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Lavendulan

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Formula:
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Turquois--blue, greenish ...
Hardness:
Member of:Lavendulan Group
Name:Named after the lavender colour of the "type" specimen, which has been determined to be a mixture with no relationship to modern lavendulan (Ondruš et al., 2006). Lavendulan does not exhibit a lavender colour.
Dimorph of:Lemanskiite
Isostructural with:Sampleite


Lavendulan Group.

A polymorph of Lemanskiite, the Ca analogue of Zdenekite and the arsenate analogue of Sampleite.

Compare also the chemically and visually similar Mahnertite.

Data regarding this species have been significantly defined in recent years [see Ondruš et al. (2006) and the crystal-structure determination by Giester et al. (2007)], including a re-examination of Breithaupt's type specimen. That effort disclosed that the "type specimen" of lavendulan was a mixture unrelated to present day lavendulan. The second locality from which "lavendulan" was found is Jachymov (Joachimsthal), Czech Republic; therefore, the type locality of the species was changed to the latter locality, pending any formal declarations to the contrary.

Classification of Lavendulan

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/D.25-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.DG.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4< 0.5:1
Dana 8th edition ID:42.9.4.2

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:22.2.2

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-2349.html
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Type Occurrence of Lavendulan

Type Locality:Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal), Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal), Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge), Karlovy Vary Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic
Year of Discovery:1837

Occurrences of Lavendulan

Geological Setting:Secondary mineral in the oxidized zone of some copper deposits.

Physical Properties of Lavendulan

Lustre:Vitreous, Waxy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Comment:Satinly in aggregates
Colour:Turquois--blue, greenish blue, pale blue
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {010}
Distinct on {100} {001}
Density (measured):3.54 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.597 g/cm3

Crystallography of Lavendulan

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 10.011Å, b = 19.478Å, c = 10.056Å
β = 90.37°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.514 : 1 : 0.516
Unit Cell Volume:V 1960.8 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Thin rectangular, pseudo-orthorhombic plates.
Twinning:Commmon.
Comment:Space group P21/n. Pseudo-orthorhombic metrics.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
9.716 (100)
7.084 (5)
6.970 (5)
5.003 (7)
4.865 (16)
4.449 (7)
4.371 (5)
3.243 (4)
3.156 (6)
3.110 (9)
3.082 (5)
2.968 (9)
2.752 (7)
2.668 (4)
2.513 (5)
2.482 (5)
(
Comments:From ICDD-PDF no. 49-1857 (based on crystal structure).

Optical Data of Lavendulan

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.660 nβ = 1.715 nγ = 1.734
2V:Measured: 33° , Calculated: 58°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.074

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:weak
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:O= pale blue to pale greenish blue
E= blue to greenish blue

Chemical Properties of Lavendulan

Formula:
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl·5H2O
Essential elements:As, Ca, Cl, Cu, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:As, Ca, Cl, Cu, H, Na, O

Relationship of Lavendulan to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Sampleite (see here)
Member of:Lavendulan Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Sampleite
NaCaCu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Zdenĕkite
NaPbCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.DG.05Sampleite
NaCaCu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
8.DG.05Shubnikovite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)Cl · 7H
 
2
O
8.DG.05Zdenĕkite
NaPbCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
8.DG.05Lemanskiite
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
22.2.1Sampleite
NaCaCu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
22.2.3Chlorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.4Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.5Shubnikovite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)Cl · 7H
 
2
O
22.2.6Richelsdorfite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
5
Sb(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
Cl · 6H
 
2
O
22.2.7Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.8Morelandite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.9Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.10Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.12Sahlinite
Pb
 
14
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.13Georgiadèsite
Pb
 
4
(AsO
 
3
)Cl
 
4
(OH)
22.2.14Vanadinite
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.15Kombatite
Pb
 
14
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.16Leningradite
PbCu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl
22.2.17Hedyphane
Pb
 
3
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.18Nealite
Pb
 
4
Fe
2+
 
(As
3+
 
O
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Lavendulan

Synonyms:
FreiriniteLavendulaneLavendulaniteLavendulite
Other Languages:
German:Lavendulanit
Lavendulit
Japanese:ラヴェンデュラン
Simplified Chinese:氯砷钠铜石
Spanish:Lavendulanita
Lavendulita
Traditional Chinese:氯砷鈉銅石
Varieties:
Zinclavendulan

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Lavendulan

Reference List:

- +
A. Breithaupt (1837): Bestimmung neuer Mineralien. 3. Lavendulan.- Journal für praktische Chemie 10, 505-506.

Goldsmith (1877) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences Philadelphia: 192 (as Freirinite).

Foshag (1924) American Mineralogist: 9: 30 (Freirinite).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 750-751, 920-921 (as Freirinite).

Guillemin, G. (1956): Contribution à la minéralogie des arséniates, phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. I. Arséniates. Bull. Soc. franç. Minéral. Cristallogr., 79, 7-95.

American Mineralogist (1957): 42: 123.

Ondruš, P., Veselovský, F, Sejkora, J., Skála, R., Pažout, R., Frýda, J., Gabašová, A., Vajdak, J. (2006): Lemanskiite, NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl•5H2O, a new mineral species from the Abundancia mine, Chile. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 523-531 (type specimen data).

Giester, Gerald; Uwe Kolitsch; Peter Leverett; Peter Turner; and Peter A. Williams (2007) The crystal structures of lavendulan, sampleite, and a new polymorph of sampleite. European Journal of Mineralogy 19,75-93.

Internet Links for Lavendulan

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  • Lavendulan details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Lavendulan

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    • Salta
    Sureda, R.J., Galliski, M.A., Gorustovich, S.A. Los minerales de uranio y cobre en la manifestacion nuclear Cajoncillo, provincia de Salta. 9 Congreso Geologico Argentino, 7: 407-417 1984.
    Australia
     
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Selwyn District
    [UKJMM 19:24]
    • South Australia
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
          • Callington
    Noble, R. J., Just, J. and Johnson, J. E. (1983): Catalogue of South Australian Minerals - 1983. South Australia Department of Mines and Energy Handbook 7, 244 pp.; Uwe Kolitsch collection
          • Clarendon
    Kolitsch, U. and Elliott, P. (1999): Mineralogy of the Mount Malvern Mine near Clarendon, South Australia. Australian J. Mineral. 5, 3-17.
      • Olary Province
        • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
    Kleeman, A.W. and Milnes, A.R. (1973): Phosphorian lavendulan from Dome Rock mine, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia: 97: 135-137.
        • Kalabity homestead area
    Jack Leach collection & Museum of Victoria
      • Stuart Shelf
        • Roxby Downs
    South Australian Museum collection
    • Victoria
      • Loddon Shire
    No reference listed
    • Western Australia
      • Ashburton Shire
    [MinRec 24:203]; Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
    Mineralogical Record 24,203-216,218.
    Ashburtonite, a new bicarbonate-silicate mineral from Ashburton Downs; J.D. Grice, E.H. Nickel, R.A. Gault; American Mineralogist, Vol 76, 001701-1707, 1991
      • Coolgardie Shire
        • Widgiemooltha
    No reference listed
      • Ravensthorpe Shire
        • Kundip
    P Haas and RD Green collections
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Saalfelden
        • Leogang
          • Hütten
            • Schwarzleograben
              • Vogel Alp
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    Bolivia
     
    • La Paz Department
      • Aroma Province
        • Laurani District
    J.Coordination Chemistry 61,15-29(2008); Paar, W. H., Cooper, M. A., Hawthorne, F. C., Moffatt, E., Gunter, M. E., Roberts, A. C., & Dunn, P. J. (2009). Braithwaiteite, NaCu5 (TiSb) O2 (AsO4) 4 [AsO3 (OH)] 2 (H2O) 8, a new mineral species from Laurani, Bolivia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 947-952.
    Canada
     
    • Nova Scotia
      • Hants Co.
        • Walton
    Can. Min. 9, 718; Transactions of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and the Mining Society of Nova Scotia , Volume 69 p398
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Santa Catalina
          • Guanaco (Huanaco)
    U. Kolitsch collection (SXRD analysed); IMA submission #037-99, Dr. F. Veselovsky, Czech Geol. Survey
    In the collection of Brent Thorne
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    http://www.mindat.org/picshow.php?id=47147 (questionable)
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
      • Tocopilla Province
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
        • Tierra Amarilla
          • Pampa Larga district
    Samples analysed by Tony Kampf of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
    Yang, H., Jenkins, R.A., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., Tait, K.T. (2011): Rruffite, Ca2Cu(AsO4)2·2H2O,a new member of the roselite group, from Tierra Amarilla, Chile. Canadian Mineralogist, 49, 877-884
    maurizio dini collection - quantitative analysis
      • Huasco Province
        • Freirina
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 921; Josef Vajdak (2002) Mineral News, 18, #1, 6.
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Salar Grande
    Kampf, A.R., Nash, B.P., Dini, M., Molina Donoso, A.A. (2013): Magnesiokoritnigite, Mg(AsO3OH)•H2O, from the Torrecillas mine, Iquique Province, Chile: the Mg-analogue of koritnigite. Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3081-3092.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 751.
    Lapis (2002): 7/8: 54.
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 54
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Aude
        • Carcassonne
          • Mas-Cabardès
            • Salsigne
    Pelison P., Descouens D. (1987), Présence de minéraux de néoformation dans les scories de l'ancienne usine de Villagnère (Aude), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 6-10
      • Hérault
        • Lodève
    [Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Var
        • Le Pradet
    [UKJMM 2:11-15 "Cap Gronne Secondary Copper and Lead - W.R. van den Berg"]
    Georges FAVREAU collection
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Alpirsbach
          • Reinerzau District
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Baden-Baden
          • Müllenbach U deposit
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Schenkenzell
          • Wittichen
            • Böckelsbach valley
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
            • Burgfelsen
    No reference listed
            • Heubach Valley
    No reference listed
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Schiltach
          • Stammelbach valley
    [Lapis 1992, 11, p.13-20]
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Fichtelgebirge
          • Weißenstadt
            • Rudolfstein
    Meier, S. & Dünkel, B. (2010): Das Zinn- und Uranbergwerk am Rudolfstein bei Weißenstadt, Fichtelgebirge. Lapis 35 (2), 29-37; 54.
        • Spessart
          • Aschaffenburg
            • Dörrmorsbach
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Bad Lauterberg
    J. Gröbner: Neufunde aus den Bergbaurevieren St. Andreasberg, Bad Lauterberg und von Oberschulenberg im Harz, MINERALIEN-WELT 18 (2007), 43-51.
    Gröbner, J. & Kloss, D. (2010): Neufunde von der Grube Wolkenhügel bei Bad Lauterberg im Harz. Lapis 35 (1), 39-41; 62.
        • St Andreasberg District
          • Beerberg
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Eifel
        • Düren
          • Untermaubach
    Graf, HW., (1992):Fundstellen und Mineralien in de Nordeifel (Teil 1+2), MineralienWelt 1/1992, 3/1992
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31. [in fact sampleite]
      • Niederberg area
        • Heiligenhaus
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988): Der Niederbergische Erzbezirk des Werdener Bergreviers in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Lapis 13(1): 11-35
      • Siegerland
        • Eiserfeld
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
          • Kohlenbach Valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Niederschelden
    Heinrich, M. & Reinhardt, M. (2011): Die Mineralien der Kobaltgrube "Alte Buntekuh" bei Niederschelden im Siegerland. Mineralien Welt. 22 (3): 14-27
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Adenau
          • Antweiler
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Frücht
    Möhn, G., Frohwein, J. & Blaß, G. (2009): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Friedrichssegen bei Bad Ems. Lapis 34 (5), 35-40; 58.
      • Palatinate
        • Winnweiler
          • Imsbach
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Annaberg District
          • Annaberg-Buchholz
            • Frohnau
              • Schreckenberg
                • König David samt Galiläische Wirtschaft Mine
    A. Breithaupt (1837): Bestimmung neuer Mineralien. 3. Lavendulan.- Journal für praktische Chemie 10, 505-506
        • Johanngeorgenstadt District
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Marienberg District
          • Lauta
    Hajek, W. (2010): Kristallwelten Marienberg. Weise Verlag, München.
          • Wolkenstein
    Lapis, Jg 33 (2008), No.9, pag 26-27.
        • Schneeberg District
          • Neustädtel
    J. Gröbner, U. Kolitsch: Lapis 30(7/8):71-73 (2005)
    • Thuringia
      • Saalfeld
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
    LAPIS 24 (7/8) 1999; Wendel, W. and Markl, G. (1999) Lavrion: Mineralogische Klassiker und Raritäten für Sammler. LAPIS 24 (7/8):34-52
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
    Elbin, K. & Wendel, W. (1996): Lavendulan aus Lavrion. Lapis, 21 (11), 42-43; 62; Hanke, H. (1998): Laurion - ein Rückblick auf die Funde der letzten drei Jahre. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (2), 37-45.
              • Hilarion area
    Elbin, K. and Wendel, W. (1996): Lavendulan aus Laurion. lapis: 21(11): 42-43.
    Simone Citon specimen
          • Plaka
            • Villia
    Lapis, 28/5 (May 2003)
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
          • Vrissaki area
    No reference listed
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Rudabányai Mtns
        • Rudabánya
    Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
    Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
    • Fejér Co.
      • Velencei Mtns
        • Lovasberény
          • Meleg Hill
    HOM Collection,Szakáll S.,2010
    Iran
     
    • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
      • Nain County (Nayin County)
        • Anarak District
    Collection of NHM, Vienna
    No reference listed
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Kerry
      • Killarney
    S. MORETON, P. DAVIDSON, D. I. GREEN and G. RYBACK (1999) Unusual Supergene Minerals at Muckross Mine, Killarney, Co. Kerry. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences 17:19-24
    • Co. Mayo
    S. Burchmore Collection
    • Co. Tipperary
      • Monard
    • Co. Waterford
    No reference listed
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Ne
    [MinRec 32:360]
            • Reppia
    Redazione (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia Ferrania Club, 19, 3-5.
      • La Spezia Province
        • Rocchetta Vara
    Balestra C. (preliminary EDS analysis)
      • Savona Province
        • Murialdo
          • Pastori
    M.E. Ciriotti Probed 2005
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Fluminimaggiore
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 192 pp.
      • Medio Campidano Province
        • Furtei
    Sergio Mascia finding
        • Gonnosfanadiga
          • Fenugu Sibiri Mine
    Brizzi, G., Olmi, F., Sabelli, C. (1994): Gli arseniati di Pira Inferida, Gonnofanadiga (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1994, 193-206.
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 239 pp.
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 2°, 239 pp.
    • Tuscany
      • Massa-Carrara Province
        • Apuan Alps
    Orlandi P., Franzini M., 1994. I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Amilcare Pizzi S.p.A., Milano. ; Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
          • Massa
    Olmi F., Orlandi P., Passarino G.(1994) : Mushistonite e lavendulano di Carrara. Riv. Min. Ital., 4, 348-350. ; Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009). Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Djebel Saghro (Jbel Saghro)
          • Imiter District
    Barral, J.-P., Favreau, G. and Lheur, C. (2008). La mine d'argent d'Imiter (Maroc) - Géologie, histoire exploitation et description des espèces minérales. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 3/2008, 1-110. (in French)
        • Tazenakht
          • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
            • Aghbar
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Agoudal
    Tomasz Praszkier (2010) Lapis, 35, #11, 29-31.
            • Bou Azer
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Ightem
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Khder
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Méchoui
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Oumlil
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
            • Tamdrost
    Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
    Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
    Portugal
     
    • Aveiro District
      • Albergaria-a-Velha
        • Branca
    Marques de Sá, J. & Leal Gomes, C. (2010): Les mines de cuivre et nickel de Palhal et Telhadela, Albergaria-a-Velha, Aveiro, Portugal. Le Règne Minéral, 92, 36-47.
    South Africa
     
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Delmas
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Almería
        • Huércal-Overa
          • Cuesta Alta
            • Cerro Minado Mines
    FAVREAU et al. (2013)
        • Níjar
          • Rodalquilar
            • Cerro de los Guardias
    Christiane & Jean-Robert EYTIER collection
    S.Rust collection
    • Aragón
      • Zaragoza
        • Alpartir
    Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames,Zaragoza. 463 pags.
    • Catalonia
      • Lleida (Lérida)
        • El Pallars Jussà
          • La Torre de Cabdella
            • La Plana de Mont-ros
              • Castell-estaó
    Joan Abella i Creus and Joan Viñals i Olià (2012) NUEVOS MINERALES DE LA “MINA EUREKA”: METAMUNIRITA, SCHRÖCKINGERITA, BOLTWOODITA Y GORDAITA, CASTELL-ESTAÓ, LA TORRE DE CABDELLA, LLEIDA, ESPAÑA. - http://mineralsabella.blogspot.com.es/2012/06/nuevos-minerales-de-la-mina-eureka.html
      • Tarragona
        • Conca de Barberà
          • Vimbodí
    Viñals, J.,Bareche,E.y Coca, J. (1990) Mines de Catalunya, Vimbodí (II).Mineralogistes de Catalunya, 4, 213-227.
    • Murcia
      • Lorca
        • Ramonete
    MinRec-2003-0708-315
      • Mazarrón-Águilas
        • Pastrana
    Lapis 2002(11), 29
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Sion (Sitten)
        • Granges
    Le Règne Minéral, 44, p15-21
      • Turtmann Valley
        • Blüomatttälli
    Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Agnes District
          • Perranzabuloe
            • Cligga Head
    [Golley & Williams, 1995, 37 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
    Steve Rust collection
    [Journal of the Russell Society, 6(1), 17-26 (1995)]
        • Wadebridge District
          • St Minver
            • Polzeath
    [Golley & Williams, 1995, 37 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Caldbeck Fells
    Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
      • Devon
        • East Devon
          • Budleigh Salterton
    Minerals of the World MSN community messageboard; R. S. W. Braithwaite and J. R. Knight (1990) Rare Minerals, Including Several New to Britain, in Supergene Alteration of U-Cu-As-Bi-Co Mineralisation Near Dalbeattie, South Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine 54:129-131.; Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
      • Leicestershire
        • Leicester
    BMS Database
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Kirkcudbrightshire)
        • Dalbeattie
    BMS Database
    BMS Database
        • Needle's Eye
    BMS Database; R. S. W. Braithwaite and J. R. Knight (1990) Rare Minerals, Including Several New to Britain, in Supergene Alteration of U-Cu-As-Bi-Co Mineralisation Near Dalbeattie, South Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine 54:129-131.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
                • Tiger Wash
    Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
    • Michigan
      • Keweenaw Co.
        • Mohawk
    [Mineralogical Record - Vol 23 No. 2]
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Table Mountain District
          • Cottonwood Canyon
            • Bolivia
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Truckee District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
        • Weepah District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Silver King District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Nye Co.
        • Lodi District
          • Quartz Mountain camp
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Rocks & Minerals (2010) 85:512-524
      • Pershing Co.
        • Antelope District
    Jensen, M. (1993): Update on the mineralogy of the Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County. Mineralogical Record. 24, 171-180.
    Jensen, M. (1993): Update on the mineralogy of the Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County. Mineralogical Record. 24, 171-180.
    • Utah
      • Juab Co.
        • East Tintic Mts
          • Tintic District
            • Mammoth
    Collected by Brent Thorne
      • San Juan Co.
        • Big Indian District (Big Indian Wash - Lisbon Valley Area)
    Min News 10:12 p5
      • Tooele Co.
        • Deep Creek Mts
          • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
            • Gold Hill
              • Gold Hill Mine (Western Utah Mine)
    collected by Brent Thorne; Min Rec 24:1 pp11-22 (mine in general).
    Collected by Robert Meyer.
    Min Rec 24:1 pp11-22
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Mashonaland West
      • Kadoma District
    Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.
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