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Kröhnkite

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Formula:
Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Blue, greenish-blue; ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Member of:
Name:
After B. Kröhnke, who first analyzed the mineral.
This page provides mineralogical data about Kröhnkite.

Classification of Kröhnkite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.CC.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
29.3.2.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
25.2.11

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
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First Recorded Occurrence of Kröhnkite

Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Physical Properties of Kröhnkite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Blue, greenish-blue; light blue to colourless in transmitted light
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {1¯01} very imperfect.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.95 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Kröhnkite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.78Å, b = 12.58Å, c = 5.48Å
β = 108.3°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.459 : 1 : 0.436
Unit Cell Volume:
V 378.31 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic [001]; also octahedral with large {110} and {011} and rather elongated [100]. Prismatic or fibrous aggregates and crusts; massive, granular.
Twinning:
On {101}, common; twins heart-shaped at times.

Optical Data of Kröhnkite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.544 nβ = 1.578 nγ = 1.601
2V:
Measured: 78° , Calculated: 76°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.057
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of Kröhnkite

Formula:
Na2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Readily soluble in water.

Relationship of Kröhnkite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
BrandtiteCa2(Mn2+,Mg)(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
RoseliteCa2(Co2+,Mg)(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
RruffiteCa2Cu(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Unnamed (Fe2+-analogue of Brandtite)Ca2Fe2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
WendwilsoniteCa2Mg(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
ZincroseliteCa2Zn(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CC.05KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
7.CC.10TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O Not confirmed
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.25VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2O
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2O
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50Zincblödite
7.CC.55LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.65PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2O
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
25.2.3ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)O
25.2.6AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
25.2.9LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
25.2.13PiypiteK2Cu2(SO4)2O
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Kröhnkite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Kröhnkit
Simplified Chinese:柱钠铜矾
Spanish:Kröhnkita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kröhnkite

Reference List:
Domeyko, I. (1876) Elementos de Mineralogia, 2nd. Edition, Santiago (1860), with appendices 1 – 6, App. 5: 33.

Domeyko, I. (1879) Elementos de Mineralogia, 3rd. edition: 250 (as Krönnkite).

Darapsky (1889) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 192.

Herz (1896) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 26: 16 (as Salvadorite).

Palache, C. and Warren (1908) American Journal of Science: 26: 342.

Palache, C. and Warren (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 534.

Palache, C. (1939) American Journal of Science: 237: 447.

Gordon (1941) Academy of Sciences Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 72.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 444-446.

Leone M., Sgarlata F.(1954): Struttura della kroehnkite e contributo alla cristallochimica del rame. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 223-234.

Acta Crystallographica (1975): B31: 1753-1755.

Internet Links for Kröhnkite

Localities for Kröhnkite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba
    • Minas Department
Sureda (1978): Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina 33(4):299-324
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Niedere Tauern
      • Öblarn
        • Walchen
Schebesta, K. (1992): Schlackenminerale aus der Walchen bei Öblarn. Lapis 17 (2), 19-30; 50.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
Samples analysed by Dr. Tony Kampf, Curator of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
M.Dini & A.Molina collection
Malcherek, T. & Schlüter, J. (2010): Anatacamite from La Vendida mine, Sierra Gorda, Atacama desert, Chile: a triclinic polymorph of Cu2(OH)3Cl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 187, 307-312.; Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
www.ontariominerals.com
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
Jarrell, O. W. (1944): Oxidation at Chuquicamata, Chile. Economic Geology, 39, 251-86.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 310, 446, 564; Acta Cryst. B31 (1975), 1753
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 446.
British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 446.
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
      • Tierra Amarilla
        • Pampa Larga district
T. Djordjević and U. Kolitsch (2008): Conichalcite revisited: Structural and chemical characterisation of a sample from the Maria Catalina mine, Copiapó Province, Chile. Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 331.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Collahuasi District
Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kunshou Ding, Jinxiang Li, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, Daming Li, and Xiuquan Luo (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(10), 2371-2383
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Plaka
          • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
Hungary
 
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Recsk
No reference listed
  • Pest Co.
    • Börzsöny Mts
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Capoliveri
          • Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine)
F. Quagliarella (1966) - Su alcuni solfati di Capo Calamita (Isola d'Elba) - Rend. Soc. Min. It., 22: 210.
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, BP; Effenberger, HS; Collins, NC; Kearns, JB; Breban, RC (2011): Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania). International Journal of Speleology 40, 21-30.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just District
        • St Just
          • Botallack
            • Botallack Mine
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
USA
 
  • California
    • Alameda Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • Oakland Hills
          • Oakland
            • Leona Heights
              • Leona Heights deposit
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 207; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 298.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
[Mineralogical Record 20 129-142]
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • White Canyon District
        • Red Canyon
          • Chocolate Drop
J. Plášil, A.R. Kampf, A.V. Kasatkin, J. Marty, R. Škoda, S. Silva, J. Čejka (2013): Meisserite, Na5(UO2)(SO4)3(SO3OH)(H2O), a new uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA. Mineral. Mag. 77, 2975-2988
  • Virginia
    • Floyd Co.
      • Southern Section-Blue Ridge Province
        • Southern Lead
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Mineral and/or Locality  
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