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Larnite

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Formula:
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
System:MonoclinicHardness:6
Name:After the type locality, Scawt Hill, Larne, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK.
Dimorph of:Calcio-Olivine


Olivine Group. The high-temperature, monoclinic polymorph of Calcio-Olivine.

Larnite crystallizes at high temperatures. It occurs in limestones or chalk zones in contact with molten basaltic rocks. Larnite is stable in the range of 520° to 670° C; otherwise, it is only metastable at lower temperatures and inverts to its low-temperature polymorph, Calcio-Olivine, when shocked.

An important phase (Belite, β-C2S) in cement clinker.
Five polymorphs of Ca2SiO4 are known; some are stabilised by impurities.

Classification of Larnite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/A.07-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AD.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:51.5.1.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
5 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.5.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Larnite

Type Locality:Scawt Hill, Larne, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK
Year of Discovery:1929
Associated Minerals at type locality:
WollastoniteSpurritePerovskiteMerwiniteMelilite Group
Gehlenite

Occurrences of Larnite

Geological Setting:Metamorphosed sedimentary carbonate formations in contact with basaltic rocks.

Physical Properties of Larnite

Hardness (Mohs):6

Crystallography of Larnite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 5.5Å, b = 6.74Å, c = 9.29Å
β = 94.59°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.816 : 1 : 1.378
Unit Cell Volume:V 343.28 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Larnite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.707 nβ = 1.715 nγ = 1.730
2V:Calculated: 74°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.023

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v

Chemical Properties of Larnite

Formula:
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca2SiO4
Essential elements:Ca, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Ca, O, Si
Common Impurities:Al,Fe,Mg,Na,H2O,C,P

Relationship of Larnite to other Species

Common Associates:
WollastoniteSpurriteScawtiteRankinitePerovskite
MerwiniteMelilite GroupChlormayeniteKilchoaniteGrossular-Hibschite Series
GehleniteBrownmillerite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AD.10Calcio-Olivine
Ca
 
2
SiO
 
4
9.AD.15Merwinite
Ca
 
3
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.20Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
9.AD.25Andradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Almandine
Fe
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Calderite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Goldmanite
Ca
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Grossular
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Hibschite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Hydroandradite
Ca
 
3
Fe
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Katoite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.25Kimzeyite
Ca
 
3
(Zr,Ti)
 
2
((Si,Al,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Knorringite
Mg
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Morimotoite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Pyrope
Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Uvarovite
Ca
 
3
Cr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Wadalite
(Ca,Mg)
 
6
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
((Si,Al)O
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Cl
 
3
9.AD.25Holtstamite
Ca
 
3
(Al,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
9.AD.25Kerimasite
Ca
 
3
Zr
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Toturite
Ca
 
3
Sn
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(Fe
3+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
9.AD.25Momoiite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
3
V
3+
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.25Eltyubyuite
Ca
 
12
Fe
3+
10
Si
 
4
O
 
32
Cl
 
6
9.AD.25Hutcheonite
Ca
 
3
Ti
 
2
(SiAl
 
2
)O
 
12
9.AD.30Coffinite
(U
4+
 
,Th)(SiO
 
4
)
 
1-x
(OH)
 
4x
9.AD.30Hafnon
HfSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Thorite
(Th,U)SiO
 
4
9.AD.30Zircon
ZrSiO
 
4
9.AD.30Stetindite
Ce
4+
 
SiO
 
4
9.AD.35Huttonite
ThSiO
 
4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
9.AD.40Eulytine
Bi
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
9.AD.45Reidite
ZrSiO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.5.1Wollastonite
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2M
CaSiO
 
3
14.5.4Rankinite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
2
O
 
7
14.5.5Kilchoanite
Ca
 
6
(SiO
 
4
)(Si
 
3
O
 
10
)
14.5.7Bredigite
Ca
 
7
Mg(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
14.5.8Hatrurite
Ca
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)O
14.5.9Rosenhahnite
HCa
 
3
[Si
 
3
O
 
9
(OH)]
14.5.10Dellaite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.11Afwillite
Ca
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.12Xonotlite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
6
O
 
17
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.13Foshagite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.14Hillebrandite
Ca
 
2
(SiO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
14.5.15Jaffeite
Ca
 
6
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
6
14.5.16Suolunite
Ca
 
2
(H
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
) · H
 
2
O
14.5.17Killalaite
Ca
 
6.4
(H
 
0.6
Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
14.5.18Okenite
CaSi
 
2
O
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.19Riversideite
Ca
 
5
(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.5.20Trabzonite
Ca
 
4
(Si
 
3
O
 
10
) · 2H
 
2
O
14.5.21Gyrolite
NaCa
 
16
Si
 
23
AlO
 
60
(OH)
 
8
· 14H
 
2
O
14.5.22Foshallasite
Ca
 
3
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
] · 3H
 
2
O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
17
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·3H
 
2
O)
14.5.24Clinotobermorite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
17
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·3H
 
2
O)
14.5.25Nekoite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
6
O
 
15
·7H
 
2
O
14.5.26Plombièrite
[Ca
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O]·(Ca·5H
 
2
O)
14.5.27Jennite
Ca
 
9
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O

Other Names for Larnite

Synonyms:
Beliteβ-C2SFelite
Other Languages:
German:Belit
Belith
Felit
Larnit
Russian:Ларнит
Simplified Chinese:斜硅钙石
Spanish:Belita
Felita
Larnita
Traditional Chinese:斜矽鈣石

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Larnite

Reference List:

- +
Tilley, C.E. (1929) On larnite (calcium orthosilicate, a new mineral) and its associated minerals from the limestone contact-zone of Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine, 22, 77-86.

American Mineralogist (1929): 14: 338.
(abstract).

American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 1766.

Jost, K.H., B. Ziemer, and R. Seydel (1977) Redetermination of the structure of dicalcium silicate. Acta Crystallographica: B33: 1696-1700.

Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie, and J. Zussman (1986) Rock-forming minerals, (2nd edition), v. 1B, disilicates and ring silicates, 248-255.

Martínez-Frías, J., Benito, R., Wilson, G., Delgado, A., Boyd, T., and Marti, K. (2004): Analysis and chemical composition of larnite-rich ultrarefractory materials. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 147, 204–210.

Internet Links for Larnite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Larnite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Larnite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Bad Radkersburg
        • Klöch
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Canada
     
    • Nunavut Territory
      • Bathurst Island
    Mitchell, R.H., and Platt, R.G. (1984): Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 21(4), 428–436.
    Central African Republic
     
    • Lobaye Prefecture
      • Lobaye River (Bali River)
    Nazarov, M.A., Kurat, G., and Brandstätter, F. (1998): Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting, Dublin (Ireland), July 27-31, 1998, Abstract 5123.
    Germany
     
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Daun
          • Üdersdorf
    Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    Hentschel, G. (1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 2. Auflage
              • Southern lava flow
    Hentschel, G. (1961): Seltene Mineralneubildungen in einem Kalksteineinschluß der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges, Fortschritte Mineralogie, Vol. 39, 345
    Greenland
     
    • Tunu Province (East Greenland)
      • Kangerlussuaq Firth
        • Kangerlussuaq complex
    Nielsen, T.F.D., Solovova, I.P. Veksler, I.V. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 126–124, 331–344.
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. & Vapnik, Ye. (2008): Minerals of the pseudobinary perovskite-brownmillerite series from combustion metamorphic larnite rocks of the Hatrurim Formation (Israel). Russian Geology and Geophysics 49, 709-726.
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
    • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    Italy
     
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
    Federico, M., Peccerillo, A., (2002): Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of granular ejecta from the Alban Hills volcano, Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol 74, 223-252
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
      • Atasu
    Krigman, L.D., Veksler, I.V., Ishbulatov, R.A., and Nielsen, T.F.D. (2001) in: Proceedings of the EUG XI, Strasbourg, France, 8–12 April, European Union of Geosciences, J. Conf. (Abstracts) 6, 578.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Northland
        • Kaipara
    Mason, B. (1957): Larnite, scawtite, and hydrogrossular from Tokatoka, New Zealand. American Mineralogist 42, 379-392.
    Palestine
     
    • West Bank
      • Hatrurim Formation
    Galuskin, E., Galuskina, I., Kusz, J., Armbruster, T., Marzec, K., Dzierżanowski, P., Murashko, M. (2014): Vapnikite Ca3UO6 - a new double perovskite mineral from pyrometamorphic larnite rocks of the Jabel Harmun, Palestine Autonomy, Israel. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 571-581
    Seryotkin Y.V., Sokol E.V. & Kokh S.N. 2012: Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context. Lithos, vol. 134-135, pp. 75-90; Seryotkin, Yu.V., Sokol, E.V., Kokh, S.N. (2012): Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context. Lithos, 134–135, 75-90.
    Romania
     
    • Brașov Co.
      • Racoş Commune
    Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
    • Harghita Co.
      • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
        • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
        • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
    Henderson, C. M. B., Kogarko, L. N., & Plant, D. A. (1999). Extreme closed system fractionation of volatile-rich, ultrabasic peralkaline melt inclusions and the occurrence of djerfisherite in the Kugda alkaline complex, Siberia. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(3), 433-438.
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Narin-Kunta
    Armbruster, T., Lazic, B., Gfeller, F., Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Savelyeva, V.B., Zadov, A.E., Pertsev, N.N., Dzierżanowski, P. (2011): Chlorine content and crystal chemistry of dellaite from the Birkhin gabbro massif, Eastern Siberia, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 379-394.
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
        • Verkhnechegemskaya caldera (Verkhni Chegem caldera; Upper Chegem caldera)
    Galuskina, I.O., Galuskin, E.V., Dzierzanowski, P., Gazeev, V.M., Prusik, K., Pertsev, N.N., Winiarski, A., Zadov, A.E., and Wrzalik, R. (2010): American Mineralogist 95(8-9), 1305-1311.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1361–1370, 2009
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    Zateeva, S. N., Sokol, E. V., & Sharygin, V. V. (2007). Specificity of pyrometamorphic minerals of the ellestadite group. Geology of Ore Deposits, 49(8), 792-805.
            • Kopeisk
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Tanzania
     
    • Arusha Region
    Martínez-Frías, J., Benito, R., Wilson, G., Delgado, A., Boyd, T., and Marti, K. (2004): Journal of Materials Processing Technology 147, 204–210.; Henderson, C. M. B., Kogarko, L. N., & Plant, D. A. (1999). Extreme closed system fractionation of volatile-rich, ultrabasic peralkaline melt inclusions and the occurrence of djerfisherite in the Kugda alkaline complex, Siberia. Mineralogical Magazine, 63(3), 433-438.
    UK
     
    • Northern Ireland
      • Co. Antrim
        • Glenoe
    Nawaz, R. (1977). A second occurrence of killalaite. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 546-548. ; Henmi C, Kusachi I, Henmi K, Sabine P A, Young B R (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251; P. A. Sabine, M. T. Styles and B. R. Young (1985) The Nature and Paragenesis of Natural Bredigite and Associated Minerals from Carneal and Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine 49:663-670.
        • Larne
    Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
    Tilley, C.E. (1929) On larnite (calcium orthosilicate, a new mineral) and its associated minerals from the limestone contact-zone of Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine, 22, 77-86.; American Mineralogist: 33: 786; Mineralogical Magazine 1942 26 : 190-196; Tilley, C. E., & Alderman, A. R. (1934). Progressive metasomatism in the flint nodules of the Scawt Hill contact-zone. Mineral Mag, 23, 513-518.; McConnell, J. D. C. (1955). The hydration of larnite (fi-Ca2SiO~) and bredigite (al-Ca2Si04) and the properties of the resulting gelatinous mineral plombierite.
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Argyllshire)
        • Ardnamurchan
    American Mineralogist 35:1080
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Mineralogical Magazine 1965 34 : 1-15.
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Muck
    Tilley, C.E. (1947) The gabbro-limestone contact zone of Camas Mor, Muck, Inverness-shire. Comptes Rendus de la Société geologique de Finlande, No. 140, 97–105.
      • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
        • Isle of Mull
    Mineralogical Magazine 1965 34 : 92-106.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Darwin Hills
          • Darwin District
            • Darwin
    Am Min (1962) 47:1003-1005
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
        • Christmas Mts
    Rocks & Minerals (1991): 66:3: 196-224.
      • Culberson Co.
        • Apache Peak area
    Rocks & Minerals (1991): 66(3): 196-224.; Am Min 51:1766-1774
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