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Lead

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Formula:
Pb
System:IsometricColour:grey, but often coated ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:
Member of:Copper Group
Name:Named plumbum nigrum by Pliny the Elder, but the name was for the chemical element and not a mineral. Native lead was probably first discovered in the Långban District in the late nineteenth century and was named for chemical element.


Native lead is rare; lead is far more commonly found and mined as the lead sulphide mineral galena. The Romans named the refined metal 'plumbum' and used it for pipes in plumbing. Its major use today is in lead acid batteries and for radiation shields. It is also a constituent of low-melting alloys. Native lead is somewhat ductile and very malleable.

Classification of Lead

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/A.05-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th edition ID:1.1.21.1
Dana 8th edition ID:1.1.1.4

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.30

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-2358.html
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Occurrences of Lead

Geological Setting:hydrothermal; also in placers, authigenic, replacing tree roots.

Physical Properties of Lead

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:grey, but often coated with white Hydrocerrusite
Streak:grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Malleable
Cleavage:None Observed
none, malleable
Fracture:Hackly
Density (measured):11.37 g/cm3
Density (calculated):11.341 g/cm3

Crystallography of Lead

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fm3m {F4/m 3 2/m}
Cell Parameters:a = 4.9506Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 121.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Commonly as rounded masses and plates up to 60kg. Also wiry and dendritic forms. Octahedral, cubic and dodecahedral crystals up to 6 cm in size are rare.
Twinning:Herring bone twins at 60 degrees {111}
Crystal Atlas:
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Lead no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Lead no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Lead

Type:Isotropic
Internal Reflections:none
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Lead

Formula:
Pb
Essential elements:Pb
All elements listed in formula:Pb
Empirical Formula:
Pb

Relationship of Lead to other Species

Member of:Copper Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.AA.05Aluminium
Al
1.AA.05Copper
Cu
1.AA.05Electrum
(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05Gold
Au
1.AA.05Nickel
Ni
1.AA.05Silver
Ag
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd
(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCu
Au
 
3
Cu
1.AA.10aAuricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.AA.10bTetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.AA.10aCuproauride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.AA.15Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.AA.15Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.AA.15Iodine
I
 
2
1.AA.15Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZn
ZnAl
 
2
1.AA.20Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.AA.25Hunchunite
Au
 
2
Pb
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Lead

Synonyms:
AabamLoadNative Lead
Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Lood
Arabic:رصاص
Armenian:Կապար
Azeri:Qurğuşun
Basque:Berun
Belarusian:Свінец
Bengali:সীসা
Bosnian (Latin Script):Olovo
Catalan:Plom
Chuvash:Хура тăхлан
Corsican:Piombu
Croatian:Olovo
Czech:Olovo
Danish:Bly
Dutch:Lood
Esperanto:Plumbo
Estonian:Plii
Finnish:Lyijy
French:Plomb
Friulian:Plomp
Galician:Chumbo
Georgian:ტყვია
German:Blei
Gediegen Blei
Greek:Μόλυβδος
Haitian:Plon
Hebrew:עופרת
Hungarian:Ólom
Icelandic:Blý
Ido:Plombo
Indonesian:Timbal
Irish Gaelic:Luaidhe
Italian:Piombo
Japanese:自然鉛
Korean:
Kurdish (Latin Script):Sirb
Latin:Plumbum
Latvian:Svins
Lithuanian:Švinas
Lojban:cnisa
Low Saxon:Blie
Luxembourgish:Bläi
Maori:Matā
Marathi:शिसे
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Хартугалга
Nahuatl:Temētztli
Norwegian (Bokmål):Bly
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Bly
Occitan:Plomb
Persian:سرب
Polish:Ołów
Portuguese:Chumbo
Quechua:Titi
Ripuarian:Blëij
Romanian:Plumb
Russian:Свинец
Sanskrit:सीसम्
Scots:Leid
Serbo-Croatian:Olovo
Sicilian:Chiummu
Simplified Chinese:自然铅
Slovak:Olovo
Slovenian:Svinec
Spanish:Plomo
Swahili:Risasi
Swedish:Bly
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Сурб
Telugu:సీసము
Thai:ตะกั่ว
Traditional Chinese:自然鉛
Turkish:Kurşun
Ukrainian:Свинець
Urdu:رصاص
Vietnamese:Chì
Welsh:Plwm
Yiddish:בליי

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Lead

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 102-103.

Vesselin M. Dekov, Ulf Hålenius, Kjell Billström, George D. Kamenov, Frans Munnik, Lars Eriksson, Alan Dyer, Mark Schmidt and Reiner Botz (2009): Native Sn–Pb droplets in a zeolitic amygdale (Isle of Mull, Inner Hebrides). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 2907-2919.

Internet Links for Lead

Search Engines:
  • Look for Lead on Google
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Lead on Webmineral
  • Look for Lead on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Lead on Wikipedia
  • Look for Lead on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Lead details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
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  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Find Lead on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Search for Lead on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Specimens:The following Lead specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Lead

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Jujuy
      • Humahuaca Department
        • Aguilar district
    Econ Geol (1992) 87:2085-2112
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
    • Salta
      • Iruya
    Brodtkorb, Milka K. de (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la República Argentina. Tomo I. (Asociación Mineralógica Argentina)
    Atlantic Ocean
     
    • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
      • Sierra Leone fracture zone
        • Markov Deep
    Sharkov, E.V., Abramov, S.S., Simonov, V.A., Krinov, D.I., Skolotnev, S.G., Bel’tenev, V.E., and Bortnikov, N.S. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(6), 467-486.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    Birch BH Book
    • South Australia
      • Flinders Ranges
        • North Flinders Ranges
          • Paralana High Plains
    Wuelser-Pierre-Alain; Lahaye-Yann; Brugger-Joel 2004. Mineralogy and zircon geochemistry of uranium sedimentary-hosted Beverley Deposit (Lake Frome Embayment, Curnamona Province, South Australia), McGoldrick-Peter (editor) Abstracts - Geological Society of Australia. 73; Pages 138. 2004.
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
          • Callington
    SARIG Mineral Deposit Information, Site No: 240009, Deposit No: 1588
    SARIG Mineral Deposit Information, Site No: 239430, Deposit No: 1478
          • Fleurieu Peninsula
            • Carrickalinga
    https://egate.pir.sa.gov.au/minerals/new/pages/DepositCommodities/show?DEPOSIT_NAME=BARRITTS+MINE&MINERAL_DEPOSIT_NO=7371
    • Tasmania
      • Avoca-Royal George district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Rosebery district
        • Rosebery
      • Zeehan district
        • Zeehan mineral field
          • Tasmanian Smelting Company site
    M Latham collection
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
    Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
        • St Martin am Silberberg
    Blaß, G., Graf, H.-W. & Pichler, A. (1997): Sekundäre Neubildungen in Schlacken von St. Martin am Silberberg in Kärnten (1). Mineralien-Welt, 8(5), 42-45.
      • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
        • Bleiberg District
          • Mittewald
    A.Pichler (2003)
        • Kötschach-Mauthen
          • Dellach
            • Jaukenhöhe
              • Plonalmlacke
    Pichler (2009)
      • Völkermarkt
        • Bleiburg
          • Feistritz
    Bergbau in Osttkärnten (Pichler 2003)
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Rauris valley
          • Hüttwinkl valley
            • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
              • Kolm-Saigurn
    A. Strasser: Die MInerale Salzburgs (1989)
    Niedermayr, G. & Wittern, A. (2009): Mineralreiches Österreich - Tirol, Salzburg, Vorarlberg. Bode Verlag, Haltern, 144 pp.
    • Styria
      • Niedere Tauern
        • Öblarn
          • Walchen
    [Lapis 1992: 2 p.19-30]
    • Upper Austria
      • Kirchdorf an der Krems
    - O.M.Friedrich, in: Zur Erzlagerstättenkarte der Ostalpen (mit Karte 1:500.000). Radex - Rundschau, 7 / 8, Radenthein 1953, Seite 371 – 407.
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
          • Plombières (Bleyberg)
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Limburg Province
      • Dilsen-Stokkem
    • Namur Province
      • Andenne
    No reference listed
    Brazil
     
    • Amazonas
      • Presidente Figueiredo
        • Pitinga mine
    A. C. Bastos Neto, V. P. Pereira, L. H. Ronchi, E. F. de Lima and J. C. Frantz (2009): The world-class Sn, Nb, Ta, F (Y, REE, Li) deposit and the massive cryolite associated with the albite-enriched facies of the Madeira A-type granite, Pitinga mining district, Amazonas State, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 47, 1329-1357.
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Lac-du-Bonnet area
        • Bernic Lake
    Canadian Mineralogist (1980): 18: 313-321
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Newfoundland
        • Baie Verte Peninsula
    Christian Bracke Collection
    • Northwest Territories
      • Mackenzie District
        • Yellowknife
    COLEMAN, L.C. (1953) Mineralogy of the Yellowknife Bay are, N.W.T. American Mineralogist 38, 506-527.
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
    • Yukon Territory
      • Dawson Mining District
        • Klondike Area (Klondyke District; Klondike District)
          • Indian River Drainage
            • Dominion Creek Drainage
    Mark Mauthner specimens and analyses.
      • Mayo Mining District
    Boyle, R. W. (1976): Native lead at Keno Hill, Yukon. Can. Mineral. 14, 577.
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Gannan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Maqu Co.
    Guanghong Wang, Xianrong Luo, Qian Gao, Ming Liang, and Xiaoyu Dou (2009): Geology and Exploration 45(4), 450-455
    • Guizhou Province
      • Zunyi Prefecture
        • Zunyi Co.
    Kehua Yin (2009): Geology and Prospecting 45(3), 273-279
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Luan River valley (Luanhe valley)
    Shao Dianxin, Zhou Jianxiong, Zhang Jianhong, and Bao Daxi (1984): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 4, 97-101.
    • Henan Province
      • Nanyang Prefecture
        • Tongbai Co.
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
          • Weishancheng ore field
    Diankai Chen and Danshen Zhou (1984): Mineral Deposits 3(1), 37-46
    Diankai Chen and Danshen Zhou (1984): Mineral Deposits 3(1), 37-46
      • Pingdingshan Prefecture
        • Wugang Co.
          • Wugang Fe ore field
            • Batai Mine
    Xingjie Jia, Huaiqian Li, and Honglu Zheng (2012): Gold Science and Technology 20(2), 25-31
      • Sanmenxia Prefecture
        • Lingbao Co.
    Shuzhang Tian, Jingyu Chen, and Xiumei Li (1994): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 14(3), 241-246
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Jiujiang Prefecture
        • De'an Co.
    Xilin Liu (1991): Geology of Jiangxi 5(3), 203-211
    • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Yanbian Chaoxianzu Autonomous Prefecture
        • Hunchun Co.
          • Shajin Mine
    Extra Lapis English No. 5 Gold
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Chaoyang Prefecture
        • Jianping Co.
    Liyan Zhang (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(8), 34-39
    • Qinghai Province
      • Golog Autonomous Prefecture (Guoluo Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Maqên Co.
          • Dur'ngoi Ophiolite
    Duan Guolian (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(2), 20-24; Guolian Duan (1998): Geology of Chemical Minerals 20(4), 287-294
    • Shandong Province
      • Laiwu Prefecture
        • Gangcheng District
    Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
        • Laicheng District
    Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
      • Linyi Prefecture
        • Yimeng Mtns (Yimeng Shan)
          • Mengyin Co.
            • Mengyin Kimberlite field
              • Changma Kimberlite belt
                • Wangcun deposit
    Gorshkov, A.I., Titkov, S.V., Yan Nan Bao, Ryabchikov, I.D., and Magazina, L.O. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 326-334.
      • Tai'an Prefecture
        • Daiyue District
    Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
    • Shanxi Province
      • Xinzhou Prefecture
        • Yuanping Co.
    http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-220/DATABASE/lode_deposits.txt
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Yanyuan Co.
    Lizhu Li, Zhigang Zhao, Jinliang He, and Zexiang Yang (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(3), 269-280
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
    Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Changji Autonomous Prefecture (Sanji Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Manasi Co. (Manas Co.)
    Jianxun Bai (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(12), 24-27
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
          • Huangshan-Jing'erquan ore belt
    Xiangcheng Bao (1994): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 15(1), 53-57
      • Kezilesu Autonomous Prefecture (Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture; Qizilsu Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Wuqia Co. (Ulugqat Co.; Ulughchat Co.)
    Minghua Zheng, Jiajun Liu, Shouting Zhang, and Xunrong Long (2002): Geology and Resources 11(3), 140-146
    • Yunnan Province
      • Honghe Autonomous Prefecture
        • Mengzi Co.
    Xinpei Jiang (1994): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 13(5), 278-284
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
          • Poličany
            • Vrchlice river valley
    Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
        • Příbram
    RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Trutnov (Trautenau)
          • Radvanice
    Žáček, V., Ondruš, P.: Mineralogy of recently formed sublimates from Kateřina colliery in Radvanice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech geological survey, 1998, vol. 73, no. 2, s. 289-302.
    Ethiopia
     
    • Benshangul-Gumaz Province
      • Asosa region (Assosa region)
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
      • Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au ore field
    Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.
    • Lapland Region
      • Kittilä
    Eilu, P. (2003). Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003. Rovaniemi, Finland
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Orivesi
    Economic Geology (1996) 91:1335-1353
      • Sastamala
        • Suodenniemi
    Knauf, V., Sandberg, E., Sokolov, P. and Tabuns, E. 2000. Gold geochemistry and mineralogy of till. A new approach for data integration. bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland Volume 72 (1-2) 57-69.
    France
     
    • Brittany
      • Finistère
        • Poullaouen
    Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Lozère
        • Pont-de-Montvert
          • Vialas
    No reference listed
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Loire
        • La Pacaudière
          • Le Crozet
    Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 55(1), 9-22. ; Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    Gabon
     
    • Haut-Ogooué Province
      • Franceville
    Régis Mathieu, Lena Zetterström, Michel Cuney, François Gauthier-Lafaye, Hiroshi Hidaka, Alteration of monazite and zircon and lead migration as geochemical tracers of fluid paleocirculations around the Oklo–Okélobondo and Bangombé natural nuclear reaction zones (Franceville basin, Gabon), Chemical Geology, Volume 171, Issues 3–4, 1 January 2001, Pages 147-171
    Janusz Janeczek (1999) Mineralogy and geochemistry of natural fission reactors in Gabon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, MSA, v. 38, p. 321-392
    Georgia
    Am.Min. 66,439(1981)
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Lahr
          • Reichenbach
            • Weiler
    Walenta, K. & Wimmenauer, W. (1961): Der Mineralbestand des Michaelganges im Weiler bei Lahr (Schwarzwald). Jh. Geol. Landesamt Baden-Württemberg, 4, 7-37.; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • St Andreasberg District
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Eschweiler
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1993): Neue Funde. Mineralien-Welt, 4 (2), 57-60.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District slag localities
          • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
    No reference listed
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
    No reference listed
          • Oxygon area
    No reference listed
          • Panormos area
    No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
    No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    • Peloponnese Department (Peloponnisos)
      • Lakonia Prefecture (Laconia)
        • Molaoi
    M. Grossou-Valta, K. Adam, D. C. Constantinides, J. M. Prevosteau, E. Dimou (1990): Mineralogy of and potential beneficiation process for the Molai complex sulphide orebody, Greece. In: P. M. J. Gray, G. J. Bowyer, J. F. Castle, D. J. Vaughan, N. A. Warner (Eds.): Sulphide deposits — their origin and processing, 1990, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 119-133.
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    [Mineralogical Record - Vol 24 No 2]; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    • Qaasuitsup
      • Qeqertarsuaq Island (Disko Island)
    Ulff-Møller, F. (1985): Solidification History of the KitdlÎt Lens: Immiscible Metal and Sulphide Liquids from a Basaltic Dyke on Disko, Central West Greenland Journal of Petrology. 26,64-91.
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Vercelli Province
        • Sesia Valley
    Luigi Chiappino data
    • Sardinia
      • Oristano Province
        • Mt. Arci
          • Pau
    Urraci E.- Lini M. – Mattias P. (2006) - Il piombo naturale di Pau e gli altri minerali dell'area del rilievo vulcanico di M. Arci (Oristano, Sardegna Centrale) – Con la Collaborazione di Fabio Bellatreccia – Pubblicazione a cura del Comune di Pau (OR)
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Lagorai Group
          • Telve
    Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
    http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
          • Sassetta
    Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
        • Piombino
    Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    Luigi Chiappino data
    • Veneto
      • Vicenza Province
        • Torrebelvicino
          • Mercanti Valley
    Pegoraro S., Orlandi P., Chiereghin P., Contin.A. and Toniolo E. (2009): I minerali del Monte Trisa, Torrebelvicino, Vicenza. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, No. 3, 160-179
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Southern Kazakhstan Province (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan Oblysy; Yuzhno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Karatau Range
        • Kentau
    United States Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Data
    Kyrgyzstan
     
    • Jalal-Abad Oblast
      • Chatkal Range
        • Kasan ore field
    Sabir K. Mustafin data
    Mexico
     
    • Veracruz
      • Mun. de Las Minas
        • Zomelahuacan
    Panczner (1987): 250.
    Mongolia
     
    • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
      • Altai Mts
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Grootfontein District
        • Kombat
    Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
    Norway
     
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Tvedalen
          • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
    Selbekk, R. S., Husdal, T. A. & Berg, H-J. (2010): Nye mineraler for Norge i 2010. Stein. 37 (4): 24-26; Andresen, P. (2013): Gedigent bly og andre spennende mineraler fra en unik pegmatitt i Tvedalen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 83-87
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Legnica
    Kucha H. 1983: Precious metal-bearing shale from Zechstein copper deposits, Lower Silesia, Poland. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy (Sect. B: Applied Earth Science), 92, 72-79
    Kucha H. 2007: Mineralogia kruszcowa i geochemia ciała rudnego złoża Lubin-Sieroszowice. Biuletyn PIG, vol. 423, pp. 77-94
    • Małopolskie
      • Nowy Targ District
        • Szczawnica
    Wojciechowski J. 1955: O żyłach kruszcowych pod Szczawnicą. Biul. Inst. Geol. 101
    Portugal
     
    • Madeira District
    Bernard, J.H. and Hyrsl, J. (2004) Minerals and their Localities.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Bodaibo
            • Lena Gold District
              • Kropotkinsky ore cluster
    Keren Tan (1998): Gold Science and Technology 6(4), 29-37
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
        • Vilyui River Basin (Vilui River Basin; Wilui River Basin)
          • Lower Khann'ya River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
    P.M. Karashov data
          • Orlovskoye
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
        • Kolyma area
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Baimka River
              • Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst)
    American Mineralogist, Volume 83, pages 901–906, 1998
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Bezymyannyi Volcano
    No reference listed
    No reference listed
      • Magadanskaya Oblast'
        • Kolyma River Basin
          • Ducat District
            • Omsukchan
              • Ducat ore field
    No reference listed
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Khanka Lake
    V.V. Seredin data
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Ladoga Region
          • Pitkyaranta District (Pitkäranta District)
    V. I. Ivashchenko, O. B. Lavrov, K. Sundblad and A. N. Toritsin (2007) Au-Ag-Bi-Te-Se vein mineralization at Roikonkoski, Karelia, northern Lake Ladoga region. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53 pp 51-56
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages; Krivovichev, S.V., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Mikhailova, J.A., Men’shikov, Yu.P., Armbruster, Th., Selivanova, E.A., Meisser, N. (2007): Yakovenchukite-(Y), K3NaCaY2(Si12O30)(H2O)4, a new mineral from the Khibiny massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: A novel type of octahedral-tetrahedral open-framework structure. American Mineralogist, 92, 1525-1530.
              • Kirovskii apatite mine (Kirovsky Mine; Kirovskii Mine; Kirov Mine)
    American Mineralogist, Volume 92, pages 1525-1530, 2007
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Karabash (Karabasch)
            • Soimon Valley
    http://maurice.strahlen.org/ural/srednji.htm; Bryzgalov, I. A., Krivitskaya, N. N., & Spiridonov, E. M. (2007, November). First finding of nisbite and aurostibite in the eastern Transbaikal region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 417, No. 1, pp. 1265-1267). MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica.
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
    M.I. Novgorodova Doklady AN SSSR, 1979, v.248, N4, pp.965-968
    Slovenia
     
    • Litija (Littai)
    NTF collection
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Hedemora
        • Garpenberg
    Grensman, F., Kalinowski, M.P. and Sandström, F. (2001): Garpenberg Norra. Litofilen. 18 (2), 26-46.
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Damman, A. H & Kieft, C. (1990): W-MO polymettallic mineralization and associated calc-silicate assemblages in the Gåsborn area, West Bergslagen, Central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 28, 17-36
    Damman, A. H & Lustenhouwer, W. (1991): Native lead and tin from the Gåsborn area, Filipstad, Sweden. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 113, 35-37
    Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
    Adolfsson, S. G. (1979): Notes on Recent Underground Collecting at Långban. Mineralogical Record. 10: 215-217
    Adolfsson, S. G. (1979): Notes on Recent Underground Collecting at Långban. Mineralogical Record. 10: 215-217
    Rock Currier
        • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
    Kjell Gatedal
    Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407
        • Persberg district
          • Pajsberg
    Hamberg, A. (1888): Om kristalliseradt bly från Harstigsgrufvan vid Pajsberg i Värmland. Översigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 1888. 45, 483-490 Dana 7: I: 103; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 726, 857.
    No reference listed
    • Västmanland
      • Hällefors
        • Grythyttan
    No reference listed
    The Moon
     
    • Mare Fecunditatis
    Mokhov A.V., Kartashov P.M., Bogatikov O.A. (2007) Moon under a microscope, - Moscow, Nauka, p.128 (in Rus.).; Mokhov, A.V., Kartashov, P.M., Bogatikov, O.A. (2007) Moon under a microscope, - Moscow, Nauka, p.128 (in Russian).
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Balkan Province
      • Cheleken Peninsula
    Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
    U.S. Virgin Islands
    Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
    Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
    UK
     
    • England
      • Co. Durham
        • North Pennines
          • Weardale
    Norman Wilson; Personal collection; Norman Wilson personal collection
      • Cornwall
        • St Agnes District
          • Crantock
    BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Devon
        • South Devon
    [Collected by Dr. K. Banister]
          • Torquay
    [Camm, 1995, 71 - "Gold in the Counties of Cornwall and Devon"]
    • Scotland
      • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
        • Isle of Mull
          • Carsaig
    Vesselin M. Dekov, Ulf Hålenius, Kjell Billström, George D. Kamenov, Frans Munnik, Lars Eriksson, Alan Dyer, Mark Schmidt and Reiner Botz (2009): Native Sn–Pb droplets in a zeolitic amygdale (Isle of Mull, Inner Hebrides). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 2907-2919.
    • Wales
      • Gwynedd (Merionethshire)
        • Dolgellau Gold Belt
          • Bontddu
    Natiom
      • Powys (Montgomeryshire)
        • Llanidloes
          • Van Mine
    J. Russell Smith, London, (1872) Collections Historical & Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire, Volume 5
    J. Russell Smith, London, (1872) Collections Historical & Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire, Volume 5
    Ukraine
     
    • Kirovohrad Oblast' (Kirovohrads'ka Oblast')
    Alexander Babynin & Eugenia Slivko (1999) Gold Deposits in the Lower Proterozoic Gneiss Complexes of the Ukrainian Shield. Journal of Conference Abstracts EUG 10 Volume 4 Number 1
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Southeast Fairbanks Borough
        • Fortymile District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
      • Valdez-Cordova Borough
        • Prince William Sound District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 273.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 273.
        • Wickenburg Mts
          • San Domingo District
            • San Domingo Wash
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 273.
      • Santa Cruz Co.
        • Patagonia Mts
          • Harshaw District
    Wilson, E.D. (1927), AZ Gold Placers, 2nd.ed. (revised), Univ. AZ Bull. 124: 55-56; AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 135 (1933), AZ Gold Placers & Palcering: 78.
            • Patagonia
    Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 59 (Table 4); Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mts, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 279.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 273.
      • Yavapai Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 273.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 273.
    • Colorado
      • Hinsdale Co.
        • Lake City District (Lake District)
          • Lake City
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Lake Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Summit Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Idaho
      • Blaine Co.
    R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
        • Wood River District
    Dana 7:I:103,518.
      • Shoshone Co.
        • Coeur d'Alene District
          • Canyon Creek
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    • Missouri
    Yale Peabody Museum 174
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Palache(1935):26; Dunn(1995):Pt4:522.
    FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
    Palache(1935):26; Dunn(1995):Pt4:522.
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Sierra Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
      • Socorro Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Josiah Turner,1875,Minerals of North Carolina,Appendix C to Kerr,W.C,Report Geological Survey of North Carolina,Raleigh
    • Texas
      • Presidio Co.
        • Shafter District
    BEG Min Res Circ 71
    • Virginia
      • Amelia Co.
        • Winterham
    Rocks & Minerals 79:4 p 256
      • Buckingham Co.
        • Gold-Pyrite Belt
          • Bremo Bluff
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Venezuela
     
    • Bolívar
      • Sifontes
    Bernard, J.H. and Hyrsl, J. (2004) Minerals and their Localities.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
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