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Loveringite

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Lohning quarry (Lohninger quarry), Hüttwinkl valley, Rauris valley, Hohe Tauern, Salzburg, Austria
© [email protected]




Formula:
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38
System:TrigonalColour:Black, white in ...
Lustre:Metallic, Sub-MetallicHardness:5
Member of:Crichtonite Group


A member of the Crichtonite Group.

Classification of Loveringite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.09-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.CC.40

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
C : With large and medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:8.5.1.2

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
5 : AB21O38
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.9.25

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Loveringite

Type Locality:Jimberlana Intrusion, Norseman, Dundas Shire, Western Australia, Australia
Year of Discovery:1978

Physical Properties of Loveringite

Lustre:Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Black, white in reflected light.
Hardness (Mohs):5
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=421 - 464
Hardness Data:Measured
Density (calculated):4.42 g/cm3

Crystallography of Loveringite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Cell Parameters:a = 10.33Å, c = 20.67Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.001
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,910.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Anhedral to acicular crystals.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.384 (87)
3.037 (93)
2.129 (68)
1.791 (71)
1.589 (92)
1.433 (100)

Chemical Properties of Loveringite

Formula:
(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)
 
18
O
 
38


Simplified for copy/paste:(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
Essential elements:Ca, Mg, O, Ti, Zr
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, Ce, Cr, Fe, La, Mg, O, Ti, Zr

Relationship of Loveringite to other Species

Member of:Crichtonite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Almeidaite
PbZn
 
2
(Mn,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
18
O
 
37
(OH,O)
Cleusonite
(Pb,Sr)(U
4+
 
,U
6+
 
)(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
18
(O,OH)
 
38
Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
Davidite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)
 
20
(O,OH)
 
38
Davidite-(La)
(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)
 
20
(O,OH)
 
38
Davidite-(Y)
(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe
2+
 
,◻)(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Nb,Zr)
 
18
O
 
38
(hypothetical)
Dessauite-(Y)
(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
20
O
 
38
Gramaccioliite-(Y)
(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe
3+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
18
O
 
38
Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
Mapiquiroite
(Sr,Pb)(U,Y)Fe
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Cr
3+
 
)
 
18
O
 
38
Mathiasite
K(Ti,Cr,Fe,Mg,Zr)
 
21
O
 
38
Paseroite
PbMn
2+
 
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(V
5+
 
,Ti,◻)
 
18
O
 
38
Romanite
(◻,Pb,Ca)UFe
2+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
Senaite
Pb(Ti,Fe,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
Unnamed (HBU UK-4)
NaFe
2+
 
Zn
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Nb)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.CC.05Chrombismite
Bi
 
16
CrO
 
27
4.CC.10Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
4.CC.15Grossite
CaAl
 
4
O
 
7
4.CC.20Mayenite
Ca
 
12
Al
 
14
O
 
33
4.CC.20Brearleyite
Ca
 
12
Al
 
14
O
 
32
Cl
 
2
4.CC.25Yafsoanite
Ca
 
3
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
6
)
 
2
4.CC.30Latrappite
(Ca,Na)(Nb,Ti,Fe)O
 
3
4.CC.30Lueshite
NaNbO
 
3
4.CC.30Natroniobite
NaNbO
 
3
4.CC.30Perovskite
CaTiO
 
3
4.CC.30Barioperovskite
BaTiO
 
3
4.CC.30Lakargiite
Ca(Zr,Sn,Ti)O
 
3
4.CC.30Megawite
CaSnO
 
3
4.CC.35Loparite-(Ce)
(Na,Ce,Ca,Sr,Th)(Ti,Nb,Fe)O
 
3
4.CC.35Macedonite
PbTiO
 
3
4.CC.35Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
4.CC.35Isolueshite
(Na,La,Ca)(Nb,Ti)O
 
3
4.CC.40Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)
 
20
(O,OH)
 
38
4.CC.40Davidite-(La)
(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)
 
20
(O,OH)
 
38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Y)
(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe
2+
 
,◻)(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Nb,Zr)
 
18
O
 
38
(hypothetical)
4.CC.40Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38
4.CC.40Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
4.CC.40Mathiasite
K(Ti,Cr,Fe,Mg,Zr)
 
21
O
 
38
4.CC.40Senaite
Pb(Ti,Fe,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
4.CC.40Dessauite-(Y)
(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
20
O
 
38
4.CC.40Cleusonite
(Pb,Sr)(U
4+
 
,U
6+
 
)(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
2
(Ti,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
18
(O,OH)
 
38
4.CC.40Gramaccioliite-(Y)
(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe
3+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
18
O
 
38
4.CC.45Diaoyudaoite
NaAl
 
11
O
 
17
4.CC.45Hawthorneite
Ba(MgTi
 
3
Cr
 
4
Fe
 
4
)O
 
19
4.CC.45Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Lindqvistite
Pb
 
2
Mn
2+
 
Fe
 
16
O
 
27
4.CC.45Magnetoplumbite
(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Plumboferrite
Pb
 
2
Fe
3+
11-x
Mn
2+
x
O
 
19-2x
, x = 1/3
4.CC.45Yimengite
K(Cr,Ti,Fe,Mg)
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Haggertyite
Ba[Fe
2+
6
Ti
 
5
Mg]O
 
19
4.CC.45Nežilovite
PbZn
 
2
(Mn
4+
 
,Ti
4+
 
)
 
2
Fe
3+
8
O
 
19
4.CC.45Batiferrite
Ba[Ti
 
2
Fe
3+
8
Fe
2+
2
]O
 
19
4.CC.45Hibonite-(Fe)
(Fe,Mg)Al
 
12
O
 
19
4.CC.45Barioferrite
BaFe
3+
12
O
 
19
4.CC.50Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
4.CC.55Zenzénite
Pb
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
4
Mn
 
3
O
 
13
4.CC.60Mengxianminite
(Ca,Na)
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
Mg
 
2
(Sn,Zn)
 
5
Al
 
8
O
 
29
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.9.1Hongquiite
TiO
7.9.2Rutile
TiO
 
2
7.9.3Anatase
TiO
 
2
7.9.4Brookite
TiO
 
2
7.9.5Geikielite
MgTiO
 
3
7.9.6Perovskite
CaTiO
 
3
7.9.7Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
7.9.8Tausonite
SrTiO
 
3
7.9.9Crichtonite
(Sr,La,Ce,Y)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Mn)
 
21
O
 
38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.11Hibonite
(Ca,Ce)Al
 
12
O
 
19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)
(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
7.9.13Pyrophanite
Mn
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.14Iwakiite
Mn(Fe,Mn)
 
2
O
 
4
7.9.15Ilmenite
Fe
2+
 
TiO
 
3
7.9.16Pseudobrookite
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
5
7.9.17Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
7.9.18Pseudorutile
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
9
7.9.19Freudenbergite
Na
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.20Kennedyite
MgFe
3+
2
Ti
 
3
O
 
10
7.9.21Armalcolite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Ti
 
2
O
 
5
7.9.22Högbomite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Al,Ti)
 
5
O
 
10
7.9.23Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
7.9.24Cafetite
(Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)
 
2
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
· 4H
 
2
O
7.9.26Lindsleyite
(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Ti,Cr,Fe)
 
18
O
 
38
7.9.27Priderite
K(Ti
4+
7
Fe
3+
 
)O
 
16
7.9.28Jeppeite
(K,Ba)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
O
 
13
7.9.29Ankangite
Ba(Ti,V
3+
 
,Cr)
 
8
O
 
16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite
(Zn,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)TiO
 
3
7.9.31Landauite
NaMnZn
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
6
Ti
 
12
O
 
38

Other Names for Loveringite

Synonyms:
IMA1977-023
Other Languages:
German:Loveringit
Russian:Ловерингит
Simplified Chinese:钛铈钙矿
Spanish:Loveringita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Loveringite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1921): 6: 36.

American Mineralogist (1978): 63: 28-36.

Kelly, P.R., I.H. Campbell, I.E. Grey and B.M. Gatehouse (1979): Additional data on loveringite (Ca,REE)(Ti,Fe,CrhI038 and mohsite discredited. Canadian Mineralogist, 17, 635-638.

American Mineralogist (1983): 68: 474.

Internet Links for Loveringite

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  • Look for Loveringite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Loveringite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Loveringite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Tamanghasset Province
      • Ahaggar Mtn (Hoggar Mtn)
        • Laouni
    J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Norseman
    [Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - ; AM 1978, 28-36; I. H. Campbell and P. R. Kelly (1978) The Geochemistry of Loveringite, a Uranium-Rare-Earth-Bearing Accessory Phase from the Jimberlana Intrusion of Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 42:187-193.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Rauris valley
          • Hüttwinkl valley
    Lapis 2003(1), 48; BRANDSTÄTTER, F. & NIEDERMAYR, G. (2008): 1539. Cleusonit (ehemals „Senait“) aus den „Gneisplatten“-Brüchen in der Rauris und von der „Pramleiten“, südlich Schellgaden im Lungau – eine Richtigstellung. In: G. Niedermayr, C. Bauer, F. Bernhard, G. Blass, H.-P. Bojar, F. Brandstätter, J. Gröbner, V. M. F. Hammer, G. Koch, U. Kolitsch, B. Leikauf, C. Loránth, R. Poeverlein, W. Postl, H. Prasnik, T. Schachinger, P. Tomazic & F. Walter, Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVII, Carinthia II, 198/118, 248-249.
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Sodankylä
    Mutanen, T. 1997. Geology and ore petrology of the Akanvaara and Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and the Keivitsa-Satovaara layered complex, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 395, 233 s.
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Pudasjärvi
    Karinen, Tuomo 2010. The Koillismaa intrusion northeasten Finland - evidence for PGE reef forming processes in the layered series. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 404
    French Southern and Antarctic Lands
     
    Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 122, 174-190 (1995)
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
    Can. Miner. 35, 899-908 (1997)
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    http://maurice.strahlen.org/kola/khibiny.htm
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Masvingo
      • Chiredzi Mining District (Hartley Mining District)
        • Chiredzi
    Stribrny, B., Wellmer, F.-W., Burgath, K.-P., Oberthür, T., Tarkian, M., and Pfeiffer, T. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 260-281.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
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