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Livingstonite

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David Livingstone
Formula:
HgSb4S6(S2)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Blackish-gray
Hardness:
2
Name:
After David Livingston (1813-1873), the African explorer and missionary.
This page provides mineralogical data about Livingstonite.

Classification of Livingstonite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
2.JA.05i

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb
3.7.11.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
7 : ø = 2
5.4.6

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
4 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Zn and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Livingstonite

Year of Discovery:
1874

Occurrences of Livingstonite

Geological Setting:
Low temperature hydrothermal veins

Physical Properties of Livingstonite

Adamantine, Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Blackish-gray
Streak:
Red
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=96 - 125 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Elastic
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001} perfect, {010}, and {100} poor.
Density:
4.88(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    5.013 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Livingstonite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 30.1543(10) Å, b = 3.9953(2) Å, c = 21.4262(13) Å
β = 104.265(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 7.547 : 1 : 5.363
Unit Cell Volume:
V 2501.7 ų
Z:
8
Morphology:
Minute needles elongated [010]. Columnar to fibrous massive; in globular masses of interlaced needles.
Comment:
A2/a
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Livingstonite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Colour in reflected light:
White
Internal Reflections:
Deep red
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Livingstonite

Formula:
HgSb4S6(S2)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Livingstonite to other Species

2.JA.05eBenjaminite(Ag,Cu)3(Bi,Pb)7S12
2.JA.05gBorodaeviteAg5(Bi,Pb,Fe)8(Sb,Bi)2S17
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteAgCu2PbBi5S10
2.JA.05aKitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9
2.JA.05fMummeite(Cu,Ag)3-4(Bi,Pb)7-8S13
2.JA.05aPavonite(Ag,Cu)(Bi,Pb)3S5
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4
2.JA.05hMozgovaitePbBi4(S,Se)7
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu8Pb4Ag2Bi18S36
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38
2.JA.05DantopaiteCu1.06Ag4.24Pb0.9Bi12.23S21.89Te0.11
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi12S24
2.JA.10cHodrušiteCu8Bi12S22
2.JA.10ePadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S35
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10
2.JA.15SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4S
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2
2.JA.20MatilditeAgBiS2
2.JA.20VolynskiteAgBiTe2
5.4.1NowackiiteCu6Zn3As4S12
5.4.2Florensovite(Cu,Zn)Cr1.5Sb0.5S4
5.4.3AktashiteCu6Hg3As4S12
5.4.4LaffittiteAgHgAsS3
5.4.5Galkhaite(Cs,Tl)(Hg,Cu,Zn)6(As,Sb)4S12
5.4.7GruzdeviteCu6Hg3Sb4S12
5.4.8TvalchrelidzeiteHg3SbAsS3
5.4.9HakiteCu6[Cu4Hg2]Sb4Se13

Other Names for Livingstonite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:硫锑汞矿

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Livingstonite

Reference List:
Barcena (1874), Naturaleza: 3: 35.

Barcena (1874), American Journal of Science: 8: 145.

Barcena (1875), American Journal of Science: 9: 64.

Barcena (1879), Naturaleza: 4: 268.

Richmond (1936), American Mineralogist: 21: 719.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 485-486.

Srikrishnan, T. and W. Nowacki (1975): A redetermination of the crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 141, 174–192.

Borisov, S.V., Pervukhina, N.V., Magarill, S.A., Kuratieva, N.V., Vasil’ev, V.I. (2010): Crystallographic analysis of the structure of livingstonite HgSb4S8 from refined data. Crystallography Reports, 55, 224-228.

Internet Links for Livingstonite

Specimens:
The following Livingstonite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Livingstonite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
G. Nottes & U. Heidtke (1986) Aufschluss 37, 31-36
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Xinghai Co.
Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Wiesloch
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Palatinate
      • Alsenz-Obermoschel
Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
Mineralogical Journal, Spec. 1, 157-159 (1971)
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Osh Oblast
    • Alai Range (Alay Range)
[Lapis 1993:11 p11-24]
      • Fergana Valley
[Lapis 11:11-24]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mexico (TL)
 
  • Guerrero
    • Mun. de Huitzuco
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 141, 174(1957)
Panczner(1987):254.
Pancnzer(1987):94-386.
Panczner (1987): 254.
Panczner (1987): 254.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Northland
Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • León
      • Maraña
        • Boicibacar
- Luque, C., Garcia, J. and García, P. (1989): Características Geoquimicas de los Cinabrios de la Cordillera Cantábrica (NW de España): Utilidad en prospección. Trabajos de Geología Universidad de Oviedo(18) pp. 1-11
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
USA
 
  • Arkansas
    • Pike Co.
Roberts, A.C. et al (2003), The Canadian Mineralogist: 41(3): 721-725.
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Hot Creek Range
        • Tybo District
NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Antelope Springs District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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