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Anorthoclase

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Formula:
(Na,K)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
System:TriclinicColour:white, colourless, ...
Hardness:6 - 6½
Member of:Feldspar Group
Name:Named in 1885 by Karl Harry Ferdinand Rosenbusch from the Greek αν, ορθός and κλάσις, meaning "not right cleavage", descriptive of the mineral's cleavage.
Polymorph of:Kumdykolite, Lingunite


Feldspar Group.
An alkali feldspar intermediate between low sanidine and high albite.
Occurs in high-temperature sodic volcanic and hypabyssal rocks.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Anorthoclase. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Anorthoclase

IMA status:Discredited
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/J.07-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.FA.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
A : Tektosilicates without additional non-tetrahedral anions
Dana 8th edition ID:76.1.1.6

76 : TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
1 : Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.4.4

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
4 : Aluminosilicates of Na and K
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Type Occurrence of Anorthoclase

Type Locality:Pantelleria Island, Trapani Province, Sicily, Italy
Year of Discovery:1885

Physical Properties of Anorthoclase

Colour:white, colourless, greyish pink
Streak:white
Hardness (Mohs):6 - 6½
Cleavage:Perfect

Crystallography of Anorthoclase

Crystal System:Triclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 8.28Å, b = 12.97Å, c = 7.15Å
α = 91.05°, β = 116.26°, γ = 90.15°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.638 : 1 : 0.551
Unit Cell Volume:V 688.44 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Anorthoclase

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.519 - 1.529 nβ = 1.524 - 1.534 nγ = 1.527 - 1.536
2V:Measured: 34° to 60°, Calculated: 64° to 74°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.008

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r > v

Chemical Properties of Anorthoclase

Formula:
(Na,K)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Simplified for copy/paste:(Na,K)AlSi3O8
Essential elements:Al, Na, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, K, Na, O, Si
Common Impurities:Fe,Ca

Relationship of Anorthoclase to other Species

Member of:Feldspar Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Albite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Amazonite
Andesine
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Anorthite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Banalsite
BaNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
Buddingtonite
(NH
 
4
)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Bytownite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Celsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Dmisteinbergite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Hyalophane
(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Labradorite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Microcline
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Oligoclase
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Orthoclase
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Paracelsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Reedmergnerite
Na[BSi
 
3
O
 
8
]
Sanidine
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Slawsonite
(Sr,Ca)Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Stronalsite
SrNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
Svyatoslavite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.FA.05Kaliophilite
KAlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Kalsilite
KAlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Nepheline
(Na,K)AlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Panunzite
(K,Na)AlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Trikalsilite
(K,Na)AlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Yoshiokaite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O
 
4
]
9.FA.05Megakalsilite
KAlSiO
 
4
9.FA.10Malinkoite
NaBSiO
 
4
9.FA.15Virgilite
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.FA.25Lisitsynite
KBSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.FA.30Adularia
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Buddingtonite
(NH
 
4
)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Celsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.30Hyalophane
(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.30Microcline
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Orthoclase
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Sanidine
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Rubicline
(Rb,K)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Monalbite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.35Albite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.35Andesine
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.35Anorthite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.35Bytownite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.35Labradorite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.35Oligoclase
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.35Reedmergnerite
Na[BSi
 
3
O
 
8
]
9.FA.40Paracelsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.45Svyatoslavite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.45Kumdykolite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.50Slawsonite
(Sr,Ca)Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.55Lisetite
CaNa
 
2
Al
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
16
9.FA.60Banalsite
BaNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
9.FA.60Stronalsite
SrNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
9.FA.65Danburite
CaB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.65Maleevite
BaB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.65Pekovite
SrB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.70Lingunite
(Na,Ca)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.75Kokchetavite
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.4.1Nepheline
(Na,K)AlSiO
 
4
16.4.2Panunzite
(K,Na)AlSiO
 
4
16.4.3Trikalsilite
(K,Na)AlSiO
 
4
16.4.5Naujakasite
(Na,K)
 
6
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)(Al,Fe)
 
4
Si
 
8
O
 
26
16.4.6Montesommaite
(K,Na)
 
9
Al
 
9
Si
 
23
O
 
64
· 10H
 
2
O

Other Names for Anorthoclase

Synonyms:
AnortoclasioAnothoseMikroklasPseudo-OrthoclaseSoda-Microcline
Other Languages:
French:Anorthose
German:Anorthoklas
Russian:Анортоклаз
Varieties:
Analbite (of Winchell)Anorthoclase-Sanidine

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Anorthoclase

Reference List:

- +
Carmichael, I.S.E. and W.S. MacKenzie (1964) The lattice parameters of high-temperature triclinic sodic feldspars. Mineral. Mag., 33, 949-962.

Harlow, G.E. (1982) The anorthoclase structures: the effects of temperature and composition. Amer. Mineral., 67, 975-996.

Kroll, H. and Knitter, R. (1991) Al, Si exchange kinetics in sanidine and anorthoclase and modeling of rock cooling paths. American Mineralogist: 76: 928-941.

Internet Links for Anorthoclase

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  • External Links:
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  • Localities for Anorthoclase

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Tamanghasset Province
      • Ahaggar Mtn (Hoggar Mtn)
        • Atakor volcanic massif
    M. Girod, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Crist. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 121-125.
    M. Girod, Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. Crist. , 1963, LXXXVI, pp. 121-125.
    Angola
     
    • Huíla Province
      • Lubango City Council
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1001-1024.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Victoria Land
        • Ross Island
    http://tea.rice.edu/jroberts/12.13.1999.html; Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
        • Transantarctic Mts
    Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2005, Environmental Geochemistry/Mineralogy, http://www.the-conference.com/2005/gold2005/web_pdfs/G07.pdf
    Argentina
     
    • Chubut
    ARAGON, E. et al. Petrogenesis of thundereggs in Eocene rhyolite domes of central Chubut, Patagonia. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2006, vol.61, n.3, pp. 347-354.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Gowen Co.
        • Warrumbungle Mtn
    Am Min 75:694-701
      • Yungnulgra Co.
        • White Cliffs
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 293-322.
    • Queensland
      • Scenic Rim Region
    • Tasmania
      • Blue Tier district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Huon district
    Bottrill, RS, 1997. The Minerals of the Cygnet District. The Mineralogical Society of Tasmania Newsletter, 25, p.12
      • Waterhouse district
    Everard, J.L., Sutherland, F.L. and Zwingmann, H., 2004a. A Cretaceous phonolite dyke from the Tomahawk River, Northeast Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 138, 11-33.
    • Victoria
      • Camperdown
    Natural History Museum Vienna collection
      • City of Greater Geelong
        • Anakie
    Museum Victoria collection; Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
      • Corangamite Shire
    Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection
      • Kal Kallo
      • Macedon Ranges Shire
        • Mount Macedon
    Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
    Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
    Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
      • Malmsbury
    Sutton & Mills (2012)
    Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection; Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
      • Moyne Shire
        • Mortlake
    Museum Victoria collection
      • Northern Grampians Shire
        • Carapooee
    Museum Victoria collections
      • Phillip Island
        • Kitty Miller Bay
      • Portland
        • Cape Sir William Grant
      • Terang
    Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
    Austria
     
    • Burgenland
      • Oberpullendorf
        • Kobersdorf
          • Pauliberg
    U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
    • Carinthia
      • Koralpe
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
        • Waldenstein
    • Styria
      • Koralpe
        • Schwanberg
    Alker, A. (1956) : Zur Mineralogie der Steiermark. In: Joanneum, Mineralogisches Mitteiungsblatt 2/1956.
    Brazil
     
    • Espírito Santo
      • Vitória
    Mineralogical Magazine 1998 62 : 687-695.
    • Mato Grosso do Sul
      • Porto Murtinho
    Geological Survey Professional Paper 327 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1959)
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Liard Mining Division
    Am. Min. 59, 820
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
    GSC locality database
        • Seal Lake alkaline complex (Letitia Lake)
    GSC locality database; GSC database locality No. 4100
    • Ontario
      • Timiskaming District
        • Bannockburn Township
    Ann P.Sabina (2000), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec. GSC Misc. Report 57, p.113
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Schilling et al. (2011) J. Petr. 52, 2147-2185.
    • Saskatchewan
      • Athabasca Basin
        • Honsvall Lake
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1995, 7, pp. 1251-1272.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Chuzhou Prefecture
        • Mingguang Co. (Jiashan Co.)
    Shijin Xu, Zhong Fang, Matsumoto, T., Matsuda, J., Yasuda, M., Jinhai Yu, Rucheng Wang and Wenzhong Liu (2003): Chinese Science Bulletin 48(15), 1624-1630
    • Hebei Province
      • Zhangjiakou Prefecture
        • Huai'an Co.
    Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189, 174 pp.
    • Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Heihe Prefecture
        • Wudalianchi Co.
    Jiaxiang Qiu and Qun'an Liao (1990): Earth Science, Journal of China University of Geosciences 34(4).
    • Shandong Province
      • Weifang Prefecture
        • Changle Co.
          • Wutu
    Zhenhua Ding (1998): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 18(1), 23-27
      • Zibo Prefecture
        • Linzi District
    Da-Xin Li and Yi-Ming Zhao (1997): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 16(1), 44-49.
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Xiao Huiliang, Zhou Jiyuan, Wang Henian, Cui Bingfang, and Chen Shizhong (2003): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 22(3), 280-288.
    • Yunnan Province
      • Pu'er Prefecture
        • Ximeng Co.
    Daxian Zhao (1989): Acta Petrologica Sinica 5(3), 25-36
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Liberec Region
        • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
    Blumrich, J. (1893): Die Phonolithe des Friedländer Bezirkes in Nordböhmen, Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Vol. 13, No 6, 465-495
      • Ústí Region
        • Most
          • Želenice
    Pazdernik, P.: Compositional variations in the sodalite-bearing nephelinite phonolite from Želenický vrch Hill, North Bohemia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1997, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 65-79.
    Eritrea
     
    • Semenawi Keyih Bahri Region (Northern Red Sea Region)
      • Alid volcanic center
    Journal of Petrology, Vol. 38, Nb 12, 1997, pp. 1707-1721.
    Ethiopia
     
    • Oromia Province (Oromiya Province)
      • Metehara
    Varet, J. (1969): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 22, 185-189.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Cantal
        • Riom-ès-Montagnes
          • Menet
    J. Aubouin, R. Brousse, J.P. Lehman : "Précis de Géologie", Dunod, 1967
    Brousse R, Varet J (1966) Les trachytes du Mont-Dore et du Cantal septentrional et leurs enclaves. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 8: 246-262.
      • Haute-Loire
        • Le Puy-en-Velay
          • Espaly-Saint-Marcel
    Blanc Y, Mergoil-Daniel J, Tempier P (1973) Découverte de néphéline en mégacristaux et d'enclaves à néphéline et anorthose dans des projections volcaniques du Devès (Haute-Loire, France). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 96: 388-391.
        • Solignac-sur-Loire
          • Le Brignon
    Y. Blanc, J. Mergoil-Daniel, P. Tempier : "Découverte de néphéline en mégacristaux et d'enclaves à néphéline et anorthose dans des projections volcaniques du Devès (Haute-Loire, France)", Bull. Soc. Fr. minéral. Cristallogr. , 1973, 96, 388-391
    • Centre
      • Cher
        • Sancerre-Couy drilling
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 85-96.
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Rhône
        • Lyon
          • First District
    G. Demarcq, 1973, "Guides Géologiques Régionaux : Lyonnais, Vallée du Rhöne" , Masson.
    Germany
     
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Siebengebirge
        • Königswinter
    [var: Anorthoclase-Sanidine] Engels, A., (1936): Zur chemischen Zusammensetzung des Sanidin-Anorthoklases vom Drachenfels, Zbl. Miner., 9-13
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Gerolstein
          • Rockeskyll
            • Rockeskyll volcanic complex
    El-Kaluoby, B., Mineralbestand und Gefüge vulkanischer Glimmerschiefer-Auswürflinge des Kyller Kopfes, Westeifel, Diss., Rhein. Fried.-Wilh.-Universität, Bonn, 1981
        • Laach lake volcanic complex
          • Kruft
    Rath, G. v., Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Laacher Sanidins, Ann. Phys. Chem. 135, 1868
          • Mendig
            • Niedermendig
    Rath, G. v., Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Laacher Sanidins, Ann. Phys. Chem. 135, 1868
    Rath, G. v., Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Laacher Sanidins, Ann. Phys. Chem. 135, 1868
              • Wingertsberg
    Rath, G. v., Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Laacher Sanidins, Ann. Phys. Chem. 135, 1868
          • Niederzissen
            • Glees
    Rath, G. v., Die chemische Zusammensetzung des Laacher Sanidins, Ann. Phys. Chem. 135 ,1868
        • Niederzissen
          • Glees
    Brauns, R., (1922): Die Mineralien der Niederrheinischen Vulkangebiete, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart
    • Schleswig-Holstein
      • Lübeck
        • Travemünde
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Sámos Prefecture
        • Sámos Island
    Econ Geol (1989)84:788-798
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
        • Qaqortoq (Julianehåb)
    Journal of the Geological Society, 1981, Vol. 138, N° 3, pp. 289-306.
    • Northeast Greenland National Park
      • J.V.Jensen Land
        • Kap Washington area
    Larsen, O. (1982): The age of the Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark. 31, 49-55
    Larsen, O. (1982): The age of the Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark. 31, 49-55
    • Qaasuitsup
      • Uummannaq (Umanak)
    Benson, W.N. (1940): Kaersutite and other brown Amphiboles in the Cainozoic Igneous rocks of the Dunedin District, Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Vol. 69, 283-308
    Honduras
     
    • Santa Bárbara Department
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/latam.htm
    Hungary
     
    • Nógrád Co.
      • Karancs-Medves Mtns
        • Bárna
    Vincze-Szeberényi, H. (1982): Feldspat-Megakristall aus ungarischem Basalt. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 74, 11-15.
        • Salgótarján
        • Szilaspagony
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
        • Ossola Valley
          • Antrona Valley
            • Montescheno
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 23 (1), 42-49
    • Puglia
      • Foggia Province
        • Gargano Promontory
          • Lesina
    Russo, M. (2008): I minerali delle Vulcaniti di Punta delle Pietre Nere nel Gargano (Lesina, Foggia, Italy). MICRO (località). Periodico dell'Associazione Micro-mineralogica Italiana, 2008(2). 227-244.
    • Sicily
      • Trapani Province
    Journal of Petrology (1998)Pages 1453-1491; Foerstner Ueber kunstliehe physikalische Veränderungen der Feldspäthe von Pantelleria. Z. X. 1884. IX. 333.; Foerstner, H. (1881). Nota preliminare sulla geologia dell'isola di Pantelleria secondo gli studi fatti negli anni 1874 e 1881. Bollettino del Reale Comitato Geologico Italiano 12, 532-556; Dov Bahat (1979) Anorthoclase Megacrysts: Physical Conditions of Formation. Mineralogical Magazine 43:287-291
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Botro ai Marmi
    Oretti F.G., Pierini G. (1987) - La Cava Maffei di Botro ai Marmi (Campiglia Marittima - LI) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, fasc. 1, pp.27-30
    • Veneto
      • Vicenza Province
    Mariani P., Scaini G.: "I minerali d'Italia" - Rizzoli, 1978 - and A. Del Caldo, C. Del Moro, C.M. Gramaccioli, M. Boscardin M. "Guida ai Minerali" Fabbri ed. Milano, 1981
        • Astico Valley
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
          • Cogollo del Cengio
            • Cengio Mt.
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
        • Calvene
    Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Wakayama Prefecture
          • Higashimuro-gun
            • Taiji-cho
    [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    • Kyushu Region
      • Nansei Archipelago
        • Kagoshima Prefecture
          • Mishima village
    • Tokyo Prefecture
      • Izu Archipelago
        • Niijima island
    PXRD by John Attard.
      • Volcano Islands (Kazan Rettou)
        • Iou Island (Iou-to; Iwo-Jima; Iwojima; Iou-jima; Naka-Iou-jima)
    Gordon A. MacDonald (1948) Petrography of Iwo Jima. Bulletin of the GSA, 59, 1009-1018.
    Gordon A. MacDonald (1948) Petrography of Iwo Jima. Bulletin of the GSA, 59, 1009-1018.
    Kazakhstan
     
    Libya
     
    • Al Kufrah District
    Flinn et al (1992)
    Flinn et al. (1992)
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
        • Santa Eulalia District
          • East Camp
    Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
      • Mun. de Saucillo
    Van King
    New Zealand
     
    • Mayor Island (Tuhua)
    NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
    NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
    NZJGG, 2003, 46: 581-590. NZJGG, 1991, 34: 337-340. NZJGG, 1981, 24: 449-467
    • South Island
      • Otago
        • Kakanui
    Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).; Mason, B. (1968): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 19, 316-327.
    North Korea
     
    • South Hamgyong Province
    Shinichi Kato collection
    Norway
     
    • Jan Mayen Island
    www.albany.edu/geosciences/cwhitems.html.
    • Oslo
      • Grorud
    Brøgger, W.C. (1894) Die Eruptivgesteine des Kristianiagebietes. 1. Die Gesteine der Grorudit -Tinguait - Serie. (Videnskabsselskabets Skrifter I. Mat.-Naturv. Kl. 1894, no. 4) p. 10
    Peru
     
    • Puno Department
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 145-150.
    Poland
     
    • Opolskie
      • Opole District
        • Niemodlin commune
          • Gracze
    W. Szeliga, Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, 2004, V 24, pp. 369-372.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Magadanskaya Oblast'
        • Kolyma River Basin
          • Omchak gold field
    Goryachev, N.A., Vikent’eva, O.V., Bortnikov, N.S., Prokof’ev, V.Y., Alpatov, V.A., and Golub, V.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(5), 362-390.
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Mikhailova, Y.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 599-606.
    Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
            • Koashva Mt
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Kapustin, Y. L., Pudovkina, Z. V., Bykova, A. V., & Lyubomilova, G. V. (1975). Koashvite, a new mineral. International Geology Review, 17(6), 654-660.
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
            • Alluaiv Mt
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
          • Turii Cape
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/tury.htm
    Rwanda
     
    • Western Province
      • Gatumba District
    Bertossa, A., 1967. Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda 4, 25-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and O. von Knorring (1998) Type-Mineralogy of Rwanda with Particular Reference to the Buranga Pegmatite. Geologica Belgica 1:1-9
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Lučenec Co.
    M. Huraiova et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 901-916.
      • Rimavská Sobota Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Murchison Range
        • Gravelotte
          • Letaba
            • Mpande farm
    Minerals of South Africa
    South Korea
     
    • Gyeongsangbuk-do (Kyongsang-bukto; Gyeongsangbugdo)
      • Ulleung-gun
    Atsuo Harumoto (1970) Volcanic Rocks and Associated Rocks of Utsuryoto Island, (Japan Sea). (39pp + geological map)
    Lee, M.W. (1982) journal of the Japan Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists, 77, 203-214.
    Spain
     
    • Aragón
      • Huesca
        • Camporrells
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    • Canary Islands
      • Las Palmas Province
        • Gran Canaria (Grand Canary)
          • Arucas
    Arevalo, P., 1972, Estudio de la Ahuyna Presente en las Rocas Volcanicas de Arucas, Boletin Geologico y Minero, 83(2):187-193.
    V.R. Troll et al. , Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. , 2003, 145, PP. 730-741.
      • Santa Cruz de Tenerife Province
        • La Gomera
    Rodríguez-Losada, J.A., and Martínez-Frías, J. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 639-643.
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
    Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278.
    • Småland
      • Jönköping
        • Gränna
    Törnebohm, A. (1906): Katapleitsyenit, en nyupptäkt varietet af nefelinsyenit i Sverige. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, C 199: 1-54; Thulin, H. (1996): Norra Kärr. Litiofilen 13: 17-51
    Tanzania
     
    • Kilimanjaro Region
      • Mt Kilimanjaro
    Stern, W.B. (1969): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 20, 198-202.
    Turkey
     
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Eskişehir Province
        • Kirka
    Cahit, H., and Alonso, R.N. (2000): Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 9, 1-27.
    UK
     
    Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Skye
          • Luib
      • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
        • Isle of Mull
    B.G.J. Upton et al. , Journal of the Geological Society, 1998, V 155, N° 5, pp 813-828.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Apache Co.
        • Buell Park
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 114.
      • Gila Co.
        • San Carlos Indian Reservation
          • San Carlos
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 114; Garcia, M.O., et al (1980), Volatiles in Ti-rich amphibole megacrysts, southwestern USA, Am.Min.: 65: 306-312.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 221, 406; Caporuscio, F.A. (1980), Alkalic lavas from the San Carlos, Arizona province (abstract), Amer. Geophys. Union, 1979 Fall annual meeting.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 114; Garcia, M.O., et al (1980), Volatiles in Ti-rich amphibole megacrysts, southwestern USA, Am.Min.: 65: 306-312.
      • Yavapai Co.
    WITTKE, J.H. & HOLM, R.F. (1996) The association basamnitic nephelinite - feldspar ijolite - nepheline monzosyenite at House Mountain Volcano, North-Central Arizona. Canadian Mineralogist 34, 221-240.
    • Arkansas
      • Hot Spring Co.
    Erickson, Ralph Leroy; Blade, Lawrence Vernon (1963) Geochemistry and petrology of the alkalic igneous complex at Magnet Cove, Arkansas. USGS Prof. Paper 425
    • Colorado
      • Clear Creek Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Teller Co.
    Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185
    • Maine
      • Cumberland Co.
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1
      • York Co.
        • York
    Gilman, R., 1978, Bedrock Gepology of the Newfield 15' Quadrangle, Maine, ME Geol Surv OF-78-10.
    • Massachusetts
      • Essex Co.
    Dennen, W. H. 1992, Bedrock geologic map of the Gloucester and Rockport Quadrangles, Essex County, Massachusetts
    Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
      • Worcester Co.
    Emerson, 1917. Geology of MA & RI, p.236.
    • Montana
      • Meagher Co.
    American Mineralogist 50:291-292
    • Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
        • Lynn District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lincoln Co.
        • Kanes Spring Wash
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Nye Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • White Pine Co.
        • Robinson District
          • Ely
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Frondel, C.: Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, NJ - a checklist (1972); Dunn(1995):Pt4:509.
      • Union Co.
        • Springfield Township
          • Springfield
    The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 93.
    • New Mexico
      • Colfax Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Doña Ana Co.
        • Organ Mts
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • Eddy Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Luna Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Otero Co.
        • Cornudas Mts
    USGS GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS SERIES I–2631
      • Halifax Co.
    Philip M. Brown,Chief Geologist, 1985 Geological Map of North Carolina
    Philip M. Brown, Chief Geologist, 1985, Geological Map of North Carolina
    Stoddard,E.F.,(1992) A new suite of post-orogenic dikes in eastern North Carolina Piedmont:Part II.Mineralogy and geochemistry,Southeastern Geology,v.32,no.3,pg.119-142
    • Oklahoma
      • Comanche Co.
        • Wichita Mts
    J.D. Price et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 435-451.
    • Pennsylvania
      • Lebanon Co.
        • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
    Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
    • South Dakota
      • Lawrence Co.
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
          • Balmoral
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
        • Big Bend National Park
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
      • Lubbock Co.
    http://www.meteoritestudies.com/protected_SHALLOW.HTM
    • Utah
      • Tooele Co.
        • Deep Creek Mts
          • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Vermont
      • Rutland Co.
        • Shrewsbury
          • Cuttingsville
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
    • Virginia
      • Augusta Co.
        • Parnassus
    Rocks & Minerals 84:352-362.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wisconsin
      • Dodge Co.
        • Iron Ridge District (Neda Iron District)
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 73 (1998)
      • Marathon Co.
        • Stettin pluton
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
    Buchholz, T. W., A. U.Falster, and W. B. Simmons (2012) Mineralogy Of An Unusual Pegmatite, Stettin Pluton, Marathon County, Wi. 39th Rochester Symposium abstracts.
        • Wausau pluton
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
      • Wood Co.
    55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 7
    Yemen
     
    • Hadramawt Governorate
    Zolensky, M. & A.Ivanov, Chemie der Erde 63,185-246(2003)
    Mineral and/or Locality  
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