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Anhydrite

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Formula:
CaSO
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless, bluish, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, PearlyHardness:3 - 3½
Name:Named in 1804 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner from the Greek άνυδρος ("anhydros") meaning "without water", in allusion to the lack of water in its composition, in contrast to Gypsum, which contains water.


Isostructural with Ferruccite; isostructural and isomorphous with α-BaSO4 and α-SrSO4.

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Classification of Anhydrite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/A.08-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.AD.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:28.3.2.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.4.1

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba
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Type Occurrence of Anhydrite

Type Locality:Salt mine, Hall valley, Hall, Innsbruck, Inn valley, North Tyrol, Tyrol, Austria
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 16538
Year of Discovery:1804

Occurrences of Anhydrite

Geological Setting:Sedimentary evaporite deposits, cap rock of salt domes.

Physical Properties of Anhydrite

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on {010}
Colour:Colourless, bluish, blue-grey, violet, burgundy-red, white, rose-pink, brownish, reddish, grey, dark grey; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White, off-white, greyish
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {100} nearly perfect; on {001} good to imperfect.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density (measured):2.98(1) g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.95 g/cm3

Crystallography of Anhydrite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 6.245(1) Å, b = 6.995(2) Å, c = 6.993(2) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.893 : 1 : 1
Unit Cell Volume:V 305.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals equant, or nearly so, with large pinacoidal faces. Also Thick tabular on {010}, {100}, or {001}; elongated [100] or [001]. Massive. Fine granular to scaly; fibrous (either parallel, radiated or plumose) and frequently curved. Contorted concretionary forms (bowel stone).
Twinning:1.) On {011} as contact twins and polysynthetic lamellae (may be produced by heating or pressure); 2.) On {120} as contact twins, rare.
Crystal Atlas:
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Anhydrite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.32 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.499 (100)
2.849 (29)
2.3282 (20)
2.2090 (20)
1.8692 (16)
1.7500 (11)
1.6483 (15)
(

Optical Data of Anhydrite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.567 - 1.574 nβ = 1.574 - 1.579 nγ = 1.609 - 1.618
2V:Measured: 36° to 45°, Calculated: 44°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.042 - 0.044

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:Strong r < v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Violet coloured material: X = colourless to very light yellow or rose; Y = light violet or rose; Z = violet.

Chemical Properties of Anhydrite

Formula:
CaSO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:CaSO4
Essential elements:Ca, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Ca, O, S
Common Impurities:Sr,Ba,H2O

Relationship of Anhydrite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.AD.05Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.05Mascagnite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.10Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
7.AD.15Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
7.AD.20Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.25Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.35Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
7.AD.35Baryte
BaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Celestine
SrSO
 
4
7.AD.35Olsacherite
Pb
 
2
(SeO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
7.AD.40Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.40Palmierite
(K,Na)
 
2
Pb(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.4.2Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
25.4.3Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.4Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.5Cesanite
Na
 
3
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
25.4.6Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.7Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
25.4.8Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.9Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.4.10Polyhalite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.4.11Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
25.4.12Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
25.4.13Ettringite
Ca
 
6
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.14Bentorite
Ca
 
6
(Cr
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
12
· 26H
 
2
O
25.4.15Celestine
SrSO
 
4
25.4.16Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.4.17Baryte
BaSO
 
4

Other Names for Anhydrite

Synonyms:
Anhydrous GypsumAnhydrous Sulfate of LimeCube SparKarsteniteMuriacite
Siliceous Anhydrous Gypsum
Other Languages:
Basque:Anhidrita
Catalan:Anhidrita
Czech:Anhydrit
Dutch:Anhydriet
Esperanto:Anhidrito
French:Anhydrite
Chaux sulfatée anhydre
Chaux sulfatée quartzifère
Soude muriatée gypsifère
German:Anhydrit
Anchydrit
Anidrit
Gekrösstein
Karstenit
Metanhydrit
Muriacit
Muriazit
Salzsaurer Kalk
Würfelgips
Würfelgyps
Würfelspat
Hebrew:אנהידריט
Hungarian:Anhidrit
Italian:Anidrite
Bardiglione
Marmor Bardiglio di Bergamo
Japanese:硬石膏
Lithuanian:Anhidritas
Polish:Anhydryt
Portuguese:Anidrita
Russian:Ангидрит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Анхидрит
Simplified Chinese:硬石膏
Slovak:Anhydrit
Slovenian:Anhidrit
Spanish:Anhidrita
Anhydrita
Anidrita
Muriacita
Swedish:Anhydrit
Ukrainian:Ангідрит
Varieties:
AngeliteBowel StoneVulpinite

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:Inverts to α-CaSO4 at 1193°. Melting Point = ~ 1450°.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Anhydrite

Reference List:

- +
Abbé Nicolaus Poda von Neuhaus, in: Fichtel, Johann Ehrenreich von (1794) Mineralogische Aufsätze, Wien: 228 (as Muriazit; Salzsaurer Kalk).

Werner (1800) (as Würfelspath).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 2 (as Soude muriatée gypsifère (of Hall) [from Klaproth's analysis in Beiträge: 1: 307 (1795)].

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 4 [as Chaux sulfatée anhydre (from Bex) Vauquelin].

Ludwig, C.F. (1803) Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A.G. Werner. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 1: 51, 166 (as Cube Spar).

Ludwig, C.F. (1804) Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A.G. Werner. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 2: 170 (as Kieselgyps; Vulpinit).

Werner (1803) (as Anhydrit).

Ludwig, C.F. (1804) Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A.G. Werner. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 2: 169 (as Würfelgyps).

Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, vol. 4: 231 (as Anhydrit; Pierre de tripes).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: 880 (as Karstenit).

Schrauf (1860) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzber. Vienna: 39: 887.

Hessenberg (1872) Senck. Ges. Frankfurt, Abh.: 8: 1.

Mügge (1883) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 258.

Danker (1886) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 4: 272.

Goldschmidt, V. (1886) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes: vol. 1, 601pp.: 211.

Mülheims (1888) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 14: 228.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 910.

Zimányi (1893) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 22: 341.

Mügge (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 71.

Vater (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 571.

Sommerfeldt (1907) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 139 (as Metanhydrit).

Sommerfeldt (1909) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 22: 189 (as Metanhydrit).

Kolb (1911) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 49: 14, 25.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 56.

Emerson (1916) American Journal of Science: 42: 233.

Butler (1919) Economic Geology: 14: 581.

Veit (1922) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 45: 133.

Kinoshita (1925) Journal of the Geological Society of Tokyo: 32: 9.

Basche and Mark (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 22.

Dickson and Binks (1926) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 2: 114.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 (3B): 3735, 3780.

Schaller (1932) USGS Bulletin 832.

Berek and Strieder (1933) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 86: 212.

Tertsch (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 87: 326.

Przibram (1936) Kali: 30: 61.

Posnjak (1940) American Journal of Science: 238: 559.

Engelhardt (1945) Chemie der Erde, Jena: 15: 424.

Zimmer (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 647.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 407, 424-428.

Groves, A.W. (1958), Gypsum and Anhydrite, 108 p. Overseas Geological Surveys, London.

Hardie, L.A. (1967), The gypsum-anhydrite equilibrium at one atmosphere pressure: American Mineralogist: 52: 171-200.

Canadian Mineralogist (1975): 13: 289-292.

Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., and Neil, J.M. (2002) Energetics of anhydrite, barite, celestine, and anglesite: a high-temperature and differential scanning calorimetry study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 66: 1839-1850.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 25.

Freyer, D. & Voigt, W. (2003): Crystallization and phase stability of CaSO4 and CaSO4-based salts. Monatshefte für Chemie, 134, 693-719.

Walter, F. (2005): Anhydrit als Einschluß in alpinen Quarzen der Ostalpen. Carinthia II, 195./115., 85-96.

Walter, F. (2008): Anhydrit in Quarzkristallen aus den Ostalpen. Schweizer Strahler, 3/2008, 10-14.

Internet Links for Anhydrite

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    Localities for Anhydrite

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