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Manganite

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Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
grey-black, black
Hardness:
4
Name:
Named in 1827 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger in allusion to the manganese content.
This page provides mineralogical data about Manganite.

Classification of Manganite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.FD.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
D : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
6.1.3.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
1 : XO(OH)
7.18.7

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Manganite

Year of Discovery:
1827

Occurrences of Manganite

Geological Setting:
Low temperature hydrothermal or hot spring manganese deposits. Sedimentary deposits.

Physical Properties of Manganite

Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
grey-black, black
Streak:
Reddish brown to black
Hardness (Mohs):
4
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=630 - 743 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{010} perfect; {110} and {001} good.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.29 - 4.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.38 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Manganite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.94Å, b = 5.28Å, c = 5.74Å
β = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.693 : 1 : 1.087
Unit Cell Volume:
V 270.95 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals striated and short to long prismatic [001] alone; by {001} with macrodomes, or by a series of macropyramids; highly modified at times. Prismatic faces deeply striated [001], and terminal {h0l} or {hkl} faces striated parallel to their mutual intersections. Crystals often grouped or markedly composite subparallel [001]. Stalactitic; granular (rare).
Twinning:
1. On {011}, both as contact and penetration twins. Twinning often repeated with composition face either parallel or inclined. 2. Twin plane {100} lamellar, presenting as monoclinic symmetry for the species.
Comment:
Space group B21/d (non-standard setting); pseudo-orthorhombic.

Crystallographic forms of Manganite

Crystal Atlas:
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Manganite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.40 (100)
2.64 (60)
2.28 (50)
1.708 (40)
1.672 (30)
1.636 (40)
1.139 (40)

Optical Data of Manganite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.250(2) nβ = 2.250(2) nγ = 2.530(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.280
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Bireflectance:
Distinct in grays
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Colour in reflected light:
Gray-white with brown tint
Internal Reflections:
Blood-red
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X = reddish brown
Z = red brown

Chemical Properties of Manganite

Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ba,Pb,Cu,Al,Ca

Relationship of Manganite to other Species

4.FD.05SpertiniiteCu(OH)2
4.FD.10BracewelliteCrO(OH)
4.FD.10DiasporeAlO(OH)
4.FD.10GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
4.FD.10GuyanaiteCrO(OH)
4.FD.10Montroseite(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)
4.FD.10TsumgalliteGaO(OH)
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3
4.FD.20Unnamed (Nd-analogue of Yttrotungstite-(Ce))(Nd,Ce,La)W2O6(OH)3
4.FD.25FrankhawthorneiteCu2Te6+O4(OH)2
4.FD.30KhinitePb2+Cu32+[Te6+O6](OH)2
4.FD.30Khinite-3TPb2+Cu32+Te6+O6(OH)2
7.18.1ManganositeMnO
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
7.18.3PyrolusiteMnO2
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
7.18.12Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn34+O7 · 3H2O
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2O

Other Names for Manganite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Manganite

Reference List:
Haidinger (1826), Edinburgh Journal Science: 4: 41.

Buerger (1936), Zs. Kr.: 95: 163.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 646-650.

American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 1296.

Golden, D.C., C.C. Chen, and J.B. Dixon (1987), Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment: Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 271-280.

Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., and Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.

Internet Links for Manganite

Specimens:
The following Manganite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Manganite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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