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Lonsdaleite

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Formula:
C
System:HexagonalColour:Transparent ...
Hardness:7 - 8
Name:
For Dame Kathleen Lonsdale (1903-1971), Irish crystallographer who established the structure of benzene by X-ray diffraction methods in 1929. She also worked on the synthesis of diamonds, and was a pioneer in the use of X-rays to study crystals.
Polymorph of:Chaoite, Diamond, Graphite


An allotrope of carbon based on a hexagonal lattice.

Classification of Lonsdaleite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/B.02-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.CB.10b

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
B : Carbon-silicon family
Dana 7th edition ID:1.3.5.3
Dana 8th edition ID:1.3.6.3

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.27

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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Type Occurrence of Lonsdaleite

Type Locality:Canyon Diablo meteorite, Meteor Crater and vicinity, Winslow, Coconino Co., Arizona, USA
Year of Discovery:1967
Geological Setting of type material:Meteorite

Occurrences of Lonsdaleite

Geological Setting:In meteorites and kimberlite.

Physical Properties of Lonsdaleite

Lustre:Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Transparent brownish-yellow, grayish
Hardness (Mohs):7 - 8
Hardness Data:Measured
Comment:imperfections in natural Lonsdaleite reduce hardness, artificial material has tested harder than diamond (>10) , See Physical Review letters (2009)
Density (measured):3.2 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.51 g/cm3

Crystallography of Lonsdaleite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc {P63/m 2/m 2/c}
Cell Parameters:a = 2.51Å, c = 4.12Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.641
Unit Cell Volume:V 22.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Fine grained aggregates

Optical Data of Lonsdaleite

Type:Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values: nα = 2.404 nβ = 2.404
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 2.404

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High

Chemical Properties of Lonsdaleite

Formula:
C
Essential elements:C
All elements listed in formula:C

Relationship of Lonsdaleite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.CB.05bChaoite
C
1.CB.05aGraphite
C
1.CB.05cFullerite
C
 
60
1.CB.10aDiamond
C
1.CB.15Silicon
Si
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.3.5.1Diamond
C
1.3.5.2Graphite
C
1.3.5.4Chaoite
C
1.3.5.5Fullerite
C
 
60

Other Names for Lonsdaleite

Synonyms:
IMA1966-044
Other Languages:
German:Lonsdaleit
Russian:Лонсдейлит
Simplified Chinese:六方金刚石
Spanish:Lonsdaleita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Lonsdaleite

Reference List:

- +
Frondel, C. & Marvin, U.B. (1967): Lonsdaleite, a new hexagonal polymorph of diamond. Nature 214, 587-589.

Frondel, C. & Marvin, U.B. (1967): Lonsdaleite, a hexagonal polymorph of diamond. American Mineralogist 52, 1579-xx.

Bundy, F. P., Kasper, J. S. (1967): Hexagonal Diamond—A New Form of Carbon. Journal of Chemical Physics 46 (9), 3437-3446.

Kaminskii, F.V., G.K. Blinova, E.M. Galimov, G.A. Gurkina, Y.A. Klyuev, L.A. Kodina, V.I. Koptil, V.F. Krivonos, L.N. Frolova, and A.Y. Khrenov (1985): Polycrystalline aggregates of diamond with lonsdaleite from Yakutian [Sakhan] placers. Mineral. Zhurnal 7, 27-36.

He, Hongliang, Sekine, T. & Kobayashi, T. (2002): Direct transformation of cubic diamond to hexagonal diamond. Applied Physics Letters 81 (4), 610.

Physical Review letters (2009) 102, 055503 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.055503


Internet Links for Lonsdaleite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Lonsdaleite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Lonsdaleite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Victoria Land
        • Allan Hills
    Nature 291:396-398 (1981)
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • North Haig
          • Sleeper Camp
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
    China
     
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Liaodong Peninsula
        • Dalian Prefecture
          • Wafangdian Co.
            • Fuxian Kimberlite field
              • Toudaogou (incl. Pipes No. 51; 68 & 74)
    I. Leung and R. Winston, Eos. Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract #####-##, 2002, MR61A-1028 0830h POSTER
    Finland
     
    • Southwestern Finland Region
      • Pargas (Parainen)
        • Nauvo
    Vdovykin, G.P. 1972. Forms of carbon in the new Haverö ureilite of Finland. Meteoritics 7 (4) 547-552.
    India
     
    • Assam
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
    • Uttar Pradesh
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
        • Anabarskii massif
          • Popigai river
    P.H. Nixon, (1995) The morphology and nature of primary diamondiferous occurrences, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Volume 53, Issues 1–3, March 1995, Pages 41-71
    • Mordova Republic
    Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Coconino Co.
        • Winslow
          • Meteor Crater and vicinity
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 203, 280; Frondel, C. & U.B. Marvin (1967a), Lonsdaleite, a new hexagonal polymorph of diamond. Nature: 214: 587-589; Frondel, C. & U.B. Marvin (1967b), Lonsdaleite, a hexagonal polymorph of diamond, Am.Min.: 52: 1576.
    • New Mexico
      • Roosevelt Co.
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 40, Dec. 1976, p. 1429-1437.
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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