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Liroconite

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Formula:
Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Sky-blue to green; light ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Name:
Named in 1825 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger from the Greek λειρός = pale, and κουία = powder, in allusion to the color of its streak.
A rare secondary mineral found in oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Classification of Liroconite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.DF.20

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
F : With only medium-sized cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 > 3:1
42.2.1.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
20.1.13

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Liroconite

Occurrences of Liroconite

Geological Setting:
Oxidized zones of copper deposits.

Physical Properties of Liroconite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Sky-blue to green; light blue to light bluish green in transmitted light.
Streak:
Light blue
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
On {110} and {011}, indistinct.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.9 - 3 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Density varies with the P:As ratio. Calculated value based on P:As = 1:4.

Crystallography of Liroconite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.66Å, b = 7.57Å, c = 9.89Å
β = 91.25°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.672 : 1 : 1.306
Unit Cell Volume:
V 947.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals thin or lenticular [001] with a flat octahedral aspect. The faces of m and e are striated parallel to their intersection edges.

Crystallographic forms of Liroconite

Crystal Atlas:
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Liroconite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Liroconite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Burns P C Eby R K Hawthorne F C (1991) Refinement of the structure of liroconite, a heteropolyhedral framework oxysalt mineral Locality: Roughton Gill, England. Acta Crystallographica, Section C 47:916-919.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.46 (10)
5.95 (9)
3.92 (5)
3.01 (10)
2.79 (5)
2.69 (6)
2.21 (5)

Optical Data of Liroconite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.612 nβ = 1.652 nγ = 1.675
2V:
Measured: 67° , Calculated: 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.063
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Liroconite

Formula:
Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Liroconite to other Species

8.DF.05HotsoniteAl11(SO4)3(PO4)2(OH)21 · 16H2O
8.DF.10BolivariteAl2(PO4)(OH)3 · 4-5H2O
8.DF.10EvansiteAl3(PO4)(OH)6 · 6H2O
8.DF.10Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
8.DF.10Rosièresite(Pb, Cu, Al, P, O, H)
8.DF.15Rusakovite(Fe3+,Al)5(VO4,PO4)2(OH)9 · 3H2O
8.DF.25SieleckiiteCu3Al4(PO4)2(OH)12 · 2H2O
8.DF.30ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(SO4)3(AsO4)3(OH)27 · 33H2O
8.DF.35ParnauiteCu9(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)10 · 7H2O
8.DF.40GladiusiteFe2(Fe,Mg)4(PO4)(OH)11(H2O)
20.1.1LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2
20.1.2OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
20.1.3ClinoclaseCu3(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.4CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.5CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7GeminiteCu(HAsO4) · H2O
20.1.8EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2O
20.1.9StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
20.1.10ArhbariteCu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.11LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 8-9H2O
20.1.12ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
20.1.14CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
20.1.15ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.16ArthuriteCuFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O

Other Names for Liroconite

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Liroconite

Reference List:
Bournon (1801) Phil. Trans.: 174 (as Octahedral Arseniate of Copper).

Rashleigh, P. (1802) Specimens of British Minerals Selected from the Cabinet of Phillip Rashleigh. London. part 2: Pl. 2, 5, 11 (as Octahedral Arseniate of Copper).

Werner (1803) (as Linsenerz).

Werner (1804) Ludwig's Min.: 2: 215 (as Linsenerz).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 64 (as Linsenerz).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1051 (as Linsenkupfer).

Mohs, F. (1822) Grundriss der Mineralogie. 2 volumes, Dresden: 180 (as Lirokon-malachite).

Glocker, E.F. (1831) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 859 (as Chalcophacit).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 600.

Hermann (1844) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 33: 296.

Damour (1845) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 13: 414.

Des Cloizeaux (1859): 2: 71.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 853.

Church (1895) Mineralogical Magazine: 11: 1.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 163.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 101.

Hintze, Carl (1931) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 953.

American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 484.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 921-922.

Giuseppetti G., Coda A., Mazzi F., Tadini C. (1962) La struttura cristallina della liroconite Cu2Al[(As,P)O4(OH)4]*4(H2O). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 19-42.

Burns, P. C., Eb, R. K. and Hawthorne, F. C. (1991): Refinement of the structure of liroconite, a heteropolyhedral framework oxysalt mineral. Acta Cryst. C 47, 916-919.

Internet Links for Liroconite

Specimens:
The following Liroconite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Liroconite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
Noble (1983): Catalogue of South Australian Minerals
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Bergisches Land
      • Engelskirchen
        • Loope
Habel, B. & Linder, R. (2009): Die Grube "Castor" bei Loope und ihre Mineralien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (3), 10-23
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Clausnitz - Sayda District
        • Sayda
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Thuringia
    • Bad Lobenstein
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Vogtland
      • Hirschberg
        • Ullersreuth
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Tuva Republic
Cook, R. B. (2001). Connoisseur's Choice: Liroconite: Gwennap, Cornwall, England. Rocks & Minerals, 76(6), 404-405.
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
          • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
            • Berezovskoe Au Deposit (Berezovsk Mines)
Cook, R. B. (2001). Connoisseur's Choice: Liroconite: Gwennap, Cornwall, England. Rocks & Minerals, 76(6), 404-405.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
      • Ľubietová (Libetbánya; Libethen)
Pauliš,P.,Ďuďa,R.,2002: Nejzajímavejší mineralogická naletište Slovenska. Kuttna,K.Hora, 136p
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922; Koděra, M., a kol.: Topografická mineralogie Slovenska. Sv. 3 Sed-Ž, Bratislava, Veda 1990, s. 1247-1256.
    • Brezno Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Spain
 
  • Valencian Community
    • Castellón
Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España
        • San Rafael claim
- Cócera, H., Menor-Salván, C. and Muñoz-Alvarado, R. (2010): Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España. Acopios, 1, 1-51. [http://mti-acopios.blogspot.com/ ; http://issuu.com/malacate/docs/acopios-1-1?mode=a_p]
UK
 
  • England
    • Cheshire
      • Alderley Edge
No reference listed
    • Cornwall
      • Callington District
        • Calstock
          • Gunnislake
            • Clitters United Mines
Hall, T.M. (1868): Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Smyth, W.M., Reeks, T., and Rudler, F.W. (1864): A Catalogue of the Mineral Collections in the Museum of Practical Geology. HMSO Publications (London), 190pp.
      • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
        • Carharrack
          • West Clifford United Mines
[Ian Bruce, pers. comm.]; Bruce, I, & D. Aubrey-Jones (1998) UKJMM 19:18-23
        • Gwennap
          • St Day United Mines (Poldice Mines)
Phillips, W. (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon, 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; Am.Min.: 36:484 (1951); Rocks & Min.: 60(1):24
Phillips, W. (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.; Embrey, P.G., and Symes, R.F. (1987): Minerals of Cornwall and Devon. British Museum of Natural History (London), 154 pp.; Dana 6: 853
Phillips, W. (1823): An Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy, 3rd ed. William Phillips (London), 535 pp.; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (1870): 38. Annual Report, pp. 30-31; Collins, J.H. (1892): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon, 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.; American Mineralogist 36:484-503
        • Redruth
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society (1870): 38. Annual Report, pp. 30-31
      • St Austell District
        • St Ewe CP
          • Sticker
            • Kingsdown Mine (Hewas Water Mine)
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1871): A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon. D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
      • St Ives District
        • St Ives
          • Carbis Bay
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
      • St Just District
        • St Just
          • Botallack
            • Botallack Mine
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    • Cumbria
      • Caldbeck Fells
        • Potts Gill
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
          • Bisbee
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 5.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 922; Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.
          • Cerro Gordo
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 245.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Dunn(1995):Pt5:671.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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