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Lead

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Formula:
Pb
System:
Isometric
Colour:
grey, but often coated ...
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Member of:
Name:
Named plumbum nigrum by Pliny the Elder, but the name was for the chemical element and not a mineral. Native lead was probably first discovered in the Långban District in the late nineteenth century and was named for chemical element.
Native lead is rare; lead is far more commonly found and mined as the lead sulphide mineral galena. The Romans named the refined metal 'plumbum' and used it for pipes in plumbing. Its major use today is in lead acid batteries and for radiation shields. It is also a constituent of low-melting alloys. Native lead is somewhat ductile and very malleable.

Classification of Lead

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.1.21.1
1.1.1.4

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
1.30

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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Occurrences of Lead

Geological Setting:
hydrothermal; also in placers, authigenic, replacing tree roots.

Physical Properties of Lead

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
grey, but often coated with white Hydrocerrusite
Streak:
grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Malleable
Cleavage:
None Observed
none, malleable
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
11.37 g/cm3 (Measured)    11.341 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Lead

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.9506Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 121.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Commonly as rounded masses and plates up to 60kg. Also wiry and dendritic forms. Octahedral, cubic and dodecahedral crystals up to 6 cm in size are rare.
Twinning:
Herring bone twins at 60 degrees {111}

Crystallographic forms of Lead

Crystal Atlas:
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Lead no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Lead no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Optical Data of Lead

Type:
Isotropic
Internal Reflections:
none
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Lead

Formula:
Pb
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Empirical Formula:
Pb

Relationship of Lead to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
1.AA.05AluminiumAl
1.AA.05CopperCu
1.AA.05Electrum(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05GoldAu
1.AA.05NickelNi
1.AA.05SilverAg
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCuAu3Cu
1.AA.10aAuricuprideCu3Au
1.AA.10bTetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.AA.10aCuproaurideCu3Au
1.AA.15AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.AA.15Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.AA.15IodineI2
1.AA.15NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZnZnAl2
1.AA.20Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.AA.25HunchuniteAu2Pb
1.1CopperCu
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24DiamondC
1.25GraphiteC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.27LonsdaleiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.31AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.33ArsenicAs
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.41AntimonySb
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Lead

Name in Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Lood
Arabic:رصاص
Armenian:Կապար
Basque:Berun
Belarusian:Свінец
Bengali:সীসা
Bosnian (Latin Script):Olovo
Catalan:Plom
Corsican:Piombu
Croatian:Olovo
Czech:Olovo
Danish:Bly
Dutch:Lood
Esperanto:Plumbo
Estonian:Plii
Finnish:Lyijy
French:Plomb
Friulian:Plomp
Galician:Chumbo
Haitian:Plon
Hebrew:עופרת
Hungarian:Ólom
Icelandic:Blý
Ido:Plombo
Indonesian:Timbal
Irish Gaelic:Luaidhe
Italian:Piombo
Japanese:自然鉛
Korean:
Kurdish (Latin Script):Sirb
Latin:Plumbum
Latvian:Svins
Lithuanian:Švinas
Lojban:cnisa
Low Saxon:Blie
Luxembourgish:Bläi
Maori:Matā
Marathi:शिसे
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Хартугалга
Nahuatl:Temētztli
Norwegian (Bokmål):Bly
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Bly
Occitan:Plomb
Persian:سرب
Polish:Ołów
Portuguese:Chumbo
Quechua:Titi
Ripuarian:Blëij
Romanian:Plumb
Russian:Свинец
Scots:Leid
Serbo-Croatian:Olovo
Sicilian:Chiummu
Simplified Chinese:自然铅
Slovak:Olovo
Slovenian:Svinec
Spanish:Plomo
Swahili:Risasi
Swedish:Bly
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Сурб
Traditional Chinese:自然鉛
Turkish:Kurşun
Ukrainian:Свинець
Vietnamese:Chì
Welsh:Plwm
Yiddish:בליי

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Lead

Reference List:
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 102-103.

Vesselin M. Dekov, Ulf Hålenius, Kjell Billström, George D. Kamenov, Frans Munnik, Lars Eriksson, Alan Dyer, Mark Schmidt and Reiner Botz (2009): Native Sn–Pb droplets in a zeolitic amygdale (Isle of Mull, Inner Hebrides). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 2907-2919.

Internet Links for Lead

Specimens:
The following Lead specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Lead

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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