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Laurionite

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Formula:
PbCl(OH)
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, white
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Name:
Named in 1887 by Rudolf Ignatz Koechlin after the type locality at Laurion, Greece. (Note that the type material consists of a piece of oxidised galena ore, not a slag.)
Dimorph of:

Classification of Laurionite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
3.DC.05

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
10.2.2.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
2 : A(O,OH)Xq
8.8.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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http://www.mindat.org/min-2343.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Laurionite

Year of Discovery:
1887
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Laurionite

Geological Setting:
Saline water acting on lead slags. Oxidation zone in lead deposits.

Physical Properties of Laurionite

Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Comment:
pearly on {100}
Colour:
Colourless, white
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 3½
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {101}.
Density:
6.241 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.212 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Laurionite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.111Å, b = 9.6987Å, c = 4.0203Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.733 : 1 : 0.415
Unit Cell Volume:
V 277.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals elongated [010] thick to thin tabular {100}. Often sword-shaped morphology. {100} striated [021] at times. Significant form {812} is generally replaced, or accompanied, by vicinal faces. Also lenticular.

Crystallographic forms of Laurionite

Crystal Atlas:
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Laurionite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Optical Data of Laurionite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.077 nβ = 2.116 nγ = 2.158
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 90°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.081
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v strong

Chemical Properties of Laurionite

Formula:
PbCl(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Laurionite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
3.DC.25Bismoclite(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFCl
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)F
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFCl
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3F3[AlF6] · H2O
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2
3.DC.50BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2O
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O
8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
8.8.2MatlockitePbFCl
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3F3[AlF6] · H2O
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Laurionite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in warm water. Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Laurionite

Reference List:
Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190.

vom Rath (1887) Berichte Niederrheinische Gesellschaft für Natur und Heilkunde, Bonn: 102: 149.

Koechlin (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 17: 112.

Hintze, Carl (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [2B]: 2632.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 171.

Smith (1899) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 106.

Ktenas (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 124.

Palache, C. (1934). The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.

Goldsztaub (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 208: 1234.

Brasseur (1940) Bulletin soc. roy. sc. Liége: 9: 166.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 62-64.

Cannillo E., Giuseppetti G., Tadini C. (1968) - Riesame della struttura della laurionite PbOHCl. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 395-402.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1975): 141: 246.

Merlino S., Pasero M., Perchiazzi N. (1993): Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 323-328.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 307.

Internet Links for Laurionite

Localities for Laurionite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Chapman, J. & Scott, K. (2005): Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura (Endeavor) lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 83-90.
  • Tasmania
http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
[MinRec 24:203]; Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Callac
        • Carnoët
          • Menez-Plom
P. Le Roch collection
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
          • Les Rats Mine
Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, no. 1, 9-22
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Süss
        • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Essen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Braubach
Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineral. Mag., 12, 102-110; Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996): Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
        • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
Fritz Schreiber collection (SXRD-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch)
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Oxygon area
No reference listed
        • Panormos area
No reference listed
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
        • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Israel
 
  • Negev
    • Makhtesh Ramon area (Ramon crater area)
Itamar, A. (1993): Hydrothermal alteration of quartz syenite in Shen Ramon, Israel: mineralogy, petrography and economic evaluation. Proc. Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 8th, 823-834.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Valsassina
        • Cortabbio
Luigi Possenti Collection
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Sassetta
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
        • Argent
Minerals of South Africa
Tunisia
 
  • Mahdia Governorate
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
UK
 
  • England
    • Bristol
      • Westbury on Trym
BMS Database
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Porthleven
Russell, A and Hutchinson, A. (1927): On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineral. Mag., 21, 221-228.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 241-242.
        • St Hilary
[UKJMM 20:7-37]
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Wendron & Falmouth District
        • Feock
          • Penpol
Chollet Pascal collection
    • Somerset
      • Cranmore
Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46.
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
UKJMM
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Baker
        • Otto Mountain
Collected by Chuck Adan. EDS confirmed by Bob Housley.
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Vietnam
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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