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Lonsdaleite

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Kathleen Lonsdale
Formula:
C
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Transparent ...
Hardness:
7 - 8
Name:
For Dame Kathleen Lonsdale (1903-1971), Irish crystallographer who established the structure of benzene by X-ray diffraction methods in 1929. She also worked on the synthesis of diamonds, and was a pioneer in the use of X-rays to study crystals.
Polymorph of:
A questionable allotrope of carbon based on a hexagonal lattice.
Németh et al. (2014) consider lonsdaleite to be a faulted and twinned cubic diamond.

Classification of Lonsdaleite

Approved
1.CB.10b

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
B : Carbon-silicon family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.3.5.3
1.3.6.3

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
1.27

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-2431.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Lonsdaleite

Year of Discovery:
1967
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Meteorite

Occurrences of Lonsdaleite

Geological Setting:
In meteorites and kimberlite.

Physical Properties of Lonsdaleite

Adamantine
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Transparent brownish-yellow, grayish
Hardness (Mohs):
7 - 8
Hardness Data:
Measured
Comment:
imperfections in natural Lonsdaleite reduce hardness, artificial material has tested harder than diamond (>10) , See Physical Review letters (2009)
Density:
3.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.51 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Lonsdaleite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.51Å, c = 4.12Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.641
Unit Cell Volume:
V 22.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Fine grained aggregates

Optical Data of Lonsdaleite

Type:
Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 2.404 nβ = 2.404
Max Birefringence:
δ = 2.404
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Lonsdaleite

Formula:
C
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Lonsdaleite to other Species

1.1CopperCu
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24DiamondC
1.25GraphiteC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.30LeadPb
1.31AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.33ArsenicAs
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.41AntimonySb
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Lonsdaleite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Lonsdaleit
Simplified Chinese:六方金刚石
Spanish:Lonsdaleita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Lonsdaleite

Reference List:
Frondel, C. & Marvin, U.B. (1967): Lonsdaleite, a new hexagonal polymorph of diamond. Nature 214, 587-589.

Frondel, C. & Marvin, U.B. (1967): Lonsdaleite, a hexagonal polymorph of diamond. American Mineralogist 52, 1579-xx.

Bundy, F. P., Kasper, J. S. (1967): Hexagonal Diamond—A New Form of Carbon. Journal of Chemical Physics 46 (9), 3437-3446.

Kaminskii, F.V., G.K. Blinova, E.M. Galimov, G.A. Gurkina, Y.A. Klyuev, L.A. Kodina, V.I. Koptil, V.F. Krivonos, L.N. Frolova, and A.Y. Khrenov (1985): Polycrystalline aggregates of diamond with lonsdaleite from Yakutian [Sakhan] placers. Mineral. Zhurnal 7, 27-36.

He, Hongliang, Sekine, T. & Kobayashi, T. (2002): Direct transformation of cubic diamond to hexagonal diamond. Applied Physics Letters 81 (4), 610.

Physical Review letters (2009) 102, 055503 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.055503

Péter Németh, Laurence A. J. Garvie, Toshihiro Aoki, Natalia Dubrovinskaia, Leonid Dubrovinsky & Peter R. Buseck (2014): Lonsdaleite is faulted and twinned cubic diamond and does not exist as a discrete material. Nature Communications, 5, article 5447.

Internet Links for Lonsdaleite

Localities for Lonsdaleite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
Nature 291:396-398 (1981)
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • North Haig
        • Sleeper Camp
Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
China
 
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Liaodong Peninsula
      • Dalian Prefecture
        • Wafangdian Co.
          • Fuxian Kimberlite field
            • Toudaogou (incl. Pipes No. 51; 68 & 74)
I. Leung and R. Winston, Eos. Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract #####-##, 2002, MR61A-1028 0830h POSTER
Finland
 
  • Southwestern Finland Region
    • Pargas (Parainen)
      • Nauvo
Vdovykin, G.P. 1972. Forms of carbon in the new Haverö ureilite of Finland. Meteoritics 7 (4) 547-552.
India
 
  • Assam
Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
  • Uttar Pradesh
Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Anabarskii massif
        • Popigai river
P.H. Nixon, (1995) The morphology and nature of primary diamondiferous occurrences, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Volume 53, Issues 1–3, March 1995, Pages 41-71
  • Mordova Republic
Gennady P. Vdovykin (1970). Ureilites. Space Science Reviews 10, #4, 483-510.
USA (TL)
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Winslow
        • Meteor Crater and vicinity
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 203, 280; Frondel, C. & U.B. Marvin (1967a), Lonsdaleite, a new hexagonal polymorph of diamond. Nature: 214: 587-589; Frondel, C. & U.B. Marvin (1967b), Lonsdaleite, a hexagonal polymorph of diamond, Am.Min.: 52: 1576.
  • New Mexico
    • Roosevelt Co.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 40, Dec. 1976, p. 1429-1437.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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