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Laurionite

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Formula:
PbCl(OH)
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless, white
Hardness:3 - 3½
Member of:Matlockite Group
Name:Named in 1887 by Rudolf Ignatz Koechlin after the type locality at Laurion, Greece. (Note that the type material consists of a piece of oxidised galena ore, not a slag.)
Dimorph of:Paralaurionite

Classification of Laurionite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.0-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DC.05

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
Dana 8th edition ID:10.2.2.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
2 : A(O,OH)Xq
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.8.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Laurionite

Type Locality:Lavrion District Mines, Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium), Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika), Greece
Year of Discovery:1887
Associated Minerals at type locality:
PyritePhosgeniteGalena

Occurrences of Laurionite

Geological Setting:Saline water acting on lead slags. Oxidation zone in lead deposits.

Physical Properties of Laurionite

Lustre:Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Comment:pearly on {100}
Colour:Colourless, white
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Tenacity:Flexible
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {101}.
Density (measured):6.241 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.212 g/cm3

Crystallography of Laurionite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 7.111Å, b = 9.6987Å, c = 4.0203Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.733 : 1 : 0.415
Unit Cell Volume:V 277.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals elongated [010] thick to thin tabular {100}. Often sword-shaped morphology. {100} striated [021] at times. Significant form {812} is generally replaced, or accompanied, by vicinal faces. Also lenticular.
Crystal Atlas:
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Laurionite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Laurionite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 2.077 nβ = 2.116 nγ = 2.158
2V:Measured: 70° , Calculated: 90°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.081

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r < v strong

Chemical Properties of Laurionite

Formula:
PbCl(OH)
Essential elements:Cl, H, O, Pb
All elements listed in formula:Cl, H, O, Pb

Relationship of Laurionite to other Species

Member of:Matlockite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Common Associates:
PhosgenitePenfielditeParalaurioniteFiedleriteCerussite
Anglesite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DC.05Paralaurionite
PbCl(OH)
3.DC.10Fiedlerite
Pb
 
3
FCl
 
4
(OH) · H
 
2
O
3.DC.15Penfieldite
Pb
 
2
Cl
 
3
(OH)
3.DC.20Laurelite
Pb
 
7
F
 
12
Cl
 
2
3.DC.25Bismoclite
(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite
(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25Matlockite
PbFCl
3.DC.25Rorisite
CaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite
(BiO)F
3.DC.25Zhangpeishanite
BaFCl
3.DC.30Nadorite
PbSbClO
 
2
3.DC.30Perite
PbBiClO
 
2
3.DC.35Aravaipaite
Pb
 
3
F
 
3
[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
3.DC.37Calcioaravaipaite
PbCa
 
2
AlF
 
9
3.DC.40Thorikosite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
(OH)(SbO
 
3
,AsO
 
3
)
3.DC.45Mereheadite
Pb
 
47
Cl
 
25
(OH)
 
13
O
 
24
(CO
 
3
)(BO
 
3
)
 
2
3.DC.50Blixite
Pb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
3.DC.55Pinalite
Pb
 
3
WO
 
5
Cl
 
2
3.DC.60Symesite
Pb
 
10
(SO
 
4
)O
 
7
Cl
 
4
· H
 
2
O
3.DC.65Ecdemite
Pb
 
6
Cl
 
4
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)
3.DC.65Heliophyllite
Pb
 
6
Cl
 
4
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)
3.DC.70Mendipite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
O
 
2
3.DC.75Damaraite
Pb
 
3
Cl(OH)O
 
2
3.DC.80Onoratoite
Sb
 
8
Cl
 
2
O
 
11
3.DC.85Cotunnite
PbCl
 
2
3.DC.90Pseudocotunnite
K
 
2
PbCl
 
4
3.DC.95Barstowite
Pb
 
4
Cl
 
6
(CO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.8.1Abhurite
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
8.8.2Matlockite
PbFCl
8.8.3Laurelite
Pb
 
7
F
 
12
Cl
 
2
8.8.4Cotunnite
PbCl
 
2
8.8.5Mendipite
Pb
 
3
Cl
 
2
O
 
2
8.8.6Damaraite
Pb
 
3
Cl(OH)O
 
2
8.8.8Paralaurionite
PbCl(OH)
8.8.9Penfieldite
Pb
 
2
Cl
 
3
(OH)
8.8.10Fiedlerite
Pb
 
3
FCl
 
4
(OH) · H
 
2
O
8.8.11Blixite
Pb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
Cl
8.8.12Pseudocotunnite
K
 
2
PbCl
 
4
8.8.13Diaboleite
Pb
 
2
CuCl
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.8.14Pseudoboleite
Pb
 
31
Cu
 
24
Cl
 
62
(OH)
 
48
8.8.15Chloroxiphite
Pb
 
3
CuO
 
2
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.8.17Bideauxite
Pb
 
2
AgCl
 
3
(F,OH)
 
2
8.8.18Boleite
KPb
 
26
Ag
 
9
Cu
 
24
(OH)
 
48
Cl
 
62
8.8.19Aravaipaite
Pb
 
3
F
 
3
[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.8.20Yedlinite
Pb
 
6
Cr
3+
 
Cl
 
6
(O,OH,H
 
2
O)
 
8
8.8.21Kolarite
PbTeCl
 
2
8.8.22Hematophanite
Pb
 
4
Fe
 
3
O
 
8
(OH,Cl)

Other Names for Laurionite

Synonyms:
Laurionite-2O
Other Languages:
German:Laurionit
Russian:Лаурионит
Spanish:Laurionita

Other Information

Other Information:Slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in warm water. Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Laurionite

Reference List:

- +
Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190.

vom Rath (1887) Berichte Niederrheinische Gesellschaft für Natur und Heilkunde, Bonn: 102: 149.

Koechlin (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 17: 112.

Hintze, Carl (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [2B]: 2632.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 171.

Smith (1899) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 106.

Ktenas (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 124.

Palache, C. (1934). The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.

Goldsztaub (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 208: 1234.

Brasseur (1940) Bulletin soc. roy. sc. Liége: 9: 166.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 62-64.

Cannillo E., Giuseppetti G., Tadini C. (1968) - Riesame della struttura della laurionite PbOHCl. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 395-402.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1975): 141: 246.

Merlino S., Pasero M., Perchiazzi N. (1993): Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 323-328.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 307.

Internet Links for Laurionite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Laurionite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Laurionite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Robinson Co.
        • Cobar
    Chapman, J. & Scott, K. (2005): Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura (Endeavor) lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 83-90.
    • Tasmania
    http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Western Australia
      • Ashburton Shire
    [MinRec 24:203]; Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
    Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Estrie
        • Les Sources RCM
          • Asbestos
    HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Příbram
    RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
    France
     
    • Brittany
      • Côtes-d'Armor
        • Callac
          • Carnoët
            • Menez-Plom
    P. Le Roch collection
      • Finistère
        • Poullaouen
    Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, no. 1, 9-22
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Ruhr Coal Mining area
        • Essen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Marl
          • Marl-Hüls
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Braubach
    Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190
    Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineral. Mag., 12, 102-110; Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996): Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
    No reference listed
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    No reference listed
          • Oxygon area
    No reference listed
          • Panormos area
    No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
    van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
    No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
    Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Israel
     
    • Negev
      • Makhtesh Ramon area (Ramon crater area)
    Itamar, A. (1993): Hydrothermal alteration of quartz syenite in Shen Ramon, Israel: mineralogy, petrography and economic evaluation. Proc. Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 8th, 823-834.
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
          • Sassetta
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Piombino
    Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Argent
    Minerals of South Africa
    Tunisia
     
    • Mahdia Governorate
      • Mahdia
    Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Balkan Province
      • Cheleken Peninsula
    Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
    UK
     
    • England
      • Bristol
        • Westbury on Trym
    BMS Database
      • Cornwall
        • Mount's Bay District
          • Porthleven
    Russell, A and Hutchinson, A. (1927): On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineral. Mag., 21, 221-228.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 241-242.
          • St Hilary
    [UKJMM 20:7-37]
        • St Agnes District
          • Crantock
    BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
        • Wendron & Falmouth District
          • Carnmenellis area
            • Penpol
    Pascal Chollet collection
      • Somerset
        • Cranmore
    Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46.
    • Wales
      • Ceredigion (Dyfed; Cardiganshire)
        • Ceulanymaesmawr
          • Talybont
            • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
    UKJMM
    USA
     
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Baker
          • Otto Mountain
    Collected by Chuck Adan. EDS confirmed by Bob Housley.
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Vietnam
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
    Mineral and/or Locality  
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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