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Ludwigite

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Formula:
Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
System:OrthorhombicColour:Dark-green to black
Lustre:SilkyHardness:5
Member of:Ludwigite Group
Name:After Ernst Ludwig (1842-1915), Professor of Chemistry, University of Vienna.
Isostructural with:Vonsenite


Ludwigite Group. Ludwigite-Vonsenite Series. The magnesium analogue of Vonsenite.

A high-temperature mineral occurring in contact metamorphic deposits.

Classification of Ludwigite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/G.04-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:6.AB.30

6 : BORATES
A : Monoborates
B : BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.
Dana 8th edition ID:24.2.1.1

24 : ANHYDROUS BORATES
2 : A2BO2[XO3]
Hey's CIM Ref.:9.8.2

9 : Borates
8 : Borates of Fe
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Type Occurrence of Ludwigite

Type Locality:Ocna de Fier (Vaskö-Moraviţa; Vaskö-Moravicza; Eisenstein), Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District, Banat Mts, Caraş-Severin Co., Romania
Year of Discovery:1874

Occurrences of Ludwigite

Geological Setting:In contact metamorphic deposits as high-temperature phases.

Physical Properties of Ludwigite

Lustre:Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Dark-green to black
Streak:Black, blackish green
Hardness (Mohs):5
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Fibrous
Density (measured):3.6 g/cm3

Crystallography of Ludwigite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:a = 9.26Å, b = 12.26Å, c = 3.05Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.755 : 1 : 0.249
Unit Cell Volume:V 346.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals prismatic [001], rare, with a rhombic cross-section and lacking terminal faces. As fibrous masses, radiating to dense felted aggregates; sheaf-like aggregates; rosettes of needle-like crystals. Granular.

Optical Data of Ludwigite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.830 - 1.850 nβ = 1.830 - 1.850 nγ = 1.940 - 2.020
2V:Measured: 20° to 45°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.110 - 0.170

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r greater than v, extreme
Pleochroism:Strong
Comments:X = Dark green
Y = Dark green
Z = Dark reddish brown (may be opaque)

Chemical Properties of Ludwigite

Formula:
Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Mg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Essential elements:B, Fe, Mg, O
All elements listed in formula:B, Fe, Mg, O
Common Impurities:Al

Relationship of Ludwigite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Vonsenite (see here)
Member of:Ludwigite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Azoproite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Bonaccordite
Ni
 
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Fredrikssonite
Mg
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Vonsenite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
Common Associates:
SzaibélyiteMagnetiteForsteriteDiopside
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
6.AB.05Hambergite
Be
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
6.AB.10Berborite
Be
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(OH,F) · H
 
2
O
6.AB.15Jeremejevite
Al
 
6
(BO
 
3
)
 
5
(F,OH)
 
3
6.AB.20Warwickite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
Ti(BO
 
3
)
 
2
O
 
2
6.AB.20Yuanfuliite
Mg(Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Al,Ti,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
6.AB.25Karlite
Mg
 
7
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(OH,Cl)
 
5
6.AB.30Azoproite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.30Bonaccordite
Ni
 
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.30Fredrikssonite
Mg
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.30Vonsenite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.35Pinakiolite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Blatterite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Sb
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Chestermanite
Mg
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
,Al,Sb
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Orthopinakiolite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Mn
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.40Takéuchiite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.45Hulsite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Sn)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.45Magnesiohulsite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Sn,Mg)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.45Aluminomagnesiohulsite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
6.AB.50Fluoborite
Mg
 
3
(BO
 
3
)(F,OH)
 
3
6.AB.50Hydroxylborite
Mg
 
3
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
 
3
6.AB.55Shabynite
Mg
 
5
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
 
5
(Cl,OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
6.AB.55Wightmanite
Mg
 
5
(BO
 
3
)O(OH)
 
5
· 2H
 
2
O
6.AB.60Gaudefroyite
Ca
 
4
Mn
3+
2-3
(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(O,OH)
 
3
6.AB.65Sakhaite
Ca
 
12
Mg
 
4
(BO
 
3
)
 
7
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
Cl
6.AB.70Harkerite
Ca
 
12
Mg
 
4
Al(BO
 
3
)
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(F)
Mg
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(F,OH)
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(OH)
Mg
 
2
(BO
 
3
)(OH)
6.AB.80Jacquesdietrichite
Cu
 
2
(H
 
2
BO
 
3
)(OH)
 
3
6.AB.85Painite
CaZrAl
 
9
(BO
 
3
)O
 
15
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
9.8.1Vonsenite
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
 
(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.8.3Fredrikssonite
Mg
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2
9.8.4Chestermanite
Mg
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
,Al,Sb
3+
 
)(BO
 
3
)O
 
2

Other Names for Ludwigite

Synonyms:
CollbraniteMagnesioludwigite
Other Languages:
German:Ludwigit
Russian:Людвигит
Simplified Chinese:硼镁铁矿
Spanish:Ludwigita
Traditional Chinese:硼鎂鐵礦
Varieties:
AlumoludwigiteStanniferous Ludwigite

Other Information

Other Information:Slowly soluble in acids.

Alters to Limonite.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:None

References for Ludwigite

Reference List:

- +
Tschermak (1874) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 59.

Mallard (1888) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 11: 305.

Groth (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 650.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 877.

Goldschmidt (1897): 224.

Schaller (1910) American Journal of Science: 30: 146.

Butler and Schaller (1917) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 7: 29 (as Magnesioludwigite).

Higgins (1918) Economic Geology: 13: 19 (as Collbranite).

Eakle (1920) American Mineralogist: 5: 141.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 102.

Shannon (1921) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 59: 667.

Shannon (1921) American Mineralogist: 6: 86.

Edwards (1924) American Journal of Science: 7: 486.

Harada (1938) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaidô University: 4: 165.

Geijer (1939) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 61: 19.

Watanabe (1939) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 50: 441.

Switzer in: Knopf (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 824.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 321-324.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore & Angelina Calomeris Vlisidis (1961), The composition of aluminian Ludwigite from Crestmore, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 335-339.

Federico M. (1968) - Studio di un processo di ossidazione della ludwigite. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 377-389.

Vlisidid, A.C. and Schaller, W.T. (1974) The identity of paigeite with vonsenite, and chemical analysis of vonsenite, ludwigite and hulsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1974(3-4): 95-105.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1989): 69-83.

Acta Crystallographica: 3: 98-107.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Appel, P. W. U. & Brigatti, M. F. (1999): Ludwigite from central Sweden: new data and crystal structure refinement. Mineral. Mag., 63: 511–518.

Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 414.

Internet Links for Ludwigite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Ludwigite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Ludwigite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Afghanistan
     
    • Daykundi Province (Daykondi Province)
      • Gizab District
    Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
    • Ghazni Province (Gazni Province)
      • Jaghuri District
    Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
    Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
    • Kandahar Province (Qandahar Province)
      • Khakrez District
    Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
    Argentina
     
    • Jujuy
      • Humahuaca Department
        • Aguilar district
    Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Corinna-Savage River district
    Bottrill & Taheri, 2008, Savage River mine, Unpub. Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania
      • Zeehan district
        • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Zillertal
          • Schlegeis valley (Schlegeisgrund)
    G. Franz, D. Ackermann, E. Koch: Amer. Mineral. 66:872-877 (1981)
    Bulgaria
     
    • Yambol Oblast
      • Tundzha Obshtina
    Marcus Voigt collection
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Hastings Co.
        • Dungannon Township
    Sabina, A.P. (1982): Some rare minerals of the Bancroft area. Mineralogical Record 13 (4), 226-228
    • Québec
      • Outaouais
        • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
          • Chelsea
    Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41
          • Wakefield
    Sabina, A.P. (1987) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec, Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 41, 34-35 p.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Huaibei Prefecture
        • Suixi Co.
          • Sanpu ore field
    Yanjing Chen, Huayong Chen, Khin Zaw, Pirajno, F., and Zengjie Zhang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 139-169.
    Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, and Chengsi Bi (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 14, 227-249.
    Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
      • Xuancheng Prefecture
        • Xuanzhou District
    Lianxing Gu, Khin Zaw, Wenxuan Hu, Kaijun Zhang, Pei Ni, Jinxiang He, Yaotong Xu, Jianjun Lu, and Chunming Lin (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 107-138.
    • Guangdong Province
      • Heyuan Prefecture
        • Lianping Co.
    Jianxiong Zhou and Jinyan Lu (1981): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 1(4), 193-199; Lianshun Feng (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(3), 21-27
      • Qingyuan Prefecture
        • Yangshan Co.
    Zhenhai Wang (2000): Guangdong Geology 15(2), 9-18
    • Hebei Province
      • Baoding Prefecture
        • Laiyuan Co.
    Chang Zhaoshan and Feng Zhongyan (1996): Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis 32(6), 724-733; Guoxi Ma (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 342-345
    • Hunan Province
      • Hengyang Prefecture
        • Changning Co.
          • Dayishan Sn-polymetallic ore field
    Rongwen Zhou and Zhishun Chen (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(3), 29-31
    Yang Guangming, Peng Zhizhong, and Pan Zhaolu (1985): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 5(2), 97-101; Aleksandrov, S.M. (1998): Geochemistry of skarn and ore formation in dolomites. VSP (Utrecht, Tokyo), 300 pp.
    Rongwen Zhou and Zaixi Li (1992): Hunan Geology 11(1), 71-74
      • Yongzhou Prefecture
        • Dao Co.
    Fushun Li, Ruhua Kang, Xuyun Hu, Wuliang Ma, Xinhua Huang, Yonghong Zeng, Junbin Tang, Xian Zhu, Zhiwei Qin, Jie Zhao, and Libin He (2012): Geology in China 39(2), 445-457
    • Jiangsu Province
      • Nantong Prefecture
        • Qidong Co.
    Kamitani, M., Okumura, K., Teraoka, Y., Miyano, S., and Watanabe, Y. (2007): Mineral Resources Map of East Asia. Geological Survey of Japan.
    • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Tonghua Prefecture
        • Ji'an Co.
    Zongkai Lu (1984): Jilin Geology 3(3)
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Dandong Prefecture
        • Fengcheng Co.
    Rongge Xiao, Oi Takao, Hongcai Fei, and Masao Nomura (2003): Geoscience 17(2), 137-142; Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359; Xuehui Xia, Fei Yan, Yuhai Zhao, and Wenzong Chang (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(1), 83-88; Cuizhi Wang, Rongge Xiao, and Jingdang Liu (2008): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 30(5), 542-552
      • Liaodong Peninsula
        • Dalian Prefecture
          • Wafangdian Co.
    Matsuda, K. (1969) Copper-bearing contact deposits of Hua-tung-kou, Fu Hsien, Feng-tien province, Manchuria (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, vol. 2, pp 414-422, Tokyo University Press); Zhiqian Zhang and Jianning Wang (2009): Gold Science and Technology 17(2), 34-37, 53; Zhiqian Zhang, Jianning Wang, and Hongfan Qu (2011): Gold Science and Technology 19(1), 38-41
        • Yingkou Prefecture
          • Dashiqiao Co.
    Rongge Xiao, Oi Takao, Hongcai Fei, and Masao Nomura (2003): Geoscience 17(2), 137-142; Cuizhi Wang, Rongge Xiao, Jingdang Liu, Hongcai Fei, Wenwu Wang, Hongchun Zhou, and Jingqing Liu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(6), 683-692
      • Liaoyang Prefecture
        • Liaoyang Co.
    Mingshou Yang (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(2), 8-18
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dulan Co.
    Guoqiang Tian, Duolu Zhu, and Yong Tian (2006): Gansu Metallurgy 28(3), 63-65
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Kezilesu Autonomous Prefecture (Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture; Qizilsu Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Atushi Co. (Artux Co.; Atux Co.; Atush Co.)
    Fuquan Yang, Huijuan Deng, Haodong Xia, Boyong Ma, and Liben Wang (2003): Xinjiang Geology 21(4), 426-432
    • Yunnan Province
      • Baoshan Prefecture
        • Tengchong Co.
          • Tengchong Sn belt
            • Diantan
    Feibao Wu and Zongyu Li (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(8), 20-26; Shilu Zhang (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(3), 19-26
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Šrein, V., Hloušek, J.: Ludwigit a hulsit z Krušných hor. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1998, roč. 6, s. 243-246.
      • Ústí Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Klášterec nad Ohří
    Robert Vaňo specimens
    France
     
    • Languedoc-Roussillon
      • Pyrénées-Orientales
        • Prats de Mollo-La Preste (Prats de Molló-La Presta)
    Goujou J-C., Guitard G., Berbain C. (2000), Le massif de Costabonne, 2464 m (Pyrénées-Orientales), Le Règne Minéral, n°32, pp: 5-12
    Germany
     
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Lapis, 17 (10), 13-24+82.
          • Antonsthal
    http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen/Chemnitz%2C%20Direktionsbezirk/Erzgebirgskreis/Schwarzenberger%20Kuppel/Antonsthal/F%E4llbach
    Gröbner J., Kolitsch U.; Neufunde aus dem Erzgebirge (II), Mineralien-Welt Jg 17 (2006), 3, pag. 22-27.
        • Schwarzenberg District
          • Pöhla
    Collection of Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
    Italy
     
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
        • Rome
    Bachechi F., Federico M., Fornaseri M. (1966) - Prima segnalazione di ludwigite e di magnesioferrite nelle geodi delle "pozzolane nere" di Corcolle (regione vulcanica dei Colli Albani). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma p. 717, Bachechi F., Federico M., Fornaseri M. (1966) - La ludwigite e i minerali che l'accompagnano nelle geodi delle "pozzolane nere" di Corcolle (Tivoli, Colli Albani). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 975-1022.
          • Valleranello
    • Lombardy
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valfurva
          • Cedec Valley
    Bedognè,F,,Montrasio; A. & Sciesa;E. (2006): I minerali della media-alta Valtellina delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Bettini, Sondrio, Italia, 255.
          • Zebrù Valley
    Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006). I minerali della medio-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Tip. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
    • Piedmont
      • Torino Province
        • Canavese District
          • Léssolo
            • Cálea
    "Le miniere di Brosso" I.Campostrini 2001 - ed. Museo Regionale Torino
    • Umbria
      • Terni Province
        • San Venanzo
    Meli R. (1997) - Giacimenti da non dimenticare: i minerali della vulcaniti di San Venanzo (Terni). Riv. Miner. Ital. 3, pag. 269-275
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Tohoku Region
        • Fukushima Prefecture
          • Kawamata
    Alfredo Petrov collection
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Miyako City
            • Neichi mine
    Kato, A. (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 39.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
      • Balkhash Region (Balqash; Karatas; Prebalkhashie)
        • Sayak
          • Sayak group skarn deposits
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    North Korea
     
    • North Hwanghae Province
    No reference listed
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323,370,376.
    Watanabe, T. : Boron mineral resources in Korea (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, University of Tokyo Press, 1969)
    Watanabe, T. : Boron mineral resources in Korea (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, University of Tokyo Press, 1969)
    Watanabe, T. : Boron mineral resources in Korea (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, University of Tokyo Press, 1969)
    Norway
     
    • Troms
      • Kvæfjord (Kvaefjord)
        • Hinnøya
    Bøe, P. (1997): Boratmineralet ludwigitt i høymetamorf marmor i Vesterålen. STEIN 24 (3), 130-136
    Pakistan
     
    • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
      • Mansehra District
        • Kaghan Valley
          • Naran
    Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.; Moore, T. (2004): What's New in Minerals. Costa Mesa Show 2003. Mineralogical Record. 35 (2), 143-145
    Peru
     
    • Junín Department
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
    Romania
     
    • Bihor Co.
      • Nucet
    Ş. Marincea: "Suanite in two boron-bearing magnesian skarns from Romania: data on a longtime ignored mineral species", Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen 182:183-192 (2006)
    Ş. Marincea: "Suanite in two boron-bearing magnesian skarns from Romania: data on a longtime ignored mineral species", Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen 182:183-192 (2006); MARINCEA, S. (2000). The influence of Al on the physical and crystallographic properties of ludwigite in three Romanian occurrences. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12(4), 809-823.
    • Caraş-Severin Co.
      • Banat Mts
        • Moldova Nouă-Sasca Cu-Mo ore field
    www.minerals-of-the-carpathians,2009
        • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.; Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.; MARINCEA, S. (2000). The influence of Al on the physical and crystallographic properties of ludwigite in three Romanian occurrences. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12(4), 809-823.
    Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
    Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
    Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.; Stefan Nicolescu (1996) - Excursion Guide. Field trip E1, Banat and Transylvanian Gold District, Romania. M&M 3, 3rd International Conference on Mineralogy and Museums, Budapest, Hungary, June 9 - 13, 1996, 60 pp
    Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
    Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
    Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
    Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 65(3), pp. 351–372
    Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.; Stefan Nicolescu (1996) - Excursion Guide. Field trip E1, Banat and Transylvanian Gold District, Romania. M&M 3, 3rd International Conference on Mineralogy and Museums, Budapest, Hungary, June 9 - 13, 1996, 60 pp.
    • Cluj Co.
      • Masca Băişoara
        • Iara (Alsójára)
    http://www.geoecomar.ro/website/publicatii/supliment2008/15.pdf; http://www.geoecomar.ro/website/publicatii/supliment2008/15.pdf ; MARINCEA, S. (2000). The influence of Al on the physical and crystallographic properties of ludwigite in three Romanian occurrences. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12(4), 809-823.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Lake Baikal area
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Zheleznogorsk
    Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.
    American Mineralogist 42:582-583
        • Aldan Shield
          • Aldan
    Schreyer et al (1998), Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 133: 382-388.; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
        • Polar Yakutia
          • Dogdo River Basin
            • Tas-Khayakhtakh Range
              • Izvestkovyi Stream
    N.N. Pertsev data; Galuskina I.O., Kadiyski M., Armbruster T., Galuskin E.V., Pertsev N.N., Dzierzanowski P., Wrzalik R. (2008) A new natural phase in the system Mg2SiO4-Mg2BO3F-Mg2BO3(OH): composition, paragenesis and structure of OH-dominant pertsevite, - Eur. J. Mineral., 20, p. 951-964.
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Rudnev, V.V., Chukanov, N.V., Nechelyustov, G.N., Yamnova, N.A. (2007): Hydroxylborite, Mg3(BO3)(OH)3, a new mineral, and the isomorphous fluoborite-hydroxylborite series. Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society, 136(1), 69-82.; Aleksandrov, S.M. (1998): Geochemistry of skarn and ore formation in dolomites. VSP (Utrecht, Tokyo), 300 pp.; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
        • Verkhoyansk
          • Yana River Basin
            • Dogdo river
    W. Schreyer et al. (2003) Eur. Journ. Mineral. 15, 1007-1018
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
          • Vitim Plateau
    Lapis 29(1), 47 (2004); American Mineralogist, Volume 87, pages 1509–1513, 2002
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Khabarovskiy Kray
        • Dzhugdzhur Ridge
    Galuskina, I. O., Kadiyski, M., Armbruster, T., Galuskin, E. V., Pertsev, N. N., Dzierzanowski, P., & Wrzalik, R. (2008). A new natural phase in the system Mg2SiO4Mg2BO3FMg2BO3 (OH): composition, paragenesis and structure of OH-dominant pertsevite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20(5), 951-964.
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Kavalerovo Mining District
    [MinRec 32:8]
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Ladoga Region
    Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica; Aleksandrov, S. M., & Troneva, M. A. (2009). Composition and genesis of endogenous borates from the Pitkáranta ore field, Karelia. Geochemistry International, 47(9), 914-929.
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Kusinskii raion
            • Medvedevka
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Málaga
        • Igualeja
    Curras, J. y Torres, J. (1992).Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 15 (1), 319-322.
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Falun
        • Svärdsjö
      • Hedemora
    No reference listed
    • Uppland
      • Norrtälje
        • Söderby-Karl
    No reference listed
        • Stabby ore field
    No reference listed
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
    Kjell Gatedal, Fritz Blatter
        • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
    NJMMh 2001, 520; K.Gatedal
        • Persberg
    Kjell Gatedal
        • Persberg district
    Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
    • Västmanland
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
        • Kallmora
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 369.
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Skye
          • Broadford
            • Kilchrist
            • Torrin
    A. Livingstone: Minerals of Scotland, NMS Publications (2002)
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Nome Borough
        • Seward Peninsula
    USGS Bull 358
          • York Range
    www.excaliburmineral.com.
    • Arizona
      • Pima Co.
        • Santa Catalina Mts
          • Oracle District (Control District; Old Hat District; Santa Catalina District)
            • Mount Bigelow
              • Leatherwood Mine group (Apache group)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 281.
    • California
      • Fresno Co.
        • Lakeshore
    Canadian Minelalogist Vol.26, pp. 911-916 (1988)
        • Twin Lakes
          • Kaiser Ridge
    Chesterman, C.W. (1959), Ludwigite from Fresno County, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 70: 1712-1713; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236.
          • Lower Twin Lake
    Vlisidid, A.C. and Schaller, W.T. (1974) The identity of paigeite with vonsenite, and chemical analysis of vonsenite, ludwigite and hulsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1974(3-4): 95-105; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236, 237.
      • Kern Co.
    Page, Lincoln Ridler (1946), Contact metamorphic deposits of Cassiterite in California: (abstract) Geological Society of America Bulletin 56: 1187; […American Mineralogist: 31: 202 (1946)]; Wiese, J.H. & L.R. Page (1946), Tin deposits of the Gorman District, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246, 330.
          • Lebec
            • Tejon Tin project (Gorman Tin project)
    Page, Lincoln Ridler (1946), Contact metamorphic deposits of Cassiterite in California: (abstract) Geological Society of America Bulletin 56: 1187; […American Mineralogist (1946): 31: 202]; Wiese, J.H. & L.R. Page (1946), Tin deposits of the Gorman district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 42(1): 36; Vlisidid, A.C. and Schaller, W.T. (1974) The identity of paigeite with vonsenite, and chemical analysis of vonsenite, ludwigite and hulsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1974(3-4): 99; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236.
      • Monterey Co.
        • Gabilan Range
    Chesterman, C.W. (1966a), Vonsenite of Monterey County, California: American Mineralogist: 51: 261-262; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236.
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
          • Crestmore quarries
            • Sky Blue Hill
    AmMin 26:352-381
    Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 366.
    Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 366.
        • Jurupa Mts
          • Jurupa
    Cooney, R.L. (1956), The mineralogy of the Jensen and Henshaw quarries near Riverside, California: Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California at Los Angeles: 32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236; Devito, F. and Ordway, A. (1984), The Jensen Quarry, Riverside County, California. Mineralogical Record: 15(5): 273-290.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Bloomington
    Cooney, R.L. (1956), The mineralogy of the Jensen and Henshaw quarries near Riverside, California: Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California at Los Angeles: 32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 237.
        • Cave Canyon District
          • Yermo
            • Cave Canyon
    Lamey, Carl Arthur (1961), Contact metasomatic iron deposits of California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 72: 673; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 237.
        • Lava Bed Mts
          • Lava Beds District (Newberry District)
            • Lava Bed deposit (Ebony Iron deposit)
    Lamey, Carl Arthur (1961), Contact metasomatic iron deposits of California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 72: 673; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 237.
    • Idaho
      • Lemhi Co.
    Micro Probe, Nov 2001, pages 16-19
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
          • Quartzite Canyon
    Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    • Montana
      • Deer Lodge Co.
        • Georgetown District (Southern Cross District; Cable District)
    Rob Lavinsky specimen
      • Granite Co.
        • Philipsburg District (Flint Creek District)
          • Franklin Hill Iron Deposit (Tarriff; Courtney Manganiferous Iron Deposit; Courtney Prospect)
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
      • Lewis and Clark Co.
        • Boulder Mountains Area
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
    • Nevada
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Bristol and Jackrabbit Districts
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
    American Mineralogist 10:137-139
      • Lyon Co.
        • Yerington District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
        • Bell District
    Martin Jensen (2011) Minerals of the Blue Bird Mine, Mineral County, Nevada. Mineral News, 27, #8, 1-6.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Utah
      • Beaver Co.
        • Beaver Lake Mts
          • Beaver Lake District
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Salt Lake Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Hanson, S.L., A.U. Falster & W.B. Simmons (2014), Contact Metamorphic Minerals from the Alta Aureole, Central Wasatch Mountains, Utah, a presentation before the 41st. Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.
        • Wasatch Mts
          • Big Cottonwood District
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.; Calkins, F. C.; Butler, B. S.; Heikes, V. C. (1943) Geology and ore deposits of the Cottonwood-American Fork area, Utah, with sections on history and production. USGS Professional Paper: 201
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
          • Little Cottonwood District (Alta District)
            • Little Cottonwood Canyon
              • Dromedary Peak
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Calkins, F. C.; Butler, B. S.; Heikes, V. C. (1943) Geology and ore deposits of the Cottonwood-American Fork area, Utah, with sections on history and production. USGS Professional Paper: 201
    Calkins, F. C.; Butler, B. S.; Heikes, V. C. (1943) Geology and ore deposits of the Cottonwood-American Fork area, Utah, with sections on history and production. USGS Professional Paper: 201
      • Wasatch Co.
    Field, V.W. (1917) American Mineralogist, 2, #7, 92-93
    • Washington
      • Snohomish Co.
        • Darrington
          • Jumbo Mountain
    Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
      • Stevens Co.
        • Huckleberry Range
          • Deer Trail & Cedar Canyon Districts
            • Deer Trail District
              • Adams Mountain
    Huntting, M. (1956): Inventory of Washington Minerals, Part II, Metallic Minerals, Vol. 1; Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.48,72,75; Lasmanis, R. Et Al (1990): Metal Mines of Washington-Preliminary Report
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