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Antarcticite

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Formula:
CaCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless
Hardness:2 - 3
Name:
For its occurrence on the continent of Antarctica.


A highly hygroscopic mineral. May dehydrate to mesohydride under certain conditions.

A synthetic Sr analogue is known.

Classification of Antarcticite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/A.12-80
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.BB.30

3 : HALIDES
B : Simple halides, with H2O
B : M:X = 1:2
Dana 8th edition ID:9.2.6.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
2 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.4.9

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Antarcticite

Type Locality:Don Juan Pond, Wright Valley, Victoria Land, Eastern Antarctica, Antarctica
General Appearance of Type Material:Aggregates of acicular crystals with poor terminations, to 15 cm
Year of Discovery:1965
Geological Setting of type material:Precipitate from highly saline brines under very arid conditions

Occurrences of Antarcticite

Geological Setting:Stratified fresh to brackish to salt water columns in onshore "blue holes" (Bahamas);
Component of inclusions in quartz in a zoned mafic pegmatoid (Bushveld Complex)

Physical Properties of Antarcticite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
on {0001}, good to perfect on one prism face
Density (measured):1.715 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.7 g/cm3

Crystallography of Antarcticite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:P3 2 1
Cell Parameters:a = 7.9Å, c = 3.95Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.5
Unit Cell Volume:V 213.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:1
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.44 (24)
2.80 (23)
2.16 (23)
2.60 (22)
3.98 (18)
2.28 (13)
6.92 (9)
Comments:Recorded on material from the type locality

Optical Data of Antarcticite

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.550 nε = 1.490 - 1.500
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.060

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low

Chemical Properties of Antarcticite

Formula:
CaCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:CaCl2·6H2O
Essential elements:Ca, Cl, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Cl, H, O
Analytical Data:Analysis of material from the type locality
Na (0.34)
K (0.008)
Mg (0.41)
Ca (17.5)
Cl (32.7)
H2O (49.2)

sum 100.1 wt.-%
Empirical Formula:
Ca
 
1.00
Mg
 
0.04
Na
 
0.03
Cl
 
2.11
· 6.25H
 
2
O

Relationship of Antarcticite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.BB.05Eriochalcite
CuCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.BB.10Rokühnite
FeCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.BB.15Bischofite
MgCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
3.BB.20Nickelbischofite
NiCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
3.BB.25Sinjarite
CaCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.BB.35Tachyhydrite
CaMg
 
2
Cl
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.4.1Sellaite
MgF
 
2
8.4.2Neighborite
NaMgF
 
3
8.4.3Bischofite
MgCl
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.4Korshunovskite
Mg
 
2
Cl(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
8.4.5Carnallite
KMgCl
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
8.4.6Tachyhydrite
CaMg
 
2
Cl
 
6
· 12H
 
2
O
8.4.7Fluorite
CaF
 
2
8.4.8Sinjarite
CaCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.4.10Chlorocalcite
KCaCl
 
3
8.4.11Rorisite
CaFCl
8.4.12Jarlite
Na(Sr,Na)
 
7
MgAl
 
6
F
 
32
(OH,H
 
2
O)
 
2
8.4.13Calcjarlite
Na(Ca,Sr)
 
3
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.14Tikhonenkovite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.15Acuminite
Sr[AlF
 
4
(OH)(H
 
2
O)]
8.4.16Frankdicksonite
BaF
 
2
8.4.17Usovite
Ba
 
2
CaMgAl
 
2
F
 
14
8.4.18Bøgvadite
Na
 
2
SrBa
 
2
Al
 
4
F
 
20

Other Names for Antarcticite

Synonyms:
AntarkticiteIMA1965-015
Other Languages:
German:Antarcticit
Antarkticit
Russian:Антарктицит
Spanish:Antarcticita
Antarkticita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Antarcticite

Reference List:

- +
Torii, T. and Ossaka, J. (1965): Antarcticite: a new mineral, calcium chloride hexahydrate, dicovered in Antarctica. Science 149, 975-977. - American Mineralogist (1965), 50, 2095 (abstract).

Dunning, G. E. and Cooper, J. F., Jr. (1969): A second occurrence of antarcticite, from Bristol Dry Lake, California. American Mineralogist 54, 1018-1025.

Agron, P. A. and Busing, W. R. (1986): Calcium and strontium dichloride hexahydrates by neutron diffraction. Acta Crystallographica C42, 141-143.

Schiffries, C. M. (1990): Liquid-absent aqueous fluid inclusions and phase equilibria in the system CaCl2 - NaCl - H2O. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 611-619.

Eckstein, Y., Manecki, M., Matyjasik, M. and Rosenthal, E. (1994): Hydrochemical stratification and processes in three "blue holes" on North Andros Island, Bahamas. Geol. Soc. Amer. Prog. and Abs. 26, 360 (abstract).

Anthony, J. W., et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 16.

Internet Links for Antarcticite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Antarcticite on Google
  • Look for Antarcticite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Antarcticite on Webmineral
  • Look for Antarcticite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Antarcticite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Antarcticite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Antarcticite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Search for Antarcticite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy minerals from YourMineralCollection
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Antarcticite specimens
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Find Antarcticite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Antarcticite specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Localities for Antarcticite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Victoria Land
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
    Australia
     
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Mary Kathleen district
    T. Kwak & P. Abeysinghe (1987): Rare earth and uranium minerals present as daughter crystals in fluid inclusions, Mary Kathleen U-REE skarn, Queensland, Australia. Mineral. Mag. 51, 665-670.
    Bahamas
     
    • North Andros District
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Abitibi RCM
          • Preissac
    Taner, H., Williams-Jones, A.E., and Wood, S.A. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 34, 579-590.
    China
     
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Lenghu Co.
    Bingxiao Li and Kejun Wang (1986): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(1), 59-62
    Mars
     
    • Aeolis quadrangle
      • Gusev Crater
    SILICA-RICH DEPOSITS AND HYDRATED MINERALS AT GUSEV CRATER, MARS. M. S. Rice1, J. F.
    Norway
     
    • Akershus
      • Bærum (Baerum)
    Hans-Jørgen Berg, NHM, Oslo 1999
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Zheleznogorsk
    Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Burgersfort
          • Sekhukhuneland
    J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
    USA
     
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Amboy
    Dunning, G.E. and J.F. Cooper (1969b) A second occurrence of antarcticite from Bristol Dry Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 54: 1018-1021; Muehle, G.H. (1971) Antarcticite from California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 171-172; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 288-290.
    Ansermet, S. (2011): Aus dem Salzsee in Kühlschrank: Antarcticit vom Bristol Dry Lake, Kalifornien, USA. Lapis. 36 (11), 33-36
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    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
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