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Leadhillite

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Formula:
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless to white, ...
Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous, PearlyHardness:2½ - 3
Name:
Named in 1832 after the Type Locality, Susanna mine, Leadhills, Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Polymorph of:Macphersonite, Susannite


The monoclinic dimorph of susannite.

A lead sulphate carbonate closely related to susannite and macphersonite. Typically found as small to microscopic clear to white tabular pseudohexagonal crystals (trillings). Tabular forms of susannite are very similar.

Heating leadhillite causes it to reversibly transform into susannite in the temperature range from 50 to 82°C (Bindi & Menchetti 2005).

Classification of Leadhillite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.13-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.BF.40

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
F : With (Cl), SO4, PO4, TeO3
Dana 7th edition ID:17.1.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID:17.1.2.1

17 : COMPOUND CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:12.2.11

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate
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Type Occurrence of Leadhillite

Type Locality:Susanna Mine (Glennery Scar Vein; Susanna Vein [Scar Vein]; Portobello Vein; Humby Vein; Lead Vein), Leadhills, South Lanarkshire, Strathclyde (Lanarkshire), Scotland, UK
Year of Discovery:1832

Occurrences of Leadhillite

Geological Setting:Leadhillite is a secondary mineral found in the oxidized zones of lead mineral deposits.

Physical Properties of Leadhillite

Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless to white, grey, yellowish, pale green to blue; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2½ - 3
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {001} and easy.
Parting:Translation gliding on {001}, as well as twin gliding with K1(340), σ2[140]; K2(34¯0), σ1[140].
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):6.55 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.57 g/cm3

Crystallography of Leadhillite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b {P1 1 21/b} {P21/c} {P1 21/c 1} {P21/a}
Space Group Setting:P21/a
Cell Parameters:a = 9.11Å, b = 20.82Å, c = 11.59Å
β = 90.46°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.438 : 1 : 0.557
Unit Cell Volume:V 2198.21 ų
Z:8
Morphology:Usually as thin to thick tabular pseudohexagonal crystals, {001} with hexagonal outline; several rhombohedral and pyramidal forms common; also prismatic parallel to [001], or equant or granular. When [101] is developed the faces may show striations, or be curved.
Twinning:Commonly twinned on {140}; as lamellar twins with the composition plane parallel to {142} or {340}; as aragonite-type contact twins; as penetration twins; with other twin laws producing pseudohexagonal groupings.
Comment:Pseudohexagonal.
Crystal Atlas:
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Leadhillite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Leadhillite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
11.6 (60)
6.78 (30)
3.57 (100)
2.94 (70)
2.89 (60)
2.62 (60)
2.11 (60)
2.06 (60)
1.554 (60)
Comments:The 6.78 (30) line distinguishes leadhillite from susannite.

Optical Data of Leadhillite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.870 nβ = 2.009 nγ = 2.010
2V:Measured: 10° , Calculated: 10°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.140

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Leadhillite

Formula:
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Essential elements:C, H, O, Pb, S
All elements listed in formula:C, H, O, Pb, S

Relationship of Leadhillite to other Species

Common Associates:
PyromorphiteLinariteLanarkiteCerussiteCaledonite
Anglesite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.BF.05Ferrotychite
Na
 
6
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
5.BF.05Manganotychite
Na
 
6
Mn
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
5.BF.05Northupite
Na
 
3
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
5.BF.05Tychite
Na
 
6
Mg
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Bonshtedtite
Na
 
3
Fe
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Bradleyite
Na
 
3
Mg(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Crawfordite
Na
 
3
Sr(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.10Sidorenkite
Na
 
3
Mn
2+
 
(CO
 
3
)(PO
 
4
)
5.BF.15Daqingshanite-(Ce)
(Sr,Ca,Ba)
 
3
(Ce,La)(CO
 
3
)
 
3-x
(PO
 
4
)(OH,F)
 
2x
5.BF.20Reederite-(Y)
(Na,Mn)
 
15
Y
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
9
(FSO
 
3
)Cl
5.BF.25Mineevite-(Y)
Na
 
25
Ba(Y,Gd,Dy)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
11
(HCO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F
 
2
Cl
5.BF.30Brianyoungite
Zn
 
3
(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
5.BF.35Philolithite
Pb
 
12
Mn
2+
 
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)O
 
6
(OH)
 
12
Cl
 
4
5.BF.40Macphersonite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
5.BF.40Susannite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
12.2.1Burkeite
Na
 
6
(CO
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
12.2.2Hanksite
Na
 
22
K(SO
 
4
)
 
9
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
12.2.3Tychite
Na
 
6
Mg
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.4Motukoreaite
Mg
 
6
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
18
[Na(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][SO
 
4
]
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
12.2.5Ferrotychite
Na
 
6
(Fe,Mn,Mg)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.6Nakauriite
Cu
 
8
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 48H
 
2
O
12.2.7Carbonatecyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
12.2.8Rapidcreekite
Ca
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
) · 4H
 
2
O
12.2.9Tatarskite
Ca
 
6
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
12.2.10Schulenbergite
(Cu,Zn)
 
7
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
12.2.12Macphersonite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.13Susannite
Pb
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
12.2.14Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
12.2.15Caledonite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
12.2.16Nasledovite
PbMn
 
3
Al
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)O
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
12.2.17Jouravskite
Ca
 
3
Mn
4+
 
(SO
 
4
}(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
12.2.18Schröckingerite
NaCa
 
3
(UO
 
2
)(CO
 
3
)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F · 10H
 
2
O
12.2.19Manganotychite
Na
 
6
Mn
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
12.2.20Hauckite
Fe
3+
3
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
24
Zn
 
18
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
81
12.2.21Paraotwayite
Ni(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
0.5x
12.2.22Carrboydite
[(Ni
 
1-x
Al
 
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.23Mountkeithite
[(Mg
 
1-x
Fe
3+
x
)(OH)
 
2
][SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
12.2.24Camerolaite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(HSbO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
10
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Leadhillite

Synonyms:
Lead sulphato-tricarbonateMaxite
Other Languages:
French:Plomb carbonaté rhomboidal
Plomb sulfato-tricarbonaté
German:Bleisulphotricarbonat
Leadhillit
Maxit
Psimythit
Schwefelkohlensaures Blei
Ternärbleierz
Russian:Ледгиллит
Simplified Chinese:硫碳酸铅矿
硫碳铅矿
Spanish:Leadhillita
Leadillita
Maxita
Traditional Chinese:硫碳酸鉛礦

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Pale yellowish under (SW UV).
Thermal Behaviour:Heating results in a reversible transformation into susannite. 2E is approximately 20° (2V ~ 10°) at ambient temperature (for Na) and decreases with increasing temperature. It becomes uniaxial negative at about 125° and remains so at higher temperatures.
Other Information:Soluble in nitric acid with effervescence, rendering a residue of lead sulphate. Exfoliates in hot water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:None.

References for Leadhillite

Reference List:

- +
Bournon, Comte de (1817) Catalogue de la collection minéralogique particulière du roi, with atlas in fol., Paris: 343 (as Plomb carbonaté rhomboidal).

Brooke (1820) Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Edinburgh: 3: 117 (as Sulphato-tricarbonate of Lead).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 366.

Dufrénoy, A. (1847) Traité de minéralogie, 1st. Edition, Vol. 3: 152 (as Plomb sulfato-tricarbonaté).

Glocker, E.F. (1847) Generum et specierum mineralien secundum ordines naturals digestorum synopsis. Halle: 256 (as Psimythit).

Koksharov, N. von (1853) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. 11 volumes with atlas: vol. 1: 76 (as Schwefelkohlensaures Blei).

Laspeyres, H. (1872): Ueber die chemische Zusammensetzung des
Maxit. - Journal für Praktische Chemie 5(1):470-476; Weinheim (as Maxite).

Laspeyres (1872) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 407, 508 (as Maxite).

Laspeyres (1873) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 292.

Hintze (1874) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 152: 256.

Laspeyres (1877) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 1: 193.

Artini (1890) Giornale di mineralogia, cristallografia e petrografia, Milan: 1: 1.

Goldschmidt, V. (1890) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes, vol. 2: 301.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 921.

Pirsson and Wells (1894) American Journal of Science: 48: 219.

Mügge (1901) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 14: 259.

Palache, C. and LaForge (1909) Proceedings of the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences: 44: 435.

Palache, C. and LaForge (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 48: 129.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 133.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 99.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4243.

Yosimura (1939) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University: 4: 453.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 295-298.

Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 371-374.

Giuseppetti, G., Mazzi, F. & Tadini, C. (1990): The crystal structure of leadhillite: Pb4(SO4)(CO3)2(OH)2. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1990, 255-268.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 520 (1997).

K. Walenta, U. Kolitsch and T. Gulden (1997): On leadhillite and susannite with special regard to occurrences in the Black Forest. Aufschluss 48 (1), 59-64. (in German)

Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): Structural changes accompanying the phase transformation between leadhillite and susannite: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 90: 1641-1647.

Internet Links for Leadhillite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Leadhillite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Leadhillite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Leadhillite

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