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Manganite

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Formula:
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
System:MonoclinicColour:grey-black, black
Hardness:4
Name:Named in 1827 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger in allusion to the manganese content.
This page provides mineralogical data about Manganite.

Classification of Manganite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.06-70
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.FD.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
D : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 8th edition ID:6.1.3.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
1 : XO(OH)
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.18.7

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Manganite

Type Locality:Manganese deposit, Ilfeld, Nordhausen, Harz, Thuringia, Germany
Year of Discovery:1827

Occurrences of Manganite

Geological Setting:Low temperature hydrothermal or hot spring manganese deposits. Sedimentary deposits.

Physical Properties of Manganite

Lustre:Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:grey-black, black
Streak:Reddish brown to black
Hardness (Mohs):4
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=630 - 743 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
{010} perfect; {110} and {001} good.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):4.29 - 4.34 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.38 g/cm3

Crystallography of Manganite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 8.94Å, b = 5.28Å, c = 5.74Å
β = 90°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.693 : 1 : 1.087
Unit Cell Volume:V 270.95 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Crystals striated and short to long prismatic [001] alone; by {001} with macrodomes, or by a series of macropyramids; highly modified at times. Prismatic faces deeply striated [001], and terminal {h0l} or {hkl} faces striated parallel to their mutual intersections. Crystals often grouped or markedly composite subparallel [001]. Stalactitic; granular (rare).
Twinning:1. On {011}, both as contact and penetration twins. Twinning often repeated with composition face either parallel or inclined. 2. Twin plane {100} lamellar, presenting as monoclinic symmetry for the species.
Comment:Space group B21/d (non-standard setting); pseudo-orthorhombic.
Crystal Atlas:
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Manganite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.40 (100)
2.64 (60)
2.28 (50)
1.708 (40)
1.672 (30)
1.636 (40)
1.139 (40)

Optical Data of Manganite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 2.250(2) nβ = 2.250(2) nγ = 2.530(2)
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.280

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Weak
Bireflectance:Distinct in grays
Dispersion:r > v extreme
Colour in reflected light:Gray-white with brown tint
Internal Reflections:Blood-red
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:X = reddish brown
Z = red brown

Chemical Properties of Manganite

Formula:
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
Simplified for copy/paste:Mn3+O(OH)
Essential elements:H, Mn, O
All elements listed in formula:H, Mn, O
Common Impurities:Fe,Ba,Pb,Cu,Al,Ca

Relationship of Manganite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.FD.05Spertiniite
Cu(OH)
 
2
4.FD.10Bracewellite
CrO(OH)
4.FD.10Diaspore
AlO(OH)
4.FD.10Goethite
α-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FD.10Groutite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
4.FD.10Guyanaite
CrO(OH)
4.FD.10Montroseite
(V
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)O(OH)
4.FD.10Tsumgallite
GaO(OH)
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Y)
YW
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Ce)
(Ce,Nd,Y)W
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
4.FD.20Unnamed (Nd-analogue of Yttrotungstite-(Ce))
(Nd,Ce,La)W
 
2
O
 
6
(OH)
 
3
4.FD.25Frankhawthorneite
Cu
 
2
Te
6+
 
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
4.FD.30Khinite
Pb
2+
 
Cu
2+
3
Te
6+
 
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
4.FD.30Parakhinite
Pb
2+
 
Cu
2+
3
Te
6+
 
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.18.1Manganosite
MnO
7.18.2Hausmannite
MnMn
 
2
O
 
4
7.18.3Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
7.18.4Ramsdellite
Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
7.18.5Akhtenskite
ε-Mn
4+
 
O
 
2
7.18.6Feitknechtite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.8Groutite
Mn
3+
 
O(OH)
7.18.9Nsutite
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)(O,OH)
 
2
7.18.10Pyrochroite
Mn(OH)
 
2
7.18.11Birnessite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.5
(Mn
4+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
4
· 1.5H
 
2
O
7.18.12Aurorite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ag,Ca)Mn
4+
3
O
 
7
· 3H
 
2
O
7.18.13Cianciulliite
Mn(Mg,Mn)
 
2
Zn
 
2
(OH)
 
10
· 2-4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Manganite

Synonyms:
Grau-BraunsteinerzGray Oxide of ManganeseManganaise cristalliséManganèse oxydé metalloïdeNewkirkite
Prismatoidisches Mangan-ErzSphenomanganite
Other Languages:
French:Acerdèse
German:Braunmanganerz
Glanzmanganerz
Graumanganerz
Manganit
Newkirkit
Sphenomanganit
Russian:Манганит
Simplified Chinese:水锰矿
Spanish:Manganita
Newkirkita
Sphenomanganita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Manganite

Reference List:

- +
Haidinger (1826), Edinburgh Journal Science: 4: 41.

Buerger (1936), Zs. Kr.: 95: 163.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 646-650.

American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 1296.

Golden, D.C., C.C. Chen, and J.B. Dixon (1987), Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment: Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 271-280.

Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., and Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.

Internet Links for Manganite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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