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Ludwigite

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Formula:
Mg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Dark-green to black
Lustre:
Silky
Hardness:
5
Member of:
Name:
After Ernst Ludwig (1842-1915), Professor of Chemistry, University of Vienna.
Isostructural with:
Ludwigite Group. Ludwigite-Vonsenite Series. The magnesium analogue of Vonsenite.

A high-temperature mineral occurring in contact metamorphic deposits.

Classification of Ludwigite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
6.AB.30

6 : BORATES
A : Monoborates
B : BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.
24.2.1.1

24 : ANHYDROUS BORATES
2 : A2BO2[XO3]
9.8.2

9 : Borates
8 : Borates of Fe
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http://www.mindat.org/min-2454.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Ludwigite

Year of Discovery:
1874

Occurrences of Ludwigite

Geological Setting:
In contact metamorphic deposits as high-temperature phases.

Physical Properties of Ludwigite

Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Dark-green to black
Streak:
Black, blackish green
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Fibrous
Density:
3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Ludwigite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.26Å, b = 12.26Å, c = 3.05Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.755 : 1 : 0.249
Unit Cell Volume:
V 346.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [001], rare, with a rhombic cross-section and lacking terminal faces. As fibrous masses, radiating to dense felted aggregates; sheaf-like aggregates; rosettes of needle-like crystals. Granular.

Optical Data of Ludwigite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.830 - 1.850 nβ = 1.830 - 1.850 nγ = 1.940 - 2.020
2V:
Measured: 20° to 45°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.110 - 0.170
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r greater than v, extreme
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X = Dark green
Y = Dark green
Z = Dark reddish brown (may be opaque)

Chemical Properties of Ludwigite

Formula:
Mg2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al

Relationship of Ludwigite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Vonsenite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Azoproite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O2
BonaccorditeNi2Fe3+(BO3)O2
FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
VonseniteFe22+Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.05HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)
6.AB.10BerboriteBe2(BO3)(OH,F) · H2O
6.AB.15JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3
6.AB.20Warwickite(Mg,Fe2+)3Ti(BO3)2O2
6.AB.20YuanfuliiteMg(Fe3+,Fe2+,Al,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O
6.AB.25KarliteMg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5
6.AB.30Azoproite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O2
6.AB.30BonaccorditeNi2Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.30FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.30VonseniteFe22+Fe3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.35Pinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Blatterite(Mn2+,Mg)2(Mn3+,Sb3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.40ChestermaniteMg2(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Sb3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Orthopinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2
6.AB.40Takéuchiite(Mg,Mn2+)2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Hulsite(Fe2+,Mg)2(Fe3+,Sn)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Magnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Sn,Mg)(BO3)O2
6.AB.45Aluminomagnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO3)O2
6.AB.50FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
6.AB.50HydroxylboriteMg3(BO3)(OH)3
6.AB.55ShabyniteMg5(BO3)(OH)5(Cl,OH)2 · 4H2O
6.AB.55WightmaniteMg5(BO3)O(OH)5 · 2H2O
6.AB.60GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
6.AB.65SakhaiteCa12Mg4(BO3)7(CO3)4(OH)2Cl
6.AB.70HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2O
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(F)Mg2(BO3)(F,OH)
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(OH)Mg2(BO3)(OH)
6.AB.80JacquesdietrichiteCu2(H2BO3)(OH)3
6.AB.85PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15
9.8.1VonseniteFe22+Fe3+(BO3)O2
9.8.3FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2
9.8.4ChestermaniteMg2(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Sb3+)(BO3)O2

Other Names for Ludwigite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Ludwigit
Simplified Chinese:硼镁铁矿
Spanish:Ludwigita
Traditional Chinese:硼鎂鐵礦

Other Information

Other Information:
Slowly soluble in acids.

Alters to Limonite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None

References for Ludwigite

Reference List:
Tschermak (1874) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 59.

Mallard (1888) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 11: 305.

Groth (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 650.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 877.

Goldschmidt (1897): 224.

Schaller (1910) American Journal of Science: 30: 146.

Butler and Schaller (1917) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 7: 29 (as Magnesioludwigite).

Higgins (1918) Economic Geology: 13: 19 (as Collbranite).

Eakle (1920) American Mineralogist: 5: 141.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 102.

Shannon (1921) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 59: 667.

Shannon (1921) American Mineralogist: 6: 86.

Edwards (1924) American Journal of Science: 7: 486.

Harada (1938) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaidô University: 4: 165.

Geijer (1939) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 61: 19.

Watanabe (1939) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 50: 441.

Switzer in: Knopf (1942) American Mineralogist: 27: 824.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 321-324.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore & Angelina Calomeris Vlisidis (1961), The composition of aluminian Ludwigite from Crestmore, California: American Mineralogist: 46: 335-339.

Federico M. (1968) - Studio di un processo di ossidazione della ludwigite. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 377-389.

Vlisidid, A.C. and Schaller, W.T. (1974) The identity of paigeite with vonsenite, and chemical analysis of vonsenite, ludwigite and hulsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1974(3-4): 95-105.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1989): 69-83.

Acta Crystallographica: 3: 98-107.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Appel, P. W. U. & Brigatti, M. F. (1999): Ludwigite from central Sweden: new data and crystal structure refinement. Mineral. Mag., 63: 511–518.

Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 414.

Internet Links for Ludwigite

Specimens:
The following Ludwigite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Ludwigite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
  • Daykundi Province (Daykondi Province)
    • Gizab District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
  • Ghazni Province (Gazni Province)
    • Jaghuri District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
  • Kandahar Province (Qandahar Province)
    • Khakrez District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Argentina
 
  • Jujuy
    • Humahuaca Department
      • Aguilar district
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Corinna-Savage River district
Bottrill & Taheri, 2008, Savage River mine, Unpub. Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania
    • Zeehan district
      • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • North Dundas
Patterson, D.J., 1979, Renison mine, Tasmania. Unpub. PhD thesis, Uni. Tas.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Zillertal
        • Schlegeis valley (Schlegeisgrund)
G. Franz, D. Ackermann, E. Koch: Amer. Mineral. 66:872-877 (1981)
Bulgaria
 
  • Yambol Oblast
    • Tundzha Obshtina
Marcus Voigt collection
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Dungannon Township
Sabina, A.P. (1982): Some rare minerals of the Bancroft area. Mineralogical Record 13 (4), 226-228
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Chelsea
Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41
        • Wakefield
Sabina, A.P. (1987) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec, Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 41, 34-35 p.
China
 
  • Anhui Province
    • Huaibei Prefecture
      • Suixi Co.
        • Sanpu ore field
Yanjing Chen, Huayong Chen, Khin Zaw, Pirajno, F., and Zengjie Zhang (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 139-169.
Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, and Chengsi Bi (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 14, 227-249.
Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
    • Xuancheng Prefecture
      • Xuanzhou District
Lianxing Gu, Khin Zaw, Wenxuan Hu, Kaijun Zhang, Pei Ni, Jinxiang He, Yaotong Xu, Jianjun Lu, and Chunming Lin (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 107-138.
  • Guangdong Province
    • Heyuan Prefecture
      • Lianping Co.
Jianxiong Zhou and Jinyan Lu (1981): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 1(4), 193-199; Lianshun Feng (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(3), 21-27
    • Qingyuan Prefecture
      • Yangshan Co.
Zhenhai Wang (2000): Guangdong Geology 15(2), 9-18
  • Hebei Province
    • Baoding Prefecture
      • Laiyuan Co.
Chang Zhaoshan and Feng Zhongyan (1996): Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis 32(6), 724-733; Guoxi Ma (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 342-345
  • Hunan Province
    • Hengyang Prefecture
      • Changning Co.
        • Dayishan Sn-polymetallic ore field
Rongwen Zhou and Zhishun Chen (1991): Geology and Prospecting 27(3), 29-31
Yang Guangming, Peng Zhizhong, and Pan Zhaolu (1985): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 5(2), 97-101; Aleksandrov, S.M. (1998): Geochemistry of skarn and ore formation in dolomites. VSP (Utrecht, Tokyo), 300 pp.
Rongwen Zhou and Zaixi Li (1992): Hunan Geology 11(1), 71-74
    • Yongzhou Prefecture
      • Dao Co.
Fushun Li, Ruhua Kang, Xuyun Hu, Wuliang Ma, Xinhua Huang, Yonghong Zeng, Junbin Tang, Xian Zhu, Zhiwei Qin, Jie Zhao, and Libin He (2012): Geology in China 39(2), 445-457
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Linxi Co.
        • Linxi
Ottens, B. & Bin, J. (2014): Seltene Boratmineralien aus der Inneren Mongolei, China. Lapis, 39 (7/8), 66-68.
  • Jiangsu Province
    • Nantong Prefecture
      • Qidong Co.
Kamitani, M., Okumura, K., Teraoka, Y., Miyano, S., and Watanabe, Y. (2007): Mineral Resources Map of East Asia. Geological Survey of Japan.
  • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Tonghua Prefecture
      • Ji'an Co.
Zongkai Lu (1984): Jilin Geology 3(3)
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Dandong Prefecture
      • Fengcheng Co.
Rongge Xiao, Oi Takao, Hongcai Fei, and Masao Nomura (2003): Geoscience 17(2), 137-142; Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359; Xuehui Xia, Fei Yan, Yuhai Zhao, and Wenzong Chang (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(1), 83-88; Cuizhi Wang, Rongge Xiao, and Jingdang Liu (2008): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 30(5), 542-552; Guyue Hu, Yanhe Li, Changfu Fan, Kejun Hou, Chengyu Wang, and Guiqing Xie (2014): Mineral Deposits 33(4), 821-832
    • Liaodong Peninsula
      • Dalian Prefecture
        • Wafangdian Co.
Matsuda, K. (1969) Copper-bearing contact deposits of Hua-tung-kou, Fu Hsien, Feng-tien province, Manchuria (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, vol. 2, pp 414-422, Tokyo University Press); Zhiqian Zhang and Jianning Wang (2009): Gold Science and Technology 17(2), 34-37, 53; Zhiqian Zhang, Jianning Wang, and Hongfan Qu (2011): Gold Science and Technology 19(1), 38-41
      • Yingkou Prefecture
        • Dashiqiao Co.
Rongge Xiao, Oi Takao, Hongcai Fei, and Masao Nomura (2003): Geoscience 17(2), 137-142; Cuizhi Wang, Rongge Xiao, Jingdang Liu, Hongcai Fei, Wenwu Wang, Hongchun Zhou, and Jingqing Liu (2006): Mineral Deposits 25(6), 683-692; Rongge Xiao, Jingdang Liu, Zhen Wu, Bin Wang, and Jiarui Feng (2007): Geoscience 21(4), 638-644
    • Liaoyang Prefecture
      • Liaoyang Co.
Mingshou Yang (1983): Geology and Prospecting 19(2), 8-18
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Dulan Co.
Guoqiang Tian, Duolu Zhu, and Yong Tian (2006): Gansu Metallurgy 28(3), 63-65
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Kezilesu Autonomous Prefecture (Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture; Qizilsu Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Atushi Co. (Artux Co.; Atux Co.; Atush Co.)
Fuquan Yang, Huijuan Deng, Haodong Xia, Boyong Ma, and Liben Wang (2003): Xinjiang Geology 21(4), 426-432
  • Yunnan Province
    • Baoshan Prefecture
      • Tengchong Co.
        • Tengchong Sn belt
          • Diantan
Feibao Wu and Zongyu Li (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(8), 20-26; Shilu Zhang (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(3), 19-26
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Šrein, V., Hloušek, J.: Ludwigit a hulsit z Krušných hor. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1998, roč. 6, s. 243-246.
    • Ústí Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Klášterec nad Ohří
Robert Vaňo specimens
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
    • Pieksämäki
Virtasalmi-Copper Database. Geological Survey of Finland (2009)
France
 
  • Languedoc-Roussillon
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Prats de Mollo-La Preste (Prats de Molló-La Presta)
Goujou J-C., Guitard G., Berbain C. (2000), Le massif de Costabonne, 2464 m (Pyrénées-Orientales), Le Règne Minéral, n°32, pp: 5-12
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Lapis, 17 (10), 13-24+82.
        • Antonsthal
http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen/Chemnitz%2C%20Direktionsbezirk/Erzgebirgskreis/Schwarzenberger%20Kuppel/Antonsthal/F%E4llbach
Gröbner J., Kolitsch U.; Neufunde aus dem Erzgebirge (II), Mineralien-Welt Jg 17 (2006), 3, pag. 22-27.
      • Schwarzenberg District
        • Pöhla
Collection of Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
Italy
 
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Rome
Bachechi F., Federico M., Fornaseri M. (1966) - Prima segnalazione di ludwigite e di magnesioferrite nelle geodi delle "pozzolane nere" di Corcolle (regione vulcanica dei Colli Albani). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma p. 717, Bachechi F., Federico M., Fornaseri M. (1966) - La ludwigite e i minerali che l'accompagnano nelle geodi delle "pozzolane nere" di Corcolle (Tivoli, Colli Albani). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 975-1022.
        • Valleranello
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Valfurva
          • Cedec Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
Bedognè,F,,Montrasio; A. & Sciesa;E. (2006): I minerali della media-alta Valtellina delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Bettini, Sondrio, Italia, 255.
          • Zebrù Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006). I minerali della medio-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Tip. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Canavese District
        • Léssolo
          • Cálea
"Le miniere di Brosso" I.Campostrini 2001 - ed. Museo Regionale Torino
  • Umbria
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
Meli R. (1997) - Giacimenti da non dimenticare: i minerali della vulcaniti di San Venanzo (Terni). Riv. Miner. Ital. 3, pag. 269-275
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
        • Kawamata
Alfredo Petrov collection
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Miyako City
          • Kamineichi
Kato, A. (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 39.; Watanabe et al (1963) Kotoite, Mg3(BO3)2, from the Neichi mine, Iwate prefecture, Japan. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, series B, 39, 164-169.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Balkhash Region (Balqash; Karatas; Prebalkhashie)
      • Sayak
        • Sayak Cu ore field
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
North Korea
 
  • North Hwanghae Province
No reference listed
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323,370,376.
Watanabe, T. : Boron mineral resources in Korea (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, University of Tokyo Press, 1969)
Watanabe, T. : Boron mineral resources in Korea (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, University of Tokyo Press, 1969)
Watanabe, T. : Boron mineral resources in Korea (in: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Far East, University of Tokyo Press, 1969)
Norway
 
  • Troms
    • Kvæfjord (Kvaefjord)
      • Hinnøya
Bøe, P. (1997): Boratmineralet ludwigitt i høymetamorf marmor i Vesterålen. STEIN 24 (3), 130-136
Pakistan
 
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
    • Mansehra District
      • Kaghan Valley
        • Naran
Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1996). Petrology of gem peridot from Sapat mafic-ultramafic complex, Kohistan, NW Himalaya. Geological Bulletin, University of Peshawar, 29, 17-26.; Moore, T. (2004): What's New in Minerals. Costa Mesa Show 2003. Mineralogical Record. 35 (2), 143-145
Peru
 
  • Junín Department
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
Romania
 
  • Bihor Co.
    • Nucet
Ş. Marincea: "Suanite in two boron-bearing magnesian skarns from Romania: data on a longtime ignored mineral species", Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen 182:183-192 (2006)
Ş. Marincea: "Suanite in two boron-bearing magnesian skarns from Romania: data on a longtime ignored mineral species", Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen 182:183-192 (2006); MARINCEA, S. (2000). The influence of Al on the physical and crystallographic properties of ludwigite in three Romanian occurrences. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12(4), 809-823.
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Moldova Nouă-Sasca Cu-Mo ore field
www.minerals-of-the-carpathians,2009
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.; Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.; MARINCEA, S. (2000). The influence of Al on the physical and crystallographic properties of ludwigite in three Romanian occurrences. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12(4), 809-823.
Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.; Stefan Nicolescu (1996) - Excursion Guide. Field trip E1, Banat and Transylvanian Gold District, Romania. M&M 3, 3rd International Conference on Mineralogy and Museums, Budapest, Hungary, June 9 - 13, 1996, 60 pp
Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.
Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 65(3), pp. 351–372
Marincea, S. (1999). Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania; new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 37(6), 1343-1362.; Stefan Nicolescu (1996) - Excursion Guide. Field trip E1, Banat and Transylvanian Gold District, Romania. M&M 3, 3rd International Conference on Mineralogy and Museums, Budapest, Hungary, June 9 - 13, 1996, 60 pp.
  • Cluj Co.
    • Masca Băişoara
      • Iara (Alsójára)
http://www.geoecomar.ro/website/publicatii/supliment2008/15.pdf; http://www.geoecomar.ro/website/publicatii/supliment2008/15.pdf ; MARINCEA, S. (2000). The influence of Al on the physical and crystallographic properties of ludwigite in three Romanian occurrences. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12(4), 809-823.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Zheleznogorsk
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.
American Mineralogist 42:582-583
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
Schreyer et al (1998), Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 133: 382-388.; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
      • Polar Yakutia
        • Dogdo River Basin
          • Tas-Khayakhtakh Range
Rudnev, V.V., Chukanov, N.V., Nechelyustov, G.N., Yamnova, N.A. (2007): Hydroxylborite, Mg3(BO3)(OH)3, a new mineral, and the isomorphous fluoborite-hydroxylborite series. Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society, 136(1), 69-82.; Aleksandrov, S.M. (1998): Geochemistry of skarn and ore formation in dolomites. VSP (Utrecht, Tokyo), 300 pp.; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
              • Izvestkovyi Stream
N.N. Pertsev data; Galuskina I.O., Kadiyski M., Armbruster T., Galuskin E.V., Pertsev N.N., Dzierzanowski P., Wrzalik R. (2008) A new natural phase in the system Mg2SiO4-Mg2BO3F-Mg2BO3(OH): composition, paragenesis and structure of OH-dominant pertsevite, - Eur. J. Mineral., 20, p. 951-964.
Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Verkhoyansk
        • Yana River Basin
          • Dogdo river
W. Schreyer et al. (2003) Eur. Journ. Mineral. 15, 1007-1018
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
        • Vitim Plateau
Lapis 29(1), 47 (2004); American Mineralogist, Volume 87, pages 1509–1513, 2002
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Dzhugdzhur Ridge
Galuskina, I. O., Kadiyski, M., Armbruster, T., Galuskin, E. V., Pertsev, N. N., Dzierzanowski, P., & Wrzalik, R. (2008). A new natural phase in the system Mg2SiO4Mg2BO3FMg2BO3 (OH): composition, paragenesis and structure of OH-dominant pertsevite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20(5), 951-964.
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
[MinRec 32:8]
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Ladoga Region
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica; Aleksandrov, S. M., & Troneva, M. A. (2009). Composition and genesis of endogenous borates from the Pitkáranta ore field, Karelia. Geochemistry International, 47(9), 914-929.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Kusinskii raion
          • Medvedevka
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
      • Igualeja
Curras, J. y Torres, J. (1992).Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 15 (1), 319-322.
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Falun
      • Svärdsjö
    • Hedemora
No reference listed
  • Uppland
    • Norrtälje
      • Söderby-Karl
No reference listed
      • Stabby ore field
Appel, P.W.U. and Brigatti, M. F. (1999): Ludwigite from central Sweden: new data and crystal structure refinement. Mineralogical Magazine. 63(4),511-518
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Kjell Gatedal, Fritz Blatter
      • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
NJMMh 2001, 520; K.Gatedal
      • Persberg
Kjell Gatedal
      • Persberg district
Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
  • Västmanland
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
      • Kallmora
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 369.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
      • Isle of Skye
        • Broadford
          • Kilchrist
          • Torrin
A. Livingstone: Minerals of Scotland, NMS Publications (2002)
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Nome Borough
      • Seward Peninsula
USGS Bull 358
        • York Range
www.excaliburmineral.com.
  • Arizona
    • Pima Co.
      • Santa Catalina Mts
        • Oracle District (Control District; Old Hat District; Santa Catalina District)
          • Mount Bigelow
            • Leatherwood Mine group (Apache group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 281.
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • Lakeshore
Canadian Minelalogist Vol.26, pp. 911-916 (1988)
      • Twin Lakes
        • Kaiser Ridge
Chesterman, C.W. (1959), Ludwigite from Fresno County, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 70: 1712-1713; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236.
        • Lower Twin Lake
Vlisidid, A.C. and Schaller, W.T. (1974) The identity of paigeite with vonsenite, and chemical analysis of vonsenite, ludwigite and hulsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1974(3-4): 95-105; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236, 237.
    • Kern Co.
Page, Lincoln Ridler (1946), Contact metamorphic deposits of Cassiterite in California: (abstract) Geological Society of America Bulletin 56: 1187; […American Mineralogist: 31: 202 (1946)]; Wiese, J.H. & L.R. Page (1946), Tin deposits of the Gorman District, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246, 330.
        • Lebec
          • Tejon Tin project (Gorman Tin project)
Page, Lincoln Ridler (1946), Contact metamorphic deposits of Cassiterite in California: (abstract) Geological Society of America Bulletin 56: 1187; […American Mineralogist (1946): 31: 202]; Wiese, J.H. & L.R. Page (1946), Tin deposits of the Gorman district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 42(1): 36; Vlisidid, A.C. and Schaller, W.T. (1974) The identity of paigeite with vonsenite, and chemical analysis of vonsenite, ludwigite and hulsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1974(3-4): 99; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236.
    • Monterey Co.
      • Gabilan Range
Chesterman, C.W. (1966a), Vonsenite of Monterey County, California: American Mineralogist: 51: 261-262; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
        • Crestmore quarries
          • Sky Blue Hill
AmMin 26:352-381
Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 366.
Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 366.
      • Jurupa Mts
        • Jurupa
Cooney, R.L. (1956), The mineralogy of the Jensen and Henshaw quarries near Riverside, California: Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California at Los Angeles: 32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 236; Devito, F. and Ordway, A. (1984), The Jensen Quarry, Riverside County, California. Mineralogical Record: 15(5): 273-290.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Bloomington
Cooney, R.L. (1956), The mineralogy of the Jensen and Henshaw quarries near Riverside, California: Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California at Los Angeles: 32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 237.
      • Cave Canyon District
        • Yermo
          • Cave Canyon
Lamey, Carl Arthur (1961), Contact metasomatic iron deposits of California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 72: 673; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 237.
      • Lava Bed Mts
        • Lava Beds District (Newberry District)
          • Lava Bed deposit (Ebony Iron deposit)
Lamey, Carl Arthur (1961), Contact metasomatic iron deposits of California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 72: 673; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 237.
  • Idaho
    • Lemhi Co.
Micro Probe, Nov 2001, pages 16-19
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
        • Quartzite Canyon
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
  • Montana
    • Deer Lodge Co.
      • Georgetown District (Southern Cross District; Cable District)
Rob Lavinsky specimen
    • Granite Co.
      • Philipsburg District (Flint Creek District)
        • Franklin Hill Iron Deposit (Tarriff; Courtney Manganiferous Iron Deposit; Courtney Prospect)
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
    • Lewis and Clark Co.
      • Boulder Mountains Area
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
  • Nevada
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Bristol and Jackrabbit Districts
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.
American Mineralogist 10:137-139
    • Lyon Co.
      • Singatse Range
        • Yerington District
          • Ludwig
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Bell District
Martin Jensen (2011) Minerals of the Blue Bird Mine, Mineral County, Nevada. Mineral News, 27, #8, 1-6.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Utah
    • Beaver Co.
      • Beaver Lake Mts
        • Beaver Lake District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Hanson, S.L., A.U. Falster & W.B. Simmons (2014), Contact Metamorphic Minerals from the Alta Aureole, Central Wasatch Mountains, Utah, a presentation before the 41st. Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 25, 2014.
      • Wasatch Mts
        • Big Cottonwood District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 323.; Calkins, F. C.; Butler, B. S.; Heikes, V. C. (1943) Geology and ore deposits of the Cottonwood-American Fork area, Utah, with sections on history and production. USGS Professional Paper: 201
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • Little Cottonwood District (Alta District)
          • Little Cottonwood Canyon
            • Dromedary Peak
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Calkins, F. C.; Butler, B. S.; Heikes, V. C. (1943) Geology and ore deposits of the Cottonwood-American Fork area, Utah, with sections on history and production. USGS Professional Paper: 201
Calkins, F. C.; Butler, B. S.; Heikes, V. C. (1943) Geology and ore deposits of the Cottonwood-American Fork area, Utah, with sections on history and production. USGS Professional Paper: 201
    • Wasatch Co.
Field, V.W. (1917) American Mineralogist, 2, #7, 92-93
  • Washington
    • Snohomish Co.
      • Darrington
        • Jumbo Mountain
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975; Aleksandrov, S. M. (2005). Genesis and Composition of Borate and Sulfide Mineralization in the Mount Jumbo Dunite, Snohomish County, Washington, United States. Geochemistry International, 43(3), 277-289.
    • Stevens Co.
      • Huckleberry Range
        • Deer Trail & Cedar Canyon Districts
          • Deer Trail District
            • Adams Mountain
Huntting, M. (1956): Inventory of Washington Minerals, Part II, Metallic Minerals, Vol. 1; Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.48,72,75; Lasmanis, R. Et Al (1990): Metal Mines of Washington-Preliminary Report
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