite

Geological Setting:In skarns from contact metamorphosed impure limestones or calcic igneous rocks; in chlorite schists and serpentinites; in alkalic igneous rocks, then typically titaniferous.

Physical Properties of Andradite

Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Yellow, greenish yellow to emerald-green, dark green; brown, brownish red, brownish yellow; grayish black, black; may be sectored
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):6½ - 7
Tenacity:Brittle
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.8 - 3.9 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.859 g/cm3

Crystallography of Andradite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Ia3d {I41/a 3 2/d}
Cell Parameters:a = 12.056Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,752.31 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Commonly well-crystallized dodecahedra, trapezohedra, or combinations, to 5 cm. Also granular to massive.
Structure
  Reference
Novak G A Gibbs G V (1971) The crystal chemistry of the silicate garnets sample An. American Mineralogist 56:791-823.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Andradite

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.887
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Typically weak

Chemical Properties of Andradite

Formula:
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Essential elements:Ca, Fe, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Fe, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Cr,Al,Mg

Relationship of Andradite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Grossular (see here)
Forms a series with Schorlomite (see here)
Member of:Garnet Structural Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Berzeliite
NaCa
 
2
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Bitikleite
Ca
 
3
SbSn(AlO
 
4
)
 
3
Blythite
Mn
2+
3
Mn
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Dzhuluite
Ca
 
3
SbSnFe
3+
3
O
 
12
Elbrusite
Ca
 
3
U
6+
 
ZrFe
3+
2
Fe
2+
 
O
 
12
Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Irinarassite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
12
Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Khoharite
Mg
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Menzerite-(Y)
{(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe
2+
 
)}
 
3
{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
),(Fe
3+
 
,Al)}
 
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Palenzonaite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
CaMn
2+
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Schäferite
Ca
 
2
NaMg
 
2
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
Skiagite
Fe
2+
3
Fe
3+
2
[SiO
 
4
]
 
3
Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
Usturite
Ca
 
3
SbZr(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
3
Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
Yafsoanite
Ca
 
3
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
Common Associates:
VesuvianiteSpinelMagnetiteEpidoteDolomite
Chlorite GroupCalcite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AD.05Larnite
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.10Calcio-Olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.15Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.20Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
9.AD.25Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Hibschite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Hydroandradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Wadalite
(Ca,Mg)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
((Si,Al)O
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Cl
 
3
9.AD.25Holtstamite
Ca
 
3
(Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Eltyubyuite
Ca
 
12
Fe
3+
10
Si
 
4
O
 
32
Cl
 
6
9.AD.25Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
9.AD.30Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorogummite
(Th,U)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AD.35Huttonite
ThSiO
 
4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
9.AD.40Eulytine
Bi
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.45Reidite
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.22.1Hedenbergite
CaFe
2+
 
Si
 
2
O
 
6
14.22.2Pyroxferroite
(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO
 
3
14.22.3 Ferro-akermanite
Ca
 
2
FeSi
 
2
O
 
7
14.22.4Kirschsteinite
CaFe
2+
 
SiO
 
4
14.22.5Tungusite
Ca
 
4
Fe
 
2
Si
 
6
O
 
15
(OH)
 
6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite
☐{Ca
 
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.22.7Ilvaite
CaFe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O(OH)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)
Ca
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O

Other Names for Andradite

Synonyms:
AllochroiteAndradite GarnetAplomeJelleliteJellesite
JelletiteKalkeisentongranatPolyadelphineRothoffiteYttergranat
Other Languages:
Czech:Andradit
Dutch:Andradiet
French:Andradite
German:Allochroit
Andradit
Calcium-Ferrigranat
Kalkeisengranat
Polyadelphit
Hungarian:Andradit
Italian:Andradite
Lithuanian:Andraditas
Polish:Andradyt
Russian:Андрадит
Simplified Chinese:钙铁榴石
Spanish:Andradita
Allochroita
Polyadelphita
Ukrainian:Андрадит
Varieties:
BredbergiteDemantoidHydroandraditeMelanitePolyadelphite
Stanniferous AndraditeTitanmelaniteTitanoan AndraditeTopazolite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Andradite

Reference List:

- +
Manning, P.G. (1967), The optical absorption spectra of some andradites and the identification of 6A, → 4A, 4E(G) transition in octahedrally bonded Fe+3:Canadian Jour. Earth Sci.: 4: 1039-1047.

Howie, R.A., A.R. Wooley, J.H. Scoon, R.C. Tyler & J.N. Walsh (1968), The role of titanium and the effect of TiO2 on the cell size, refractive index, and specific gravity in the andradite-melanite-schorlomite series: Min. Magazine: 36: 775-790.

Isaacs, T. (1968), Titanium substitution in andradites: Chem. Geol.: 3: 219-222.

Manning, P.G. & D.C. Harris (1970), Optical absorption and electron-microprobe studies of some high-Ti andradites: Can. Min: 10: 260-271.

American Mineralogist: 74: 1307-1316.

Armbruster, Th., Birrer, J., Libowitzky, E., Beran, A. (1998): Crystal chemistry of Ti-bearing andradites, European Journal of Mineralogy, 10, 907-921.

Badar, M. A., Akizuki, M. and Hussain, S. (2010): Optical anomaly in iridescent andradite from the Sierra Madre Mountains, Sonora, Mexico. Can. Mineral. 48, 1195-1203.

Adamo, Ilaria; Gatta, G. Diego; Rotiroti, Nicola; Diella, Valeria; Pavese, Alessandro (2011): Green andradite stones: gemmological and mineralogical characterisation. European Journal of Mineralogy 23, 91-100.

Best Localities for Andradite

Best of Species:Andradite

Internet Links for Andradite

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  • Localities for Andradite

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