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Manganite

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Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
gray-black, black
Hardness:
4
Name:
Named in 1827 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger in allusion to the manganese content.
Polymorph of:
Frequently as crystalline-looking material, either as well-formed crystals or tight aggregates with a fibrous structure due to the mineral's perfect cleavage. May be compact fine-grained or in botryoidal formation.

Classification of Manganite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FD.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
D : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
6.1.3.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
1 : XO(OH)
7.18.7

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Manganite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Coarse rectangular prism, often with multiple parallel growth.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Hydrothermal veins
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Manganite

Geological Setting:
Low temperature hydrothermal or hot spring manganese deposits. Sedimentary deposits.

Physical Properties of Manganite

Resinous, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
gray-black, black
Streak:
Reddish brown to black
Hardness (Mohs):
4
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=630 - 743 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{010} perfect; {110} and {001} good.
Fracture:
Splintery
Density:
4.29 - 4.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.38 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Calculated also (ICDD 18-805) = 4.32

Crystallography of Manganite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Space Group Setting:
P21/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.94Å, b = 5.28Å, c = 5.74Å
β = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.693 : 1 : 1.087
Unit Cell Volume:
V 270.95 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals striated and short to long prismatic [001] alone; by {001} with macrodomes, or by a series of macropyramids; highly modified at times. Prismatic faces deeply striated [001], and terminal {h0l} or {hkl} faces striated parallel to their mutual intersections. Crystals often grouped or markedly composite subparallel [001]. Stalactitic; granular (rare).
Twinning:
1. On {011}, both as contact and penetration twins. Twinning often repeated with composition face either parallel or inclined. 2. Twin plane {100} lamellar, presenting as monoclinic symmetry for the species.
Comment:
Space group B21/d (non-standard setting); pseudo-orthorhombic.

Crystallographic forms of Manganite

Crystal Atlas:
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Manganite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.41 (100)
2.65 (50)
2.52 (10)
2.41 (80)
2.36 (2)
2.28 (30)
2.20 (30)
1.781 (20)
1.710 (6)
1.675 (90)
1.637 (2)
1.502 (10)
1.435 (16)
1.323 (6)
1.262 (2)
1.214 (2)
1.182 (2)
1.158 (2)
1.139 (2)
1.118 (2)
1.099 (2)
1.077 (2)
1.015 (2)
0.993 (2)
Comments:
ICDD 18-805 (synthetic); ICDD 9-99 is superseded

Optical Data of Manganite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.250(2) nβ = 2.250(2) nγ = 2.530(2)
Birefringence:
0.028
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.280
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Bireflectance:
Distinct in grays
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Colour in reflected light:
Gray-white with brown tint
Internal Reflections:
Blood-red
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X = reddish brown
Z = red brown

Chemical Properties of Manganite

Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ba,Pb,Cu,Al,Ca

Relationship of Manganite to other Species

4.FD.05SpertiniiteCu(OH)2
4.FD.10BracewelliteCrO(OH)
4.FD.10DiasporeAlO(OH)
4.FD.10GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
4.FD.10GuyanaiteCrO(OH)
4.FD.10Montroseite(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)
4.FD.10TsumgalliteGaO(OH)
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3
4.FD.20Unnamed (Nd-analogue of Yttrotungstite-(Ce))(Nd,Ce,La)W2O6(OH)3
4.FD.25FrankhawthorneiteCu2Te6+O4(OH)2
4.FD.30KhinitePb2+Cu32+[Te6+O6](OH)2
4.FD.30Khinite-3TPb2+Cu32+Te6+O6(OH)2
7.18.1ManganositeMnO
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
7.18.3PyrolusiteMnO2
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
7.18.12Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn34+O7 · 3H2O
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2O

Other Names for Manganite

Other Information

Not fluorescent in ultraviolet
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Manganite

Reference List:
von Haidinger, Wilhelm Karl (1826), Edinburgh Journal Science: 4: 41.
Buerger, Martin J. (1936), Zs. Kr.: 95: 163.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 646-650.
American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 1296.
Graham, J. (1978) American Mineralogist 63: 1166.
Golden, D. C., C. C. Chen, and J. B. Dixon (1987), Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment: Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 271-280.
Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., and Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.

Internet Links for Manganite

Specimens:
The following Manganite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Manganite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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