Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Libethenite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
Cu2(PO4)(OH)
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Light to dark green, ...
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Hardness:
4
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1823 by August Breithaupt after the type locality - Ľubietová (Libethen in German, Libetbánya in Hungarian), Slovak Republic. Prior to 1919, the locality was in the territory of Hungary.
Polymorph of:
Isostructural with:
Olivenite Group. Libethenite-Olivenite Series.
Compare zincolibethenite.

Libethenite is a secondary copper phosphate mineral found in the oxidized zone of copper ore deposits. The phosphate is often derived from the weathering of apatite and other rock-forming phosphates such as monazite and xenotime.
A rare case of probable primary libethenite from a greisen deposit is reported by Sejkora et al. (2006).

Classification of Libethenite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BB.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 about 1:1
Dana 7th ed.:
41.6.6.2
41.6.6.2

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : A2(XO4)Zq
19.2.1

19 : Phosphates
2 : Phosphates of Cu
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-2394.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

First Recorded Occurrence of Libethenite

Year of Discovery:
1823
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Polymetallic hydrothermal or deposit
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Libethenite

Geological Setting:
Oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Physical Properties of Libethenite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Somewhat greasy on fracture surfaces.
Colour:
Light to dark green, blackish green, olive-green; bluish green to light green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Light green
Hardness (Mohs):
4
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Very indistinct on {100} and {010}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.97 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.972 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Libethenite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.062(5) Å, b = 8.384(4) Å, c = 5.881(2) Å
β = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.962 : 1 : 0.701
Unit Cell Volume:
V 404.27 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic or slightly elongated [100] with wedge-shaped terminations; also equant. {110} vertically grooved or striated, and {011} striated parallel to the edge with {111}.
Twinning:
None observed.

Crystallographic forms of Libethenite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Libethenite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Libethenite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Libethenite no.15 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.807 (80)
4.820 (100)
4.756 (70)
3.720 (50)
2.644 (40)
2.627 (60)
2.412 (30)
Comments:
ICDD 36-404

Optical Data of Libethenite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.701 - 1.704 nβ = 1.743 - 1.747 nγ = 1.787 - 1.790
2V:
Measured: 80° to 90°, Calculated: 88°
Birefringence:
0.080
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.086
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
strong r > v
Optical Extinction:
XYZ = bca
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= Pale yellowish blue
Z= Pale greenish blue

Chemical Properties of Libethenite

Formula:
Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
As

Relationship of Libethenite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Olivenite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)O
EveiteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.05AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
8.BB.05MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.05TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.10Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
8.BB.10Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15SarkiniteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Stanĕkite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(PO4)O
8.BB.15JoosteiteMn2+(Mn3+,Fe3+)(PO4)O
8.BB.15HydroxylwagneriteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20Satterlyite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)2(PO4)(OH,O)
8.BB.25AlthausiteMg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)
8.BB.30AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30EveiteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)O
8.BB.35ParadamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.35TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.40BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40Lazulite(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40WilhelmkleiniteZnFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.45TrolleiteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BB.50NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
8.BB.55PhosphoellenbergeriteMg14(PO4)6(HPO4,CO3)2(OH)6
8.BB.60UrusoviteCuAl(AsO4)O
8.BB.65TheoparacelsiteCu3(As2O7)(OH)2
8.BB.70TuraniteCu5(VO4)2(OH)4
8.BB.75StoiberiteCu5(VO4)2O2
8.BB.80FingeriteCu11(VO4)6O2
8.BB.85AverieviteCu6(VO4)2O2Cl2
8.BB.90LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.90RichelliteCaFe23+(PO4)2(OH,F)2
8.BB.90ZinclipscombiteZnFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.2.2CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
19.2.3ReichenbachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
19.2.4LudjibaiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
19.2.5PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
19.2.6NissoniteCu2Mg2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 5H2O
19.2.7ZapataliteCu3Al4(PO4)3(OH)9 · 4H2O
19.2.8TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
19.2.9SieleckiiteCu3Al4(PO4)2(OH)12 · 2H2O
19.2.10PlaneriteAl6(PO4)2(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 4 H2O
19.2.11HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
19.2.13ChalcosideriteCu(Fe3+,Al)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
19.2.14PhosphofibriteK<0.5(Fe3+,Cu)8(PO4)6(OH)7 · 7H2O

Other Names for Libethenite

Other Information

Not fluorescent in UV
Other Information:
Readily soluble in acids and ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Libethenite

Reference List:
Werner (1789) Bergmaennusches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmannische Journal): 382, 385 (as Olivenerz).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1036 (as Blättricher Olivenmalachite).

Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition, Heidelberg: 143 (as Octaedrisches Phosphorkupfer).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed.: 267.

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 569 (as Aphérèse).

Des Cloizeaux (1858) Annales des mines: 14: 343.

Mueller (1858) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 11: 202.

Field (1859) Chemical Gazette or Journal of Practical Chemistry, London: 17: 400.

Debray (1861) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 52: 44.

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 563.

Friedel and Sarasin (1879) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 2: 157.

Schrauf (1880) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 4: 19.

Bergemann (1890) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 104: 190.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 786.

Melczer (1904) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 39: 288.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 149.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 100.

Strunz (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 94: 60.

Heritsch (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 102: 1.

Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 452.

Guillemin, G. (1956b): Contribution à la minéralogie des arséniates, phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. II. Phosphates et vanadates. Bull. Soc. franç. Minéral. Cristallogr., 79: 219-275.

Rammelsberg, C.F. (1860) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. First edition, Leipzig: 344 (as Pseudo-libethenite).

Canadian Mineralogist (1995): 33: 885-888.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 313.

Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z., Gabašová, A., Skoda, R. & Beran, P. (2006): Supergene minerals at the Huber stock and Schnöd stock deposits, Krásno ore District, the Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 57-101.

Alexei A. Belik, Hyun-Joo Koo, Myung-Hwan Whangbo, Naohito Tsujii, Pan e Naumov, and Eiji Takayama-Muromachi (2007): Magnetic properties of synthetic libethenite Cu2PO4OH: a new spin-gap System. Inorg. Chem., 46, 8684-8689.

Internet Links for Libethenite

Specimens:
The following Libethenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Libethenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Copyright © mindat.org 1993-2015, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: January 26, 2015 20:39:07 Page generated: January 23, 2015 19:45:53