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Livingstonite

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Formula:
HgSb
 
4
S
 
6
(S
 
2
)
System:MonoclinicColour:Blackish-gray
Hardness:2
Name:
After David Livingston (1813-1873), the African explorer and missionary.
This page provides mineralogical data about Livingstonite.

Classification of Livingstonite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/E.13-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.JA.05i

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb
Dana 8th edition ID:3.7.11.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
7 : ø = 2
Hey's CIM Ref.:5.4.6

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
4 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Zn and Hg
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Type Occurrence of Livingstonite

Type Locality:Huitzuco de los Figueroa (Huitzuco), Mun. de Huitzuco, Guerrero, Mexico
Year of Discovery:1874

Occurrences of Livingstonite

Geological Setting:Low temperature hydrothermal veins

Physical Properties of Livingstonite

Lustre:Adamantine, Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Blackish-gray
Streak:Red
Hardness (Mohs):2
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=96 - 125 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Elastic
Cleavage:Perfect
{001} perfect, {010}, and {100} poor.
Density (measured):4.88(2) g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.013 g/cm3

Crystallography of Livingstonite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b {B1 1 2/b} {C2/c} {C1 2/c 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 30.1543(10) Å, b = 3.9953(2) Å, c = 21.4262(13) Å
β = 104.265(1)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 7.547 : 1 : 5.363
Unit Cell Volume:V 2501.7 ų
Z:8
Morphology:Minute needles elongated [010]. Columnar to fibrous massive; in globular masses of interlaced needles.
Comment:A2/a
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Livingstonite

Type:Biaxial (-)
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong
Dispersion:relatively strong
Colour in reflected light:White
Internal Reflections:Deep red
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Livingstonite

Formula:
HgSb
 
4
S
 
6
(S
 
2
)
Simplified for copy/paste:HgSb4S6(S2)
Essential elements:Hg, S, Sb
All elements listed in formula:Hg, S, Sb

Relationship of Livingstonite to other Species

Common Associates:
SulphurStibniteGypsumCinnabar
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.JA.05eBenjaminite
(Ag,Cu)
 
3
(Bi,Pb)
 
7
S
 
12
2.JA.05gBorodaevite
Ag
 
5
(Bi,Pb,Fe)
 
8
(Sb,Bi)
 
2
S
 
17
2.JA.05aCupropavonite
AgCu
 
2
PbBi
 
5
S
 
10
2.JA.05aKitaibelite
Ag
 
10
PbBi
 
30
S
 
51
2.JA.05dMakovickyite
Ag
 
1.5
Bi
 
5.5
S
 
9
2.JA.05fMummeite
(Cu,Ag)
 
3-4
(Bi,Pb)
 
7-8
S
 
13
2.JA.05aPavonite
(Ag,Cu)(Bi,Pb)
 
3
S
 
5
2.JA.05bGrumiplucite
HgBi
 
2
S
 
4
2.JA.05hMozgovaite
PbBi
 
4
(S,Se)
 
7
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyite
Cu
 
8
Pb
 
4
Ag
 
2
Bi
 
18
S
 
36
2.JA.05cKudriavite
(Cd,Pb)Bi
 
2
S
 
4
2.JA.05aCupromakopavonite
Ag
 
3
Cu
 
8
Pb
 
4
Bi
 
19
S
 
38
2.JA.05Dantopaite
Cu
 
1.06
Ag
 
4.24
Pb
 
0.9
Bi
 
12.23
S
 
21.89
Te
 
0.11
2.JA.10aCuprobismutite
Cu
 
8
AgBi
 
12
S
 
24
2.JA.10cHodrušite
Cu
 
8
Bi
 
12
S
 
22
2.JA.10ePadĕraite
Cu
 
5.9
Ag
 
1.3
Pb
 
1.6
Bi
 
11.2
S
 
22
2.JA.10dPizgrischite
(Cu,Fe)Cu
 
14
PbBi
 
17
S
 
35
2.JA.10bKupčíkite
Cu
 
3.4
Fe
 
0.6
Bi
 
5
S
 
10
2.JA.15Schapbachite
Ag
 
0.4
Pb
 
0.2
Bi
 
0.4
S
2.JA.15Cuboargyrite
AgSbS
 
2
2.JA.20Bohdanowiczite
AgBiSe
 
2
2.JA.20Matildite
AgBiS
 
2
2.JA.20Volynskite
AgBiTe
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
5.4.1Nowackiite
Cu
 
6
Zn
 
3
As
 
4
S
 
12
5.4.2Florensovite
(Cu,Zn)Cr
 
1.5
Sb
 
0.5
S
 
4
5.4.3Aktashite
Cu
 
6
Hg
 
3
As
 
4
S
 
12
5.4.4Laffittite
AgHgAsS
 
3
5.4.5Galkhaite
(Cs,Tl)(Hg,Cu,Zn)
 
6
(As,Sb)
 
4
S
 
12
5.4.7Gruzdevite
Cu
 
6
Hg
 
3
Sb
 
4
S
 
12
5.4.8Tvalchrelidzeite
Hg
 
3
SbAsS
 
3
5.4.9Hakite
Cu
 
6
[Cu
 
4
Hg
 
2
]Sb
 
4
Se
 
13

Other Names for Livingstonite

Other Languages:
German:Livingstonit
Russian:Ливингстонит
Simplified Chinese:硫锑汞矿
Spanish:Livingstonita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Livingstonite

Reference List:

- +
Barcena (1874), Naturaleza: 3: 35.

Barcena (1874), American Journal of Science: 8: 145.

Barcena (1875), American Journal of Science: 9: 64.

Barcena (1879), Naturaleza: 4: 268.

Richmond (1936), American Mineralogist: 21: 719.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 485-486.

Srikrishnan, T. and W. Nowacki (1975): A redetermination of the crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 141, 174–192.

Borisov, S.V., Pervukhina, N.V., Magarill, S.A., Kuratieva, N.V., Vasil’ev, V.I. (2010): Crystallographic analysis of the structure of livingstonite HgSb4S8 from refined data. Crystallography Reports, 55, 224-228.

Internet Links for Livingstonite

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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Livingstonite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Livingstonite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Livingstonite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Livingstonite specimens for sale - minfind.com
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  • Localities for Livingstonite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    G. Nottes & U. Heidtke (1986) Aufschluss 37, 31-36
    China
     
    • Qinghai Province
      • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Xinghai Co.
    Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Wiesloch
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Palatinate
        • Alsenz-Obermoschel
    Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Tohoku Region
        • Iwate Prefecture
    Mineralogical Journal, Spec. 1, 157-159 (1971)
    Kyrgyzstan
     
    • Osh Oblast
      • Alai Range (Alay Range)
    [Lapis 1993:11 p11-24]
        • Fergana Valley
    [Lapis 11:11-24]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Mexico
     
    • Guerrero
      • Mun. de Huitzuco
    Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 141, 174(1957)
    Panczner(1987):254.
    Pancnzer(1987):94-386.
    Panczner (1987): 254.
    Panczner (1987): 254.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Northland
    Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
    Spain
     
    • Castile and Leon
      • León
        • Maraña
          • Boicibacar
    - Luque, C., Garcia, J. and García, P. (1989): Características Geoquimicas de los Cinabrios de la Cordillera Cantábrica (NW de España): Utilidad en prospección. Trabajos de Geología Universidad de Oviedo(18) pp. 1-11
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    USA
     
    • Arkansas
      • Pike Co.
    Roberts, A.C. et al (2003), The Canadian Mineralogist: 41(3): 721-725.
    • Nevada
      • Nye Co.
        • Tybo District
    NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
      • Pershing Co.
        • Antelope Springs District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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