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Linarite

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Formula:
PbCu(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Deep azure blue; deep ...
Hardness:
Member of:Linarite-Chenite Group
Name:Named in 1839 by Ernst Friedrich Glocker for the type locality, Linares, Linares-La Carolina District, Jaén, Andalusia, Spain.


Linarite-Chenite group.

Usually found as small to microscopic azure blue crystals, either tabular or elongated, in clusters or as crusts.

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Classification of Linarite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.10-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.BC.65

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 7th edition ID:30.2.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:30.2.3.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.7.6

25 : Sulphates
7 : Sulphates of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Linarite

Type Locality:Linares, Linares-La Carolina District, Jaén, Andalusia, Spain
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 46.527
Year of Discovery:1822

Occurrences of Linarite

Geological Setting:An uncommon secondary mineral found in the oxidation zone of lead mineral deposits.

Physical Properties of Linarite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Deep azure blue; deep blue in transmitted light.
Comment:Similar to azurite but not as deep.
Streak:Pale blue.
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100}, perfect; on {001}, imperfect.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):5.35 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.33 g/cm3

Crystallography of Linarite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/m {P1 1 21/m} {P21/m} {P1 21/m 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 9.701(2) Å, b = 5.65Å, c = 4.69Å
β = 102.65°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.717 : 1 : 0.83
Unit Cell Volume:V 250.82 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals thin to thick tabular {101} and {001}, also elongated parallel to [010]; usually found as small to microscopic clusters or crusts.
Twinning:Twinning on {100} common; reported on {001}.
Crystal Atlas:
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Linarite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Linarite no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Effenberger H (1987) Crystal structure and chemical formula of schmiederite, Pb2Cu2(OH)4(SeO3)(SeO4), with a comparison to linarite PbCu(OH)2(SO4) Locality: Leadhills, Scotland. Mineralogy and Petrology 36:3-12.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.85(40)
4.52(60)
3.63(30)
3.56(60)
3.15(100)
3.11(40)
2.71(30)
2.59(30)

Optical Data of Linarite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.809 nβ = 1.838 nγ = 1.859
2V:Measured: 80° , Calculated: 78°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.050

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:Strong r < v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X ^c~ -24° = Pale blue
Y = Clear blue
Z = b = Prussian-blue

Chemical Properties of Linarite

Formula:
PbCu(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Essential elements:Cu, H, O, Pb, S
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, O, Pb, S

Relationship of Linarite to other Species

Member of:Linarite-Chenite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Chenite
Pb
 
4
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Munakataite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
Schmiederite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
6+
 
O
 
4
)(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(OH)
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.BC.05D'Ansite
Na
 
21
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
10
Cl
 
3
7.BC.10Alunite
KAl
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)
Pb(Fe
3+
 
,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Dorallcharite
(Tl,K)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Huangite
Ca
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite
(H
 
3
O)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Jarosite
KFe
3+
 
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite
(Na,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natrojarosite
NaFe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Osarizawaite
Pb(Al,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Plumbojarosite
Pb
 
0.5
Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite
(H
 
3
O)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Walthierite
Ba
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)
Pb(Fe
3+
2
Zn)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.15Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
7.BC.20Atlasovite
K(BiO)Cu
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
O
 
3
Cl
7.BC.20Nabokoite
KCu
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)OCl
7.BC.25Chlorothionite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
7.BC.30Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.30Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.35Kamchatkite
KCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
OCl
7.BC.40Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
7.BC.45Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.45Alumoklyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.50Caledonite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
7.BC.55Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
7.BC.60Mammothite
Pb
 
6
Cu
 
4
AlSb
5+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.BC.65Schmiederite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
6+
 
O
 
4
)(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.65Munakataite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.70Chenite
Pb
 
4
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.75Krivovichevite
Pb
 
3
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
7
7.BC.80Anhydrokainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.7.1Schaurteite
Ca
 
3
Ge(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
25.7.2Zircosulfate
(Zr,Ti)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
25.7.3Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
25.7.4Lanarkite
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
25.7.5Palmierite
(K,Na)
 
2
Pb(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.7.7Elyite
Pb
 
4
Cu(SO
 
4
)O
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.7.8Chenite
Pb
 
4
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.7.9Osarizawaite
Pb(Al,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.7.10Itoite
Pb
 
3
Ge
4+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
25.7.11Fleischerite
Pb
 
3
Ge(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
25.7.12Beaverite-(Cu)
Pb(Fe
3+
 
,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
25.7.13Plumbojarosite
Pb
 
0.5
Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Linarite

Synonyms:
Cupreous AnglesiteCupreous sulphate of Lead
Other Languages:
Catalan:Linarita
Dutch:Linariet
French:Plomb sulfaté cuprifère
German:Linarit
Bleilasur
Kupferbleispat
Kupferbleivitriol
Italian:Linarite
Japanese:青鉛鉱
Portuguese:Linarite
Russian:Линарит
Simplified Chinese:青铅矾
Spanish:Linarita
Traditional Chinese:青鉛礬

Other Information

Other Information:Observed to alter to Antlerite and to cerussite with malachite.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Linarite

Reference List:

- +
Sowerby, J. (1809) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London: 3: 5, fig. 203 (as Crystallized Blue Carbonate of Copper).

Brooke (1822) Annals of Philosophy, London: 4: 117 (as Cupreous Sulfate of Lead).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed. (as Bleilasur)

Lévy, A. (1837) Description d’une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland, et appartenant à M. Ch. H. Turner, de Rooksnest, dans le comté de Surrey en Angleterre. 3 volumes and atlas of 85 plates, London: 2: 455 (as Plomb sulfaté cuprifère).

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 618.

Phillips, Wm., revised by Alger, F. (1844) Mineralogy, Fifth edition. 662pp., Boston: 552.

Koksharov, N. von (1866) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. 11 volumes with atlas: vol. 5: 206.

Koksharov, N. von (1869) Bulletin de Académy imperial de sciences, St. Pétersburg: 13: 472.

Brugnatelli (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 28: 307.

Wada, Tsunashiro (1904) Minerals of Japan. 144 pp., Tokyo: 78 (Tamura, cited in).

Johnston (1910) Geological Survey of Canada, Summary Report 260.

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 152.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 158.

Shannon (1926) U.S. Natural History Museum Bulletin: 131: 455.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4205.

Fenoglio (1932) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 3: 4.

Chukhrov (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes: 15: 95.

Chukhrov (1939) Comptes rendu de l’Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes: 22: 257.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 553-555.

Rocks & Minerals: 81: 208-213.

Acta Crystallographica: 14: 747-753.

Mineralogy and Petrology (1987): 36: 3.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 629.

Internet Links for Linarite

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  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
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    Localities for Linarite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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