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Lindgrenite

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Formula:
Cu
 
3
(MoO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
System:MonoclinicColour:Green, yellowish green; ...
Hardness:
Name:
Named by Charles Palache in 1935 in honour of Waldemar Lindgren [February 14, 1860 Kalmar, Sweden - November 3, 1939 Brighton, Massachusetts, USA], Swedish-American economic geologist, professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was a profound theorist on ore deposit formation.


A rare secondary mineral occurring in the oxidised zones of molybdenum-bearing copper deposits.

Classification of Lindgrenite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/G.02-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.GB.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
G : Molybdates, Wolframates and Niobates
B : With additional anions and/or H2O
Dana 8th edition ID:48.3.1.1

48 : ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
3 : Basic Anhydrous Molybdates and Tungstates
Hey's CIM Ref.:27.3.1

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
3 : Molybdates
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Type Occurrence of Lindgrenite

Type Locality:Chuquicamata Mine, Chuquicamata District, Calama, El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region, Chile
Place of Conservation of Type Material:The Natural History Museum, London,m England: #1936,102.
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: #97527, 97528.
Year of Discovery:1935
Associated Minerals at type locality:
QuartzLimoniteHematiteAntlerite

Physical Properties of Lindgrenite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Green, yellowish green; pale green to yellow-green in transmitted light
Streak:Pale green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010}, perfect; on {101} and {100}, very poor.
Fracture:Micaceous
Density (measured):4.2 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.29 g/cm3

Crystallography of Lindgrenite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/m {P1 1 21/m} {P21/m} {P1 21/m 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 5.394Å, b = 14.023Å, c = 5.608Å
β = 98.5°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.385 : 1 : 0.4
Unit Cell Volume:V 419.53 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals tabular or platy {010}, exhibiting {010}, which may be striated parallel [001].Also may exhibit forms {100}, {021}, and several others. Rarely acicular along [101] with a square outline; crusts; massive.
Comment:Space group = P21/n
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.16 (50)
3.58 (30)
3.52 (100)
3.48 (70)
2.78 (20)
2.72 (30)
2.68 (40)
2.67 (20)
Comments:36-0405

Optical Data of Lindgrenite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.930 nβ = 2.002 nγ = 2.020
2V:Measured: 71° , Calculated: 50°
Birefringence:0.090
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.090

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v strong
Optical Extinction:Z to c = 9 degrees

Chemical Properties of Lindgrenite

Formula:
Cu
 
3
(MoO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Essential elements:Cu, H, Mo, O
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, Mo, O

Relationship of Lindgrenite to other Species

Common Associates:
QuartzPowelliteMolybdeniteLimoniteChrysocolla
BrochantiteAntlerite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.GB.10Szenicsite
Cu
 
3
(MoO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.GB.15Cuprotungstite
Cu
 
2
(WO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
7.GB.15UM1999-38-WO:CrV
(V, Cr, W, O, H) [V:Cr:W ratio about 2:1:3]
7.GB.20Phyllotungstite
(H
 
2
O,M)
 
x
(W,Fe)(O,OH)
 
3
· yH
 
2
O (M = Ca, Cs, Pb or K)
7.GB.25Rankachite
Ca
 
0.5
(V
4+
 
,V
5+
 
)(W
6+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
8
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
7.GB.30Ferrimolybdite
Fe
 
2
(MoO
 
4
)
 
3
· nH
 
2
O
7.GB.35Anthoinite
AlWO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
7.GB.35Mpororoite
WAlO
 
3
(OH)
 
3
· 2(H
 
2
O)
7.GB.40Obradovicite-KCu
[K
 
2
(H
 
2
O)
 
17
Cu(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][Mo
 
8
As
 
2
Fe
3+
3
O
 
34
(OH)
 
3
]
7.GB.45Mendozavilite-NaFe
[Na
 
2
(H
 
2
O)
 
15
Fe
3+
 
(H
 
2
O)
 
6
][Mo
 
8
P
 
2
Fe
3+
3
O
 
35
(OH)
 
2
]
7.GB.45Paramendozavilite
[KAl
 
4
(H
 
2
O)
 
30
][Mo
 
12
P
 
6
Fe
3+
6
O
 
60
(OH)
 
13
]
7.GB.50Tancaite-(Ce)
FeCe(MoO
 
4
)
 
3
·3H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
27.3.2Powellite
Ca(MoO
 
4
)
27.3.3Wulfenite
Pb(MoO
 
4
)
27.3.4Koechlinite
Bi
 
2
MoO
 
6
27.3.5Sedovite
U(MoO
 
4
)
 
2
27.3.6Mourite
UMo
 
5
O
 
12
(OH)
 
10
27.3.7Iriginite
(UO
 
2
)Mo
 
2
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
27.3.8Umohoite
(UO
 
2
)MoO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
27.3.9Moluranite
H
 
4
U
4+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(MoO
 
4
)
 
7
· 18H
 
2
O
27.3.10Cousinite
MgU
 
2
Mo
 
2
O
 
11
· 6H
 
2
O
27.3.11Calcurmolite
(Ca,Na)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
Mo
 
2
(O,OH)
 
11
· nH
 
2
O
27.3.12Tengchongite
CaO · 6UO
 
3
· 2MoO
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
27.3.13Kamiokite
Fe
 
2
Mo
 
3
O
 
8
27.3.14Ferrimolybdite
Fe
 
2
(MoO
 
4
)
 
3
· nH
 
2
O

Other Names for Lindgrenite

Other Languages:
German:Lindgrenit
Russian:Линдгренит
Spanish:Lindgrenita

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in HCl and HNO3.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Lindgrenite

Reference List:

- +
Palache, C. (1935) Lindgrenite, a new mineral. American Mineralogist: 20: 484-491.

Barnes (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 163.

Barnes (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 611.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1094-1095.

L. D. Calvert and W. H. Barnes (1957) The structure of lindgrenite. Can. Mineral. 6, 31-51.

Hawthorne, F.C. and R.K. Eby (1985) Refinement of the crystal structure of lindgrenite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1985): 5: 234-240.

Internet Links for Lindgrenite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Lindgrenite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Lindgrenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Lindgrenite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    A.Molina & M. Dini collections - analysed material
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    Palache, C. (1935) American Mineralogist: 20, 484-491; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1095.
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • Inca de Oro
    pers. comm. T. Szenics to C. Lemanski, Jr. (2006).
      • Copiapó Province
        • Cachiyuyo de Llampos district
          • Carrera Pinto
    maurizio dini collection
      • Huasco Province
        • Vallenar
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
    • Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region
      • Cachapoal Province
        • Rancagua
          • El Teniente
    Royal Ontario Museum
    France
     
    • Limousin
      • Haute-Vienne
        • Nantiat
          • Vaulry
    Queneau Patrice collection
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Nara Prefecture
    Miyazaki et al (2000) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou’en-Youshi, 89
    Norway
     
    • Telemark
      • Tokke
        • Klauvreid
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 114.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Gila Co.
        • Globe-Miami District
          • Miami-Inspiration District
            • Inspiration
              • Miami-Inspiration deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 334.
    No reference listed
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 278; Peterson, N.P. (1962), Geology and ore deposits of the Globe-Miami district, AZ, USGS PP 342: 77; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 82.
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Verde Mts
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 278; Schaller, W.T. (1932), Chemical composition of cuprotungstite, Am.Min.: 17: 234-237; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 82.
      • Pima Co.
        • Sierrita Mts
          • Pima District (Olive District; Mineral Hill District; Twin Buttes District)
    thony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 278.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Dripping Spring Mts
          • Mineral Creek District (Ray District)
            • Ray Mine area
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 279.
        • Galiuro Mts
          • Bunker Hill District (Copper Creek District)
            • Copper Creek (Copper Creek Canyon)
              • Copper Creek
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 278.
        • Pinal Mts
          • Pioneer District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 279.
    • California
      • Nevada Co.
        • Last Chance District
          • Spring Creek area
    Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 340.
    Mineralogical Record (In press)
    • Idaho
      • Adams Co.
    Rocks & Min. 70:244
          • Cuprum
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
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