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Larnite

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Formula:
Ca2SiO4
System:
Monoclinic
Hardness:
6
Name:
After the type locality, Scawt Hill, Larne, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK.
Dimorph of:
Olivine Group. The high-temperature, monoclinic polymorph of Calcio-Olivine.

Larnite crystallizes at high temperatures. It occurs in limestones or chalk zones in contact with molten basaltic rocks. Larnite is stable in the range of 520° to 670° C; otherwise, it is only metastable at lower temperatures and inverts to its low-temperature polymorph, Calcio-Olivine, when shocked.

An important phase (Belite, β-C2S) in cement clinker.
Five polymorphs of Ca2SiO4 are known; some are stabilised by impurities.

Classification of Larnite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.AD.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.5.1.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
5 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
14.5.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Larnite

Year of Discovery:
1929

Occurrences of Larnite

Geological Setting:
Metamorphosed sedimentary carbonate formations in contact with basaltic rocks.

Physical Properties of Larnite

Hardness (Mohs):
6

Crystallography of Larnite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.5Å, b = 6.74Å, c = 9.29Å
β = 94.59°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.816 : 1 : 1.378
Unit Cell Volume:
V 343.28 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Larnite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.707 nβ = 1.715 nγ = 1.730
2V:
Calculated: 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.023
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of Larnite

Formula:
Ca2SiO4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Mg,Na,H2O,C,P

Relationship of Larnite to other Species

9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V23+(SiO4)3
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe103+Si4O32Cl6
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4
9.AD.30Thorite(Th,U)SiO4
9.AD.30ZirconZrSiO4
9.AD.30StetinditeCe4+SiO4
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2x
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4
14.5.1WollastoniteCaSiO3
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2MCaSiO3
14.5.4RankiniteCa3Si2O7
14.5.5KilchoaniteCa6(SiO4)(Si3O10)
14.5.7BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
14.5.8HatruriteCa3(SiO4)O
14.5.9RosenhahniteHCa3[Si3O9(OH)]
14.5.10DellaiteCa6(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2
14.5.11AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
14.5.12XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
14.5.13FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
14.5.14HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2
14.5.15JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6
14.5.16SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2O
14.5.17KillalaiteCa6.4(H0.6Si2O7)2(OH)2
14.5.18OkeniteCa10Si18O46 · 18H2O
14.5.19RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2O
14.5.20TrabzoniteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
14.5.21GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2O
14.5.22FoshallasiteCa3[Si2O7] · 3H2O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
14.5.24Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
14.5.25NekoiteCa3Si6O15·7H2O
14.5.26Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)
14.5.27JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O

Other Names for Larnite

Name in Other Languages:
Russian:Ларнит
Simplified Chinese:斜硅钙石
Traditional Chinese:斜矽鈣石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Larnite

Reference List:
Tilley, C.E. (1929) On larnite (calcium orthosilicate, a new mineral) and its associated minerals from the limestone contact-zone of Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine, 22, 77-86.

American Mineralogist (1929): 14: 338.
(abstract).

American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 1766.

Jost, K.H., B. Ziemer, and R. Seydel (1977) Redetermination of the structure of dicalcium silicate. Acta Crystallographica: B33: 1696-1700.

Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman (1986) Rock-forming minerals, (2nd edition), v. 1B, disilicates and ring silicates, 248-255.

Martínez-Frías, J., Benito, R., Wilson, G., Delgado, A., Boyd, T., and Marti, K. (2004): Analysis and chemical composition of larnite-rich ultrarefractory materials. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 147, 204–210.

Internet Links for Larnite

Specimens:
The following Larnite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Larnite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Canada
 
  • Nunavut Territory
    • Bathurst Island
Mitchell, R.H., and Platt, R.G. (1984): Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 21(4), 428–436.
Central African Republic
 
  • Lobaye Prefecture
    • Lobaye River (Bali River)
Nazarov, M.A., Kurat, G., and Brandstätter, F. (1998): Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting, Dublin (Ireland), July 27-31, 1998, Abstract 5123.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Hentschel, G. (1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 2. Auflage
            • Southern lava flow
Hentschel, G. (1961): Seltene Mineralneubildungen in einem Kalksteineinschluß der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges, Fortschritte Mineralogie, Vol. 39, 345
Greenland
 
  • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
    • Kangerlussuaq Firth
      • Kangerlussuaq complex
Nielsen, T.F.D., Solovova, I.P. Veksler, I.V. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 126–124, 331–344.
Israel
 
  • Negev
Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. & Vapnik, Ye. (2008): Minerals of the pseudobinary perovskite-brownmillerite series from combustion metamorphic larnite rocks of the Hatrurim Formation (Israel). Russian Geology and Geophysics 49, 709-726.
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
Gross S (1984) Occurrence of ye'elimite and ellestadite in an unusual cobble from the "pseudo-conglomerate" of the Hatrurim basin, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel Current Research, 1-4
Italy
 
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Federico, M., Peccerillo, A., (2002): Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of granular ejecta from the Alban Hills volcano, Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol 74, 223-252
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Atasu
Krigman, L.D., Veksler, I.V., Ishbulatov, R.A., and Nielsen, T.F.D. (2001) in: Proceedings of the EUG XI, Strasbourg, France, 8–12 April, European Union of Geosciences, J. Conf. (Abstracts) 6, 578.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Northland
      • Kaipara
Mason, B. (1957): Larnite, scawtite, and hydrogrossular from Tokatoka, New Zealand. American Mineralogist 42, 379-392.
Palestine
 
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim Formation
Galuskin, E., Galuskina, I., Kusz, J., Armbruster, T., Marzec, K., Dzierżanowski, P., Murashko, M. (2014): Vapnikite Ca3UO6 - a new double perovskite mineral from pyrometamorphic larnite rocks of the Jabel Harmun, Palestine Autonomy, Israel. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 571-581
Seryotkin Y.V., Sokol E.V. & Kokh S.N. 2012: Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context. Lithos, vol. 134-135, pp. 75-90; Seryotkin, Yu.V., Sokol, E.V., Kokh, S.N. (2012): Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context. Lithos, 134–135, 75-90.
Romania
 
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
Henderson, C. M. B., Kogarko, L. N., & Plant, D. A. (1999). Extreme closed system fractionation of volatile-rich, ultrabasic peralkaline melt inclusions and the occurrence of djerfisherite in the Kugda alkaline complex, Siberia. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(3), 433-438.
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Narin-Kunta
Armbruster, T., Lazic, B., Gfeller, F., Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Savelyeva, V.B., Zadov, A.E., Pertsev, N.N., Dzierżanowski, P. (2011): Chlorine content and crystal chemistry of dellaite from the Birkhin gabbro massif, Eastern Siberia, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 379-394.
  • Northern Caucasus Region
    • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
      • Baksan Valley
Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Kusz, J., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Bailau, R., Dulski, M., Gazeev, V.M., Pertsev, N.N., Zadov, A.E., Dzieržanowski, P. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part II: Chlorkyuygenite from Upper Chegem, northern Caucasus Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia, a new microporous mayenite supergroup mineral with “zeolitic” H2O. European Journal of Mineralogy. 27, 113-122
      • Verkhnechegemskaya caldera (Verkhni Chegem caldera; Upper Chegem caldera)
Galuskina, I.O., Galuskin, E.V., Dzierzanowski, P., Gazeev, V.M., Prusik, K., Pertsev, N.N., Winiarski, A., Zadov, A.E., and Wrzalik, R. (2010): American Mineralogist 95(8-9), 1305-1311.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1361–1370, 2009; Galuskina, I. O., Galuskin, E. V., Kusz, J., Dzierżanowski, P., Prusik, K., Gazeev, V. M., ... & Dubrovinsky, L. (2013). Dzhuluite, Ca3SbSnFe3+ 3O12, a new bitikleite-group garnet from the Upper Chegem Caldera, Northern Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(2), 231-239.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Zateeva, S. N., Sokol, E. V., & Sharygin, V. V. (2007). Specificity of pyrometamorphic minerals of the ellestadite group. Geology of Ore Deposits, 49(8), 792-805.
          • Kopeisk
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Martínez-Frías, J., Benito, R., Wilson, G., Delgado, A., Boyd, T., and Marti, K. (2004): Journal of Materials Processing Technology 147, 204–210.; Henderson, C. M. B., Kogarko, L. N., & Plant, D. A. (1999). Extreme closed system fractionation of volatile-rich, ultrabasic peralkaline melt inclusions and the occurrence of djerfisherite in the Kugda alkaline complex, Siberia. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(3), 433-438.
UK
 
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Glenoe
Nawaz, R. (1977). A second occurrence of killalaite. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 546-548. ; Henmi C, Kusachi I, Henmi K, Sabine P A, Young B R (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251; P. A. Sabine, M. T. Styles and B. R. Young (1985) The Nature and Paragenesis of Natural Bredigite and Associated Minerals from Carneal and Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine 49:663-670.
      • Larne
Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
Tilley, C.E. (1929) On larnite (calcium orthosilicate, a new mineral) and its associated minerals from the limestone contact-zone of Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine, 22, 77-86.; American Mineralogist: 33: 786; Mineralogical Magazine 1942 26 : 190-196; Tilley, C. E., & Alderman, A. R. (1934). Progressive metasomatism in the flint nodules of the Scawt Hill contact-zone. Mineral Mag, 23, 513-518.; McConnell, J. D. C. (1955). The hydration of larnite (fi-Ca2SiO~) and bredigite (al-Ca2Si04) and the properties of the resulting gelatinous mineral plombierite.
  • Scotland
    • North West Highlands
      • Ardnamurchan
American Mineralogist 35:1080
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Mineralogical Magazine 1965 34 : 1-15.
      • Isle of Muck
Tilley, C.E. (1947) The gabbro-limestone contact zone of Camas Mor, Muck, Inverness-shire. Comptes Rendus de la Société geologique de Finlande, No. 140, 97–105.
    • Strathclyde
      • Isle of Mull
Mineralogical Magazine 1965 34 : 92-106.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
        • Darwin District
          • Darwin
Am Min (1962) 47:1003-1005
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
      • Christmas Mts
Rocks & Minerals (1991): 66:3: 196-224.
    • Culberson Co.
      • Apache Peak area
Rocks & Minerals (1991): 66(3): 196-224.; Am Min 51:1766-1774
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