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Liroconite

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Formula:
Cu
 
2
Al(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Sky-blue to green; light ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:2 - 2½
Name:Named in 1825 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger from the Greek λειρός = pale, and κουία = powder, in allusion to the color of its streak.


A rare secondary mineral found in oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Classification of Liroconite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/D.20-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.DF.20

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
F : With only medium-sized cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 > 3:1
Dana 8th edition ID:42.2.1.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:20.1.13

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Liroconite

Type Locality:Wheal Gorland, St Day United Mines (Poldice Mines), Gwennap, Camborne - Redruth - St Day District, Cornwall, England, UK

Occurrences of Liroconite

Geological Setting:Oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Physical Properties of Liroconite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Sky-blue to green; light blue to light bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:Light blue
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
On {110} and {011}, indistinct.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.9 - 3 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.97 g/cm3
Comment:Density varies with the P:As ratio. Calculated value based on P:As = 1:4.

Crystallography of Liroconite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 12.66Å, b = 7.57Å, c = 9.89Å
β = 91.25°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.672 : 1 : 1.306
Unit Cell Volume:V 947.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals thin or lenticular [001] with a flat octahedral aspect. The faces of m and e are striated parallel to their intersection edges.
Crystal Atlas:
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Liroconite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Liroconite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Burns P C Eby R K Hawthorne F C (1991) Refinement of the structure of liroconite, a heteropolyhedral framework oxysalt mineral Locality: Roughton Gill, England. Acta Crystallographica, Section C 47:916-919.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
6.46 (10)
5.95 (9)
3.92 (5)
3.01 (10)
2.79 (5)
2.69 (6)
2.21 (5)

Optical Data of Liroconite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.612 nβ = 1.652 nγ = 1.675
2V:Measured: 67° , Calculated: 72°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.063

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Liroconite

Formula:
Cu
 
2
Al(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4·4H2O
Essential elements:Al, As, Cu, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Al, As, Cu, H, O

Relationship of Liroconite to other Species

Common Associates:
OliveniteMalachiteLimoniteCupriteChalcophyllite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.DF.05Hotsonite
Al
 
11
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
21
· 16H
 
2
O
8.DF.10Bolivarite
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
· 4-5H
 
2
O
8.DF.10Evansite
Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
8.DF.10Liskeardite
[(Al,Fe)
 
32
(AsO
 
4
)
 
18
(OH)
 
42
(H
 
2
O)
 
22
] · 52H
 
2
O
8.DF.10Rosièresite
(Pb, Cu, Al, P, O, H)
8.DF.15Rusakovite
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
5
(VO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DF.25Sieleckiite
Cu
 
3
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
8.DF.30Chalcophyllite
Cu
 
18
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
27
· 33H
 
2
O
8.DF.35Parnauite
Cu
 
9
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 7H
 
2
O
8.DF.40Gladiusite
Fe
 
2
(Fe,Mg)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
11
(H
 
2
O)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
20.1.1Lammerite
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
20.1.2Olivenite
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
20.1.3Clinoclase
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
20.1.4Cornwallite
Cu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.5Cornubite
Cu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7Geminite
Cu(HAsO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
20.1.8Euchroite
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
20.1.9Strashimirite
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
20.1.10Arhbarite
Cu
 
2
Mg(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
20.1.11Lindackerite
CuCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8-9H
 
2
O
20.1.12Conichalcite
CaCu(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
20.1.14Ceruleite
Cu
 
2
Al
 
7
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
13
· 11.5H
 
2
O
20.1.15Chenevixite
Cu
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.16Arthurite
CuFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,O)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Liroconite

Synonyms:
CouphochloriteLenticular CopperLentil-OreLentuliteLirocone-Malachite
Octahedral Arseniate of Copper
Other Languages:
French:Cuivre Arseniaté Octaèdre obtus
German:Lirokonit
Chalcophacit
Couphochlorit
Lentulit
Linsenerz
Linsenkupfer
Liroconit
Lirokomalachit
Lirokon-malachit
Russian:Лироконит
Simplified Chinese:水砷铝铜矿
Spanish:Couphochlorita
Lentulita
Liroconita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Liroconite

Reference List:

- +
Bournon (1801) Phil. Trans.: 174 (as Octahedral Arseniate of Copper).

Rashleigh, P. (1802) Specimens of British Minerals Selected from the Cabinet of Phillip Rashleigh. London. part 2: Pl. 2, 5, 11 (as Octahedral Arseniate of Copper).

Werner (1803) (as Linsenerz).

Werner (1804) Ludwig's Min.: 2: 215 (as Linsenerz).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 64 (as Linsenerz).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1051 (as Linsenkupfer).

Mohs, F. (1822) Grundriss der Mineralogie. 2 volumes, Dresden: 180 (as Lirokon-malachite).

Glocker, E.F. (1831) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 859 (as Chalcophacit).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 600.

Hermann (1844) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 33: 296.

Damour (1845) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 13: 414.

Des Cloizeaux (1859): 2: 71.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 853.

Church (1895) Mineralogical Magazine: 11: 1.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 163.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 101.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 953.

American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 484.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 921-922.

Giuseppetti G., Coda A., Mazzi F., Tadini C. (1962) La struttura cristallina della liroconite Cu2Al[(As,P)O4(OH)4]*4(H2O). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 19-42.

Burns, P. C., Eb, R. K. and Hawthorne, F. C. (1991): Refinement of the structure of liroconite, a heteropolyhedral framework oxysalt mineral. Acta Cryst. C 47, 916-919.

Internet Links for Liroconite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Liroconite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Liroconite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Liroconite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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    Localities for Liroconite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Olary Province
        • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
    Noble (1983): Catalogue of South Australian Minerals
    Germany
     
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Bergisches Land
        • Engelskirchen
          • Loope
    Habel, B. & Linder, R. (2009): Die Grube "Castor" bei Loope und ihre Mineralien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (3), 10-23
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
        • Clausnitz - Sayda District
          • Sayda
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Thuringia
      • Bad Lobenstein
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Vogtland
        • Hirschberg
          • Ullersreuth
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Tuva Republic
    Cook, R. B. (2001). Connoisseur's Choice: Liroconite: Gwennap, Cornwall, England. Rocks & Minerals, 76(6), 404-405.
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
            • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
              • Berezovskoe Au Deposit (Berezovsk Mines)
    Cook, R. B. (2001). Connoisseur's Choice: Liroconite: Gwennap, Cornwall, England. Rocks & Minerals, 76(6), 404-405.
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Bystrica Co.
        • Ľubietová (Libetbánya; Libethen)
    Pauliš,P.,Ďuďa,R.,2002: Nejzajímavejší mineralogická naletište Slovenska. Kuttna,K.Hora, 136p
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922; Koděra, M., a kol.: Topografická mineralogie Slovenska. Sv. 3 Sed-Ž, Bratislava, Veda 1990, s. 1247-1256.
      • Brezno Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    Spain
     
    • Valencian Community
      • Castellón
    Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España
          • San Rafael claim
    - Cócera, H., Menor-Salván, C. and Muñoz-Alvarado, R. (2010): Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España. Acopios, 1, 1-51. [http://mti-acopios.blogspot.com/ ; http://issuu.com/malacate/docs/acopios-1-1?mode=a_p]
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cheshire
        • Alderley Edge
    No reference listed
      • Cornwall
        • Callington District
          • Calstock
            • Gunnislake
              • Clitters United Mines
    Hall, T.M. (1868): Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
        • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
          • Carharrack
            • West Clifford United Mines
    [Ian Bruce, pers. comm.]; Bruce, I, & D. Aubrey-Jones (1998) UKJMM 19:18-23
          • Gwennap
            • St Day United Mines (Poldice Mines)
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; Am.Min.: 36:484 (1951); Rocks & Min.: 60(1):24
    [Embrey & Symes, 1987, 111 - "Minerals of Cornwall and Devon"; Dana 6: 853.]
    Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (1870): 38. Annual Report, pp. 30-31; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; American Mineralogist 36:484-503
          • Redruth
    Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (1870): 38. Annual Report, pp. 30-31
        • St Austell District
          • St Ewe
            • Kingsdown Mine (Hewas Water Mine)
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1871): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon. D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
        • St Ives District
          • Lelant
            • Carbis Bay
    Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
              • Botallack Mine
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Caldbeck Fells
            • Potts Gill
    No reference listed
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
            • Bisbee
    Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 5.
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
    Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922; Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.
            • Cerro Gordo
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Dunn(1995):Pt5:671.
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