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Ludwigite

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Formula:
Mg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Dark-green to black
Lustre:
Silky
Hardness:
5
Member of:
Name:
After Ernst Ludwig (1842-1915), Professor of Chemistry, University of Vienna.
Isostructural with:
Ludwigite Group. Ludwigite-Vonsenite Series. The magnesium analogue of Vonsenite and Marinaite.

A high-temperature mineral occurring in contact metamorphic deposits.

Classification of Ludwigite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
6.AB.30

6 : BORATES
A : Monoborates
B : BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.
24.2.1.1

24 : ANHYDROUS BORATES
2 : A2BO2[XO3]
9.8.2

9 : Borates
8 : Borates of Fe
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Type Occurrence of Ludwigite

Occurrences of Ludwigite

Geological Setting:
In contact metamorphic deposits as high-temperature phases.

Physical Properties of Ludwigite

Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Dark-green to black
Streak:
Black, blackish green
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Fibrous
Density:
3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Ludwigite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.26Å, b = 12.26Å, c = 3.05Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.755 : 1 : 0.249
Unit Cell Volume:
V 346.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [001], rare, with a rhombic cross-section and lacking terminal faces. As fibrous masses, radiating to dense felted aggregates; sheaf-like aggregates; rosettes of needle-like crystals. Granular.

Optical Data of Ludwigite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.830 - 1.850 nβ = 1.830 - 1.850 nγ = 1.940 - 2.020
2V:
Measured: 20° to 45°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.110 - 0.170
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r greater than v, extreme
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X = Dark green
Y = Dark green
Z = Dark reddish brown (may be opaque)

Chemical Properties of Ludwigite

Formula:
Mg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Common Impurities:
Al

Relationship of Ludwigite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Azoproite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O2
BonaccorditeNi2Fe3+(BO3)O2
FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
VonseniteFe22+Fe3+(BO3)O2
Group Members:
Marinaite Cu2Fe3+O2(BO3)
6.AB.05HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
6.AB.10BerboriteBe2(BO3)(OH,F) · H2O
6.AB.15JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
6.AB.20Warwickite(Mg,Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)2O(BO3)
6.AB.20YuanfuliiteMg(Fe3+,Al)O(BO3)
6.AB.25KarliteMg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5
6.AB.30Azoproite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O2
6.AB.30BonaccorditeNi2Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.30FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.30VonseniteFe22+Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.35Pinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.40BlatteriteSb5+(Mn3+,Fe3+)9(Mn2+,Mg)35(BO3)16O32
6.AB.40ChestermaniteMg2(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Sb3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Orthopinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Takéuchiite(Mg,Mn2+)2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Hulsite(Fe2+,Mg)2(Fe3+,Sn)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Magnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Sn,Mg)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Aluminomagnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO3)O2
6.AB.50FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
6.AB.50HydroxylboriteMg3(BO3)(OH)3
6.AB.55ShabyniteMg5(BO3)(OH)5(Cl,OH)2 · 4H2O
6.AB.55WightmaniteMg5(BO3)O(OH)5 · 2H2O
6.AB.60GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
6.AB.65SakhaiteCa12Mg4(BO3)7(CO3)4(OH)2Cl
6.AB.70HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2O
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(F)Mg2(BO3)(F,OH)
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(OH)Mg2(BO3)(OH)
6.AB.80JacquesdietrichiteCu2(H2BO3)(OH)3
6.AB.85PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
9.8.1VonseniteFe22+Fe3+(BO3)O2
9.8.3FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
9.8.4ChestermaniteMg2(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Sb3+)(BO3)O2

Other Names for Ludwigite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Ludwigit
Simplified Chinese:硼镁铁矿
Spanish:Ludwigita
Traditional Chinese:硼鎂鐵礦

Other Information

Other Information:
Slowly soluble in acids.

Alters to Limonite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None

References for Ludwigite

Reference List:
Tschermak (1874) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 59.

Mallard (1888) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 11: 305.

Groth (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 650.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 877.

Goldschmidt (1897): 224.

Schaller (1910) American Journal of Science: 30: 146.

Butler and Schaller (1917) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 7: 29 (as Magnesioludwigite).

Higgins (1918) Economic Geology: 13: 19 (as Collbranite).

Eakle (1920) American Mineralogist: 5: 141.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 102.

Shannon (1921) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 59: 667.

Shannon (1921) American Mineralogist: 6: 86.

Edwards (1924) American Journal of Science: 7: 486.

Harada (1938) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaidô University: 4: 165.

Geijer (1939) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 61: 19.

Watanabe (1939) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 50: 441.

Switzer in: Knopf (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 824.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 321-324.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore & Angelina Calomeris Vlisidis (1961), The composition of aluminian Ludwigite from Crestmore, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 335-339.

Federico M. (1968) - Studio di un processo di ossidazione della ludwigite. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 377-389.

Vlisidid, A.C. and Schaller, W.T. (1974) The identity of paigeite with vonsenite, and chemical analysis of vonsenite, ludwigite and hulsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1974(3-4): 95-105.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1989): 69-83.

Acta Crystallographica: 3: 98-107.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Appel, P. W. U. & Brigatti, M. F. (1999): Ludwigite from central Sweden: new data and crystal structure refinement. Mineral. Mag., 63: 511–518.

Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 414.

Internet Links for Ludwigite

Specimens:
The following Ludwigite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Ludwigite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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