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Linarite

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Formula:
PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Deep azure blue; deep ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1839 by Ernst Friedrich Glocker for the type locality, Linares, Linares-La Carolina District, Jaén, Andalusia, Spain.
Linarite-Chenite group.

Usually found as small to microscopic azure blue crystals, either tabular or elongated, in clusters or as crusts.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Linarite.

Classification of Linarite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.BC.65

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 7th ed.:
30.2.3.1
30.2.3.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
25.7.6

25 : Sulphates
7 : Sulphates of Pb
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Type Occurrence of Linarite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 46.527
Year of Discovery:
1822

Occurrences of Linarite

Geological Setting:
An uncommon secondary mineral found in the oxidation zone of lead mineral deposits.

Physical Properties of Linarite

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Deep azure blue; deep blue in transmitted light.
Comment:
Similar to azurite but not as deep.
Streak:
Pale blue.
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100}, perfect; on {001}, imperfect.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
5.35 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.33 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Linarite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.701(2) Å, b = 5.65Å, c = 4.69Å
β = 102.65°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.717 : 1 : 0.83
Unit Cell Volume:
V 250.82 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals thin to thick tabular {101} and {001}, also elongated parallel to [010]; usually found as small to microscopic clusters or crusts.
Twinning:
Twinning on {100} common; reported on {001}.

Crystallographic forms of Linarite

Crystal Atlas:
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Linarite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Linarite no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Effenberger H (1987) Crystal structure and chemical formula of schmiederite, Pb2Cu2(OH)4(SeO3)(SeO4), with a comparison to linarite PbCu(OH)2(SO4) Locality: Leadhills, Scotland. Mineralogy and Petrology 36:3-12.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.85(40)
4.52(60)
3.63(30)
3.56(60)
3.15(100)
3.11(40)
2.71(30)
2.59(30)

Optical Data of Linarite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.809 nβ = 1.838 nγ = 1.859
2V:
Measured: 80° , Calculated: 78°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
Strong r < v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X ^c~ -24° = Pale blue
Y = Clear blue
Z = b = Prussian-blue

Chemical Properties of Linarite

Formula:
PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Linarite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4
SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
7.BC.05D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10OsarizawaitePb(Al,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe23+Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.15Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3Cl
7.BC.20NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OCl
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2
7.BC.30EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OCl
7.BC.40PiypiteK2Cu2(SO4)2O
7.BC.45KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.50CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2
7.BC.65SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(SO4)(OH)7
7.BC.80AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
25.7.1SchaurteiteCa3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
25.7.2Zircosulfate(Zr,Ti)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.7.3AnglesitePbSO4
25.7.4LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
25.7.5Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2
25.7.7ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
25.7.8ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
25.7.9OsarizawaitePb(Al,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.7.10ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2
25.7.11FleischeritePb3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.7.12Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+,Cu)3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.7.13PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Linarite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Linarita
Dutch:Linariet
Italian:Linarite
Japanese:青鉛鉱
Portuguese:Linarite
Simplified Chinese:青铅矾
Spanish:Linarita
Traditional Chinese:青鉛礬

Other Information

Other Information:
Observed to alter to Antlerite and to cerussite with malachite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Linarite

Reference List:
Sowerby, J. (1809) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London: 3: 5, fig. 203 (as Crystallized Blue Carbonate of Copper).

Brooke (1822) Annals of Philosophy, London: 4: 117 (as Cupreous Sulfate of Lead).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed. (as Bleilasur)

Lévy, A. (1837) Description d’une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland, et appartenant à M. Ch. H. Turner, de Rooksnest, dans le comté de Surrey en Angleterre. 3 volumes and atlas of 85 plates, London: 2: 455 (as Plomb sulfaté cuprifère).

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 618.

Phillips, Wm., revised by Alger, F. (1844) Mineralogy, Fifth edition. 662pp., Boston: 552.

Koksharov, N. von (1866) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. 11 volumes with atlas: vol. 5: 206.

Koksharov, N. von (1869) Bulletin de Académy imperial de sciences, St. Pétersburg: 13: 472.

Brugnatelli (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 28: 307.

Wada, Tsunashiro (1904) Minerals of Japan. 144 pp., Tokyo: 78 (Tamura, cited in).

Johnston (1910) Geological Survey of Canada, Summary Report 260.

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 152.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 158.

Shannon (1926) U.S. Natural History Museum Bulletin: 131: 455.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4205.

Fenoglio (1932) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 3: 4.

Chukhrov (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes: 15: 95.

Chukhrov (1939) Comptes rendu de l’Académy des sciences de l'Union des Républiques Soviétiques Socialistes: 22: 257.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 553-555.

Rocks & Minerals: 81: 208-213.

Acta Crystallographica: 14: 747-753.

Mineralogy and Petrology (1987): 36: 3.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 629.

Internet Links for Linarite

Specimens:
The following Linarite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Linarite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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