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Kröhnkite

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Formula:
Na
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Blue, greenish-blue; ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:2½ - 3
Member of:Roselite Group
Name:After B. Kröhnke, who first analyzed the mineral.
This page provides mineralogical data about Kröhnkite.

Classification of Kröhnkite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.16-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CC.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:29.3.2.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.2.11

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
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Type Occurrence of Kröhnkite

Type Locality:Chuquicamata Mine, Chuquicamata District, Calama, El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region, Chile
Associated Minerals at type locality:
NatrochalciteChalcanthiteBlöditeAtacamiteAntlerite

Physical Properties of Kröhnkite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Blue, greenish-blue; light blue to colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {1¯01} very imperfect.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.9 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.95 g/cm3

Crystallography of Kröhnkite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 5.78Å, b = 12.58Å, c = 5.48Å
β = 108.3°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.459 : 1 : 0.436
Unit Cell Volume:V 378.31 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals short prismatic [001]; also octahedral with large {110} and {011} and rather elongated [100]. Prismatic or fibrous aggregates and crusts; massive, granular.
Twinning:On {101}, common; twins heart-shaped at times.

Optical Data of Kröhnkite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.544 nβ = 1.578 nγ = 1.601
2V:Measured: 78° , Calculated: 76°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.057

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:weak

Chemical Properties of Kröhnkite

Formula:
Na
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Na2Cu(SO4)2·2H2O
Essential elements:Cu, H, Na, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, Na, O, S
Analytical Data:Readily soluble in water.

Relationship of Kröhnkite to other Species

Member of:Roselite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Brandtite
Ca
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Roselite
Ca
 
2
(Co
2+
 
,Mg)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Rruffite
Ca
 
2
Cu(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Unnamed (Fe2+-analogue of Brandtite)
Ca
 
2
Fe
2+
 
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Wendwilsonite
Ca
 
2
(Mg,Co
2+
 
)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Zincroselite
Ca
 
2
Zn(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CC.05Krausite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CC.10Tamarugite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.15Kalinite
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O Not confirmed
7.CC.15Mendozite
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Lonecreekite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Alum-(K)
KAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)
NaAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Tschermigite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.20Lanmuchangite
Tl
+
 
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Voltaite
K
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Zincovoltaite
K
 
2
Zn
 
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Pertlikite
K
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
Mg
 
4
Fe
3+
2
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
2+
5
Fe
3+
3
Al(SO
 
4
)
 
12
· 18H
 
2
O
7.CC.35Ferrinatrite
Na
 
3
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 3H
 
2
O
7.CC.40Goldichite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.45Löweite
Na
 
12
Mg
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
13
· 15H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Blödite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Nickelblödite
Na
 
2
(Ni,Mg)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Changoite
Na
 
2
Zn(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.50Zincblödite
7.CC.55Leonite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.55Mereiterite
K
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Boussingaultite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Cyanochroite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Mohrite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ni(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.60Picromerite
K
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.65Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CC.70Leightonite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CC.75Amarillite
NaFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CC.80Konyaite
Na
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
7.CC.85Wattevilleite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O (?)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.2.1Chalcocyanite
CuSO
 
4
25.2.2Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.3Chalcanthite
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.2.4Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.2.5Dolerophanite
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
25.2.6Antlerite
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
25.2.7Brochantite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
25.2.8Posnjakite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.2.9Langite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.10Wroewolfeite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.12Natrochalcite
NaCu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
25.2.13Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
25.2.14Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.15Cyanochroite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.16Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.17Devilline
CaCu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.18Leightonite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.19Chalcoalumite
CuAl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.20Cyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.21Woodwardite
Cu
 
1-x
Al
 
x
(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
25.2.22Campigliaite
Mn
2+
 
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
25.2.23Guildite
CuFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
25.2.24Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.26Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
25.2.27Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.2.28Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Kröhnkite

Synonyms:
KroehnkiteKrömkiteKrönnkiteSalvadorite (of Herz)
Other Languages:
German:Kröhnkit
Russian:Кренкит
Simplified Chinese:柱钠铜矾
Spanish:Kröhnkita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kröhnkite

Reference List:

- +
Domeyko, I. (1876) Elementos de Mineralogia, 2nd. Edition, Santiago (1860), with appendices 1 – 6, App. 5: 33.

Domeyko, I. (1879) Elementos de Mineralogia, 3rd. edition: 250 (as Krönnkite).

Darapsky (1889) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 192.

Herz (1896) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 26: 16 (as Salvadorite).

Palache, C. and Warren (1908) American Journal of Science: 26: 342.

Palache, C. and Warren (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 534.

Palache, C. (1939) American Journal of Science: 237: 447.

Gordon (1941) Academy of Sciences Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 72.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 444-446.

Leone M., Sgarlata F.(1954): Struttura della kroehnkite e contributo alla cristallochimica del rame. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 223-234.

Acta Crystallographica (1975): B31: 1753-1755.

Internet Links for Kröhnkite

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  • Localities for Kröhnkite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Córdoba
      • Minas Department
    Sureda (1978): Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina 33(4):299-324
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Niedere Tauern
        • Öblarn
          • Walchen
    Schebesta, K. (1992): Schlackenminerale aus der Walchen bei Öblarn. Lapis 17 (2), 19-30; 50.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Mejillones
          • Mejillones peninsula
    Samples analysed by Dr. Tony Kampf, Curator of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    M.Dini & A.Molina collection
    Malcherek, T. & Schlüter, J. (2010): Anatacamite from La Vendida mine, Sierra Gorda, Atacama desert, Chile: a triclinic polymorph of Cu2(OH)3Cl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 187, 307-312.; Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    www.ontariominerals.com
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    Jarrell, O. W. (1944): Oxidation at Chuquicamata, Chile. Economic Geology, 39, 251-86.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 310, 446, 564; Acta Cryst. B31 (1975), 1753
            • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 446.
    British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 446.
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
        • Tierra Amarilla
          • Pampa Larga district
    T. Djordjević and U. Kolitsch (2008): Conichalcite revisited: Structural and chemical characterisation of a sample from the Maria Catalina mine, Copiapó Province, Chile. Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 331.
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Collahuasi District
    Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
    China
     
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
    Yingxia Xu, Kezhang Qin, Kunshou Ding, Jinxiang Li, Yu Miao, Tonghui Fang, Xingwang Xu, Daming Li, and Xiuquan Luo (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(10), 2371-2383
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Plaka
            • Plaka Mines
    No reference listed
    Hungary
     
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Recsk
    No reference listed
    • Pest Co.
      • Börzsöny Mtns
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
    Italy
     
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Capoliveri
            • Cape Calamita Mine (Calamita Mine)
    F. Quagliarella (1966) - Su alcuni solfati di Capo Calamita (Isola d'Elba) - Rend. Soc. Min. It., 22: 210.
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Onac, BP; Effenberger, HS; Collins, NC; Kearns, JB; Breban, RC (2011): Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania). International Journal of Speleology 40, 21-30.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
              • Botallack Mine
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Alameda Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Oakland Hills
            • Oakland
              • Leona Heights
                • Leona Heights deposit
    Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1903a), Minerals from Leona Heights, Alameda County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 3: 207; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 298.; Anthony R. Kampf & FM Locality Index Committee (1989) California Locality Index. Mineralogical Record, 20:129-142.
    [Mineralogical Record 20 129-142]
    • Virginia
      • Floyd Co.
        • Southern Section-Blue Ridge Province
          • Southern Lead
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Mineral and/or Locality  
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