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Leadhillite

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Formula:
Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless to white, ...
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous, Pearly
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named in 1832 after the Type Locality, Susanna mine, Leadhills, Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Polymorph of:
The monoclinic dimorph of susannite.

A lead sulphate carbonate closely related to susannite and macphersonite. Typically found as small to microscopic clear to white tabular pseudohexagonal crystals (trillings). Tabular forms of susannite are very similar.

Heating leadhillite causes it to reversibly transform into susannite in the temperature range from 50 to 82°C (Bindi & Menchetti 2005).

Classification of Leadhillite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5.BF.40

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
F : With (Cl), SO4, PO4, TeO3
Dana 7th ed.:
17.1.2.1
17.1.2.1

17 : COMPOUND CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
12.2.11

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Leadhillite

Year of Discovery:
1832

Occurrences of Leadhillite

Geological Setting:
Leadhillite is a secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of lead mineral deposits.

Physical Properties of Leadhillite

Adamantine, Resinous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless to white, grey, yellowish, pale green to blue; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {001} and easy.
Parting:
Translation gliding on {001}, as well as twin gliding with K1(340), σ2[140]; K2(34¯0), σ1[140].
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
6.55 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.57 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Leadhillite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Space Group Setting:
P21/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.11Å, b = 20.82Å, c = 11.59Å
β = 90.46°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.438 : 1 : 0.557
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2198.21 ų
Z:
8
Morphology:
Usually as thin to thick tabular pseudohexagonal crystals, {001} with hexagonal outline; several rhombohedral and pyramidal forms common; also prismatic parallel to [001], or equant or granular. When [101] is developed the faces may show striations, or be curved.
Twinning:
Commonly twinned on {140}; as lamellar twins with the composition plane parallel to {142} or {340}; as aragonite-type contact twins; as penetration twins; with other twin laws producing pseudohexagonal groupings.
Comment:
Pseudohexagonal.

Crystallographic forms of Leadhillite

Crystal Atlas:
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Leadhillite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Leadhillite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
11.6 (60)
6.78 (30)
3.57 (100)
2.94 (70)
2.89 (60)
2.62 (60)
2.11 (60)
2.06 (60)
1.554 (60)
Comments:
The 6.78 (30) line distinguishes leadhillite from susannite.

Optical Data of Leadhillite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.870 nβ = 2.009 nγ = 2.010
2V:
Measured: 10° , Calculated: 10°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.140
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Leadhillite

Formula:
Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Leadhillite to other Species

5.BF.05FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)
5.BF.05ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)
5.BF.05NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2Cl
5.BF.05TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
5.BF.10BonshtedtiteNa3Fe2+(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.10BradleyiteNa3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.10CrawforditeNa3Sr(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.10SidorenkiteNa3Mn2+(CO3)(PO4)
5.BF.15Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
5.BF.20Reederite-(Y)(Na,Mn)15Y2(CO3)9(FSO3)Cl
5.BF.25Mineevite-(Y)Na25Ba(Y,Gd,Dy)2(CO3)11(HCO3)4(SO4)2F2Cl
5.BF.30BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
5.BF.35PhilolithitePb12Mn2+(Mg,Mn2+)2(Mn2+,Mg)4(CO3)4(SO4)O6(OH)12Cl4
5.BF.40MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
5.BF.40SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.1BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2
12.2.2HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
12.2.3TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.4MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2O
12.2.5FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.6NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2O
12.2.7CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
12.2.8RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2O
12.2.9TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2O
12.2.10Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
12.2.12MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.13SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
12.2.14WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
12.2.15CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
12.2.16NasledovitePbMn3Al4(CO3)4(SO4)O5 · 5H2O
12.2.17JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4}(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
12.2.18SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
12.2.19ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.20HauckiteFe33+(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81
12.2.21ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.23Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFex3+)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2O
12.2.24CamerolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)

Other Names for Leadhillite

Other Information

Pale yellowish under (SW UV).
Thermal Behaviour:
Heating results in a reversible transformation into susannite. 2E is approximately 20° (2V ~ 10°) at ambient temperature (for Na) and decreases with increasing temperature. It becomes uniaxial negative at about 125° and remains so at higher temperatures.
Other Information:
Soluble in nitric acid with effervescence, rendering a residue of lead sulphate. Exfoliates in hot water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None.

References for Leadhillite

Reference List:
Bournon, Comte de (1817) Catalogue de la collection minéralogique particulière du roi, with atlas in fol., Paris: 343 (as Plomb carbonaté rhomboidal).

Brooke (1820) Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Edinburgh: 3: 117 (as Sulphato-tricarbonate of Lead).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 366.

Dufrénoy, A. (1847) Traité de minéralogie, 1st. Edition, Vol. 3: 152 (as Plomb sulfato-tricarbonaté).

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralien secundum ordines naturals digestorum synopsis. Halle: 256 (as Psimythit).

Koksharov, N. von (1853) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. 11 volumes with atlas: vol. 1: 76 (as Schwefelkohlensaures Blei).

Laspeyres, H. (1872): Ueber die chemische Zusammensetzung des
Maxit. - Journal für Praktische Chemie 5(1):470-476; Weinheim (as Maxite).

Laspeyres (1872) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 407, 508 (as Maxite).

Laspeyres (1873) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 292.

Hintze (1874) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 152: 256.

Laspeyres (1877) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 1: 193.

Artini (1890) Giornale di mineralogia, cristallografia e petrografia, Milan: 1: 1.

Goldschmidt, V. (1890) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes, vol. 2: 301.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 921.

Pirsson and Wells (1894) American Journal of Science: 48: 219.

Mügge (1901) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 14: 259.

Palache, C. and LaForge (1909) Proceedings of the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences: 44: 435.

Palache, C. and LaForge (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 48: 129.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 133.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 99.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4243.

Yosimura (1939) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University: 4: 453.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 295-298.

Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 371-374.

Giuseppetti, G., Mazzi, F. & Tadini, C. (1990): The crystal structure of leadhillite: Pb4(SO4)(CO3)2(OH)2. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1990, 255-268.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 520 (1997).

K. Walenta, U. Kolitsch and T. Gulden (1997): On leadhillite and susannite with special regard to occurrences in the Black Forest. Aufschluss 48 (1), 59-64. (in German)

Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): Structural changes accompanying the phase transformation between leadhillite and susannite: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 90: 1641-1647.

Internet Links for Leadhillite

Specimens:
The following Leadhillite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Leadhillite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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