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Axinite-(Mn)

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Formula:
Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
Brown, golden-yellow
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1797 by Rene Just Haüy from the Greek αξίνα ("axina") for "axe", in allusion to the common habit of its crystals. Called manganaxinit by J. Fromm in 1909. The name manganaxinite was used by Aminoff in 1919 when referring to specimens from Franklin, New Jersey, USA and further supported by Charles Palache in 1929. From the Greek αξίνα ("axina") for "axe", in allusion to the common habit of its crystals, and manganese dominance in the formula. Renamed with suffix "-Mn" by IMA in 2008.

Classification of Axinite-(Mn)

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.BD.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
D : Si2O7 groups, with additional anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination
56.2.2.3

56 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
2 : Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
17.5.40

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates
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Type Occurrence of Axinite-(Mn)

Year of Discovery:
1909

Physical Properties of Axinite-(Mn)

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Brown, golden-yellow
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
6½ - 7
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{100} good, {001}, {110}, and {011} poor

Crystallography of Axinite-(Mn)

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Space Group Setting:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.16Å, b = 9.19Å, c = 8.97Å
α = 88.26°, β = 82.8°, γ = 77.26°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.779 : 1 : 0.976
Z:
2

Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Andreozzi G B Lucchesi S Graziani G Russo U (2004) Site distribution of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in axinite mineral group: New crystal-chemical formula Sample 47. American Mineralogist 89:1763-1771.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.31 (20)
3.69 (10)
3.47 (70)
3.44 (20)
3.16 (100)
2.89 (20)
2.81 (50)
2.19 (20)
Comments:
ICDD 27-84

Optical Data of Axinite-(Mn)

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.672 - 1.693 nβ = 1.677 - 1.701 nγ = 1.681 - 1.704
2V:
Measured: 69° to 87°, Calculated: 62° to 82°
Birefringence:
0.01
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009 - 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
yellow-colorless to amber-pale yellow

Chemical Properties of Axinite-(Mn)

Formula:
Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Fe,Mg,Na,K,H2O

Relationship of Axinite-(Mn) to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Tinzenite (see here)
Forms a series with Axinite-(Fe) (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Tinzenite(Ca,Mn2+)2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
9.BD.05BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
9.BD.10HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
9.BD.15JunitoiteCaZn2Si2O7 · H2O
9.BD.20Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
9.BD.20Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
9.BD.20Tinzenite(Ca,Mn2+)2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
9.BD.25VistepiteSnMn4B2Si4O16(OH)2
9.BD.30BoralsiliteAl16B6Si2O37
9.BD.35Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37
17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNa[BSi3O8]
17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4Cl
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2O
17.5.17Serendibite(Ca,Na)2(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+)3[O2|(Si,Al,B)6O18]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce)4(Ce,Y)2(Ti4+,Fe3+,Al)[B4Si4O22](OH)2
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Y,Th)5(Si,B)3(O,OH,F)13
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)(Y,Ca,La,Fe)5(Si,B,Al)3(O,OH,F)13
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.28 Ferridravite
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
17.5.30UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2Cl
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42Tinzenite(Ca,Mn2+)2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2

Other Names for Axinite-(Mn)

Other Information

Magenta-red (SW UV) (Franklin, NJ massive material only).
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Axinite-(Mn)

Reference List:
J. Fromme, 1910, Min. pet. Mitt. v 28, p. 329.

Aminoff, Gregori, 1919, [Mineralogical Studies on Material from Sjogren's Mineral Collection], Arkiv. Kemi. Min. Geol., v7 (17), p. 1-58.

Palache, Charles, 1929, Paragenetic Classification of the Minerals of Franklin, New Jersey, American Mineralogist, v 14, p. 1-18.

Sanero, E. and Gottardi, G.
, Nomenlature and Crystal-Chemistry of Axinites, American Mineralogist (1968): 53: 1407-1411.

Grew, Edward S., and Anovitz, L. M., (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for Axinite-(Mn)

Specimens:
The following Axinite-(Mn) specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Axinite-(Mn)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
Birch et al., 1982, Minerals of Broken Hill
Trevor Dart collection
  • Victoria
    • Benambra
      • The Brothers
D.A.Henry, W.D.Birch 2005, Manganaxinite from Pyle's limestone near Benambra, and ferroaxinite from Corop, Victoria. Australian Journal of Mineralogy Vol. 11, No. 1, June 2005
Canada
 
  • Nunavut Territory
    • Mackenzie District
      • Itchen Lake
Hicken, A.K., McClenaghan, M.B., Layton-Matthews, D., Paulen, R.C., Averill, S.A. and Crabtree, D. (2013) Indicator mineral signatures of the Izok Lake Zn-Cu-Pb-Agvolcanogenic
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
Dana's New Mineralogy
Finland
 
  • Southern Finland Region
    • Forssa
Ilkka Mikkola data
France
 
  • Midi-Pyrénées
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
  • Rhône-Alpes
    • Isère
      • Bourg d'Oisans
        • St Christophe-en-Oisans
Gautron, L. and Meisser, N. (2001). Prehnite from La Combe de la Selle, Saint Christophe en Oisans - Isère - France. Mineralogical Record, 32 (3), 223-232.
Germany (TL)
 
  • Lower Saxony
AM 64 (1979), 635; HB2/2 (1995)
      • Bad Harzburg
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
Ireland
 
  • Co. Monaghan
    • Calliagh
No reference listed
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova and La Spezia Provinces
      • different municipalities
        • Tre Monti mining concession
Castellaro, F., Passarino, G. (2011): I minerali di Monte Alpe. Sezione dell'antica Concessione Tre Monti (La Spezia e Genova). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana. 4/2011, 214-224.
    • Genova Province
      • Ne
        • Graveglia Valley
Redazionale (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia del Ferrania Club, 19 , 3-5.
Antofilli, Borgo, Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia.
          • Reppia
Redazione (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia Ferrania Club, 19, 3-5.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Varaita Valley
        • Bellino
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Sardinia
    • Olbia-Tempio Pausania Province
      • Calangianus
Tanca, G.A., Gamboni, A., Mamberti, M. & Mascia, S. (2007) – Furru e Conca, Massiccio granitico del Monte Limbara, Calangianus, Olbia-Tempio Pausania - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano. 31,4,pp.274-281.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
        • Temperino
- Orlandi, P. (2011): Zibaldone di mineralogia italiana 2010: parte seconda. Micro, 3/2011, 98-100. - Dini, A., Orlandi, P. & Vezzoni, S. (2013). Temperino e Lanzi. Le paragenesi primarie dello skarn. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 28-39.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Saitama Prefecture
H. Momoi (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 39-63.
        • Hannou
Alfredo Petrov collection
        • Hidaka
Akira Kato (2009) Explanations of distributed specimens at the Ordinary Meeting of Mumeikai Group, No. 28 (November 2009).
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Kanuma City
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Miyazaki prefecture
      • Hinokage-cho
specimens seen in private collections in Japan (Alfredo Petrov)
      • Takachiho
Bernard & Hyrsl (2004) Minerals and their Localities. (Granit, Prague)
    • Nansei Archipelago
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Amami-Oshima Island
          • Yamato-son (Yamato village)
Momoi, H. (1964) Mem. Fac. Sci., Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 73-78.
    • Oita Prefecture
      • Bungo-Ohno City
Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9; Gaines, Skinner, Foord, Mason, Rosenzweig, and King, 1997, Dana's New Mineralogy.
  • Shikoku Island
    • Kochi Prefecture
      • Nagaoka-gun
Joe Cilen collection #11,432 (originally from Ralph Merrill/Minerals Unlimited, 1950s, labelled just "axinite").
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.
V.V. Kalinin data
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Sahatany Pegmatite Field (Mt Ibity area)
        • Sahatany Valley
Larsen, K. E. (2003): Mineralene i Sahatany pegmatittfelt, Madagaskar. Bergverksmuseets skrifter 25, 5-18 (in norwegian)
Mexico
 
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Mun. de Guadalcázar
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
Morocco
 
  • Meknès-Tafilalet Region
    • Meknès Prefecture
      • Meknès
        • El Hammam (El Hamman)
Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
New Zealand
 
  • South Island
    • Canterbury
Journal of Metamorphic Geology Number 2: 103 - 266 (1996)
    • Otago
      • Dunedin
Railton, G.L. & Watters, W.A., Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104 (1990).
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Arendal
      • Arendal Iron Mines
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert M. (2006): Minerals of the heulandite- and axinite series in Norway- additional data. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 33: 27-34
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert, M.(2005): Minerals of the axinite group from Norwegian localities. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 30: 88-93
  • Buskerud
    • Drammen
      • Drammensmarka
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert M. (2006): Minerals of the heulandite- and axinite series in Norway- additional data. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 33: 27-34
    • Kongsberg
      • Kongsberg Silver Mining District
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert, M.(2005): Minerals of the axinite group from Norwegian localities. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 30: 88-93
  • Hordaland
    • Ullensvang
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert, M.(2005): Minerals of the axinite group from Norwegian localities. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 30: 88-93
  • Nordland
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert, M.(2005): Minerals of the axinite group from Norwegian localities. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 30: 88-93
  • Oslo
    • Bjerke
      • Årvoll
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert, M.(2005): Minerals of the axinite group from Norwegian localities. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 30: 88-93
  • Troms
    • Bjarkøy
Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O. & Erambert, M.(2005): Minerals of the axinite group from Norwegian localities. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift, 30: 88-93
Peru
 
  • Ancash Department
    • Bolognesi Province
Min. Rec. 28, no. 4 (1997); Hyrsl, J. (2013): Neue Funde von Axinit-(Fe) und Epidot nahe Sayan in Zentral-Peru. Mineralien-Welt, 24(6), 141-144.
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
  • La Libertad Department
    • Santiago de Chuco Province
      • Quiruvilca District
Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
  • Lima Department
    • Oyon Province
No reference listed
Romania
 
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
[MinRec 32:9]
[MinRec 32:9]
          • Dal'negorsk B deposit
Pavel M. Kartashov
[MinRec 32:9]
[MinRec 32:9]
[MinRec 32:9]
[MinRec 32:9]
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Pletnev P. (1995) Mineralogy of gondites and metavolcanic rocks of Kogaevskogo Mn deposit. Urals Summer Mineralogical School-1995. 58-60
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Gemerská Poloma (Poloma; Veszverés)
        • Šramky
Ozdín D., Volek M., Števko M., 2006: Study of hydrotermal veins with axinites from the Western Carpathians. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.87
Spain
 
  • Madrid
Tanago, J. G., Lozano, P. L., Larios, A. , La Iglesia, A. (2012) Stokesite crystals from La Cabrera, Madrid, Spain. Mineralogical Record 43:499-508
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Nordmark district
      • Persberg district
Tanzania
 
  • Manyara Region
    • Simanjiro District
      • Lelatema Mts
        • Merelani Hills (Mererani)
Tony Nikischer
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Izmir Province
      • Izmir
        • Efemçukuru Au deposit
Oyman, T., Minareci, F., and Pişkin, Ö. (2003): Ore Geology Reviews 23, 35-53.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Aravaipa
            • Landsman Camp (Landsman group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 288; Reiter, B.E. (1981), Controls on lead-zinc skarn mineralization, Iron Cap mine area, Aravaipa district, Graham Co., AZ, in C. Stone and J.P. Jenney (editors), AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 13: 117-125.; Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
    • Pima Co.
      • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
        • Comobabi Mts
          • Kovaya Hills
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 179, 288; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 328; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56.
  • California
    • El Dorado Co.
      • Fairplay District
        • Fair Play
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911b), Axinite from California: USGS Bulletin 490: 42; Tucker, W. Burling & C.A. Waring (1919), El Dorado County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 276-278; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 65, 91, 175.
    • Plumas Co.
      • Genesee Valley
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Bear Valley Mining District
Rocks & Min.:61:33-34.
    • San Diego Co.
      • Ramona District
        • Ramona
Foord, Eugene E. et al (1989), Mineralogy and Paragenesis of the Little Three Mine Pegmatites, Ramona District, San Diego County, California. Mineralogical Record, 20(2): p. 106.
Foord, Eugene E. et al (1989), Mineralogy and Paragenesis of the Little Three Mine Pegmatites, Ramona District, San Diego County, California. Mineralogical Record, 20(2): p. 121.
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Mesabi Range
        • Babbitt
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Aminoff, G., 1919, Mineralogical Studies on Material from Sjogren's Mineral Collection, Archiv. Kemi. Min. Geol. v 7, (17), p. 1-58.
Van King
FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
Richard Gunter
Palache(1935):16 & 100; Dunn(1995):Pt1:133 & Pt3:417.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Dunn(1995):Pt3:418.
Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
    • Mitchell Co.
      • Spruce Pine District
        • Spruce Pine
Lumpkin,Gregory R.,and Ribbe,Paul H.,(1979)Chemistry and Physical Properties of Axinite:American Mineralogist Vol.64,p.635-645
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • Wallace Township
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
    • Delaware Co.
      • Swarthmore (Borough of Swarthmore)
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
    • Northampton Co.
      • Forks Township
Gaine, R., Skinner, C., Foord, E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V., , 1997, The System of Mineralogy, eighth edition.
      • Hanover Township
        • Campbell's Hump (Quaker Hill)
Smith, R. C., 1978, The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966 - 1975
Smith, R. C. II, 1978, The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966 - 1975
Mineral and/or Locality  
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