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Antarcticite

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Antarctica

Antarctica
Formula:
CaCl2 · 6H2O
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Colourless
Hardness:
2 - 3
Name:
For its occurrence on the continent of Antarctica.
A highly hygroscopic mineral. May dehydrate to mesohydride under certain conditions.

A synthetic Sr analogue is known.

Classification of Antarcticite

Approved
3.BB.30

3 : HALIDES
B : Simple halides, with H2O
B : M:X = 1:2
9.2.6.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
2 : AX2
8.4.9

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg
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First Recorded Occurrence of Antarcticite

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Aggregates of acicular crystals with poor terminations, to 15 cm
Year of Discovery:
1965
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Precipitate from highly saline brines under very arid conditions

Occurrences of Antarcticite

Geological Setting:
Stratified fresh to brackish to salt water columns in onshore "blue holes" (Bahamas);
Component of inclusions in quartz in a zoned mafic pegmatoid (Bushveld Complex)

Physical Properties of Antarcticite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 3
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {0001}, good to perfect on one prism face
Density:
1.715 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.7 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Antarcticite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P3 2 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.9Å, c = 3.95Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.5
Unit Cell Volume:
V 213.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.44 (24)
2.80 (23)
2.16 (23)
2.60 (22)
3.98 (18)
2.28 (13)
6.92 (9)
Comments:
Recorded on material from the type locality

Optical Data of Antarcticite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.550 nε = 1.490 - 1.500
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.060
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of Antarcticite

Formula:
CaCl2 · 6H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Analysis of material from the type locality
Na (0.34)
K (0.008)
Mg (0.41)
Ca (17.5)
Cl (32.7)
H2O (49.2)

sum 100.1 wt.-%
Empirical Formula:
Ca1.00Mg0.04Na0.03Cl2.11 · 6.25H2O

Relationship of Antarcticite to other Species

3.BB.05EriochalciteCuCl2 · 2H2O
3.BB.10RokühniteFeCl2 · 2H2O
3.BB.15BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2O
3.BB.20NickelbischofiteNiCl2 · 6H2O
3.BB.25SinjariteCaCl2 · 2H2O
3.BB.35TachyhydriteCaMg2Cl6 · 12H2O
8.4.1SellaiteMgF2
8.4.2NeighboriteNaMgF3
8.4.3BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2O
8.4.4KorshunovskiteMg2Cl(OH)3 · 4H2O
8.4.5CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2O
8.4.6TachyhydriteCaMg2Cl6 · 12H2O
8.4.7FluoriteCaF2
8.4.8SinjariteCaCl2 · 2H2O
8.4.10ChlorocalciteKCaCl3
8.4.11RorisiteCaFCl
8.4.12JarliteNa(Sr,Na)7MgAl6F32(OH,H2O)2
8.4.13CalcjarliteNa(Ca,Sr)3Al3(OH)2F14
8.4.14TikhonenkoviteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]
8.4.15AcuminiteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]
8.4.16FrankdicksoniteBaF2
8.4.17UsoviteBa2CaMgAl2F14
8.4.18BøgvaditeNa2SrBa2Al4F20

Other Names for Antarcticite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:南极石
Traditional Chinese:南極石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Antarcticite

Reference List:
Torii, T. and Ossaka, J. (1965): Antarcticite: a new mineral, calcium chloride hexahydrate, dicovered in Antarctica. Science 149, 975-977. - American Mineralogist (1965), 50, 2095 (abstract).

Dunning, G. E. and Cooper, J. F., Jr. (1969): A second occurrence of antarcticite, from Bristol Dry Lake, California. American Mineralogist 54, 1018-1025.

Agron, P. A. and Busing, W. R. (1986): Calcium and strontium dichloride hexahydrates by neutron diffraction. Acta Crystallographica C42, 141-143.

Schiffries, C. M. (1990): Liquid-absent aqueous fluid inclusions and phase equilibria in the system CaCl2 - NaCl - H2O. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 611-619.

Eckstein, Y., Manecki, M., Matyjasik, M. and Rosenthal, E. (1994): Hydrochemical stratification and processes in three "blue holes" on North Andros Island, Bahamas. Geol. Soc. Amer. Prog. and Abs. 26, 360 (abstract).

Anthony, J. W., et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 16.

Internet Links for Antarcticite

Localities for Antarcticite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Wright Valley
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
      • Mary Kathleen district
T. Kwak & P. Abeysinghe (1987): Rare earth and uranium minerals present as daughter crystals in fluid inclusions, Mary Kathleen U-REE skarn, Queensland, Australia. Mineral. Mag. 51, 665-670.
Bahamas
 
  • North Andros District
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Abitibi RCM
        • Preissac
Taner, H., Williams-Jones, A.E., and Wood, S.A. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 34, 579-590.
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Lenghu Co.
Bingxiao Li and Kejun Wang (1986): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(1), 59-62; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Mianping Zheng and Xifang Liu (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 84(11), 1585-1600
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
SILICA-RICH DEPOSITS AND HYDRATED MINERALS AT GUSEV CRATER, MARS. M. S. Rice1, J. F.
Norway
 
  • Akershus
    • Bærum (Baerum)
Hans-Jørgen Berg, NHM, Oslo 1999
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Zheleznogorsk
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Burgersfort
        • Sekhukhuneland
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Amboy
Dunning, G.E. and J.F. Cooper (1969b) A second occurrence of antarcticite from Bristol Dry Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 54: 1018-1021; Muehle, G.H. (1971) Antarcticite from California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 171-172; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 288-290.
Ansermet, S. (2011): Aus dem Salzsee in Kühlschrank: Antarcticit vom Bristol Dry Lake, Kalifornien, USA. Lapis. 36 (11), 33-36
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