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Maghemite

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Formula:
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
System:IsometricColour:Brown, brick-red
Hardness:6
Name:From the first syllables of MAGnetite and HEMatite, in allusion to the magnetism and composition.
Dimorph of:Hematite


A ferromagnetic iron oxide (which may therefore be confused with magnetite).

Maghemite is formed by weathering or low-temperature oxidation of spinels containing ferrous iron, commonly magnetite or titanian magnetite. It is a widespread yellow pigment in continental sediments, rocks, and soils.

Classification of Maghemite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.06-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.BB.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 8th edition ID:4.3.7.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.20.3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe
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Type Occurrence of Maghemite

Type Locality:Bushveld Complex, South Africa
Year of Discovery:1927

Physical Properties of Maghemite

Lustre:Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Brown, brick-red
Streak:Brown
Hardness (Mohs):6

Crystallography of Maghemite

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):4 3 2 - Gyroidal
Space Group:P41 3 2
Cell Parameters:a = 8.3515Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 582.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Commonly as coatings on or replacements of magnetite; massive; rarely as minute octahedral crystals, or acicular overgrowths.
Comment:Cubic (P4132 or P4332), typically with a tetragonal supercell (P41 or P43, a = 8.35, c = 24.99 A).).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
2.953 (35)
2.5177 (100)
2.0886 (16)
1.7045 (10)
1.6073 (24)
1.4758 (34)
1.0872 (7)

Optical Data of Maghemite

Type:Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:White to greyish blue

Chemical Properties of Maghemite

Formula:
Fe
3+
2
O
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe3+2O3
Essential elements:Fe, O
All elements listed in formula:Fe, O

Relationship of Maghemite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Magnetite (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.BB.05Chromite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cochromite
(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Coulsonite
Fe
2+
 
V
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Cuprospinel
Cu
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Filipstadite
(Sb
 
0.5
Fe
 
0.5
)Mn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Franklinite
Zn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Gahnite
ZnAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Galaxite
(Mn,Fe,Mg)(Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Jacobsite
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Manganochromite
(Mn,Fe)(Cr,V)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiocoulsonite
MgV
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesiochromite
Mg(Cr,Al,Fe)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Nichromite
(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Qandilite
(Mg,Fe)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)O
 
4
4.BB.05Spinel
MgAl
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Trevorite
Ni
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Ulvöspinel
Fe
 
2
TiO
 
4
4.BB.05Vuorelainenite
(Mn,Fe)(V,Cr)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.05Zincochromite
ZnCr
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hausmannite
MnMn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.10Hydrohetaerolite
ZnMn
 
2
O
 
4
· H
 
2
O
4.BB.10Iwakiite
Mn(Fe,Mn)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite
Fe
3+
 
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti
4+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,◻)
 
2
O
 
4
4.BB.20Tegengrenite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Sb
5+
0.5
(Mn
3+
 
,Si,Ti)
 
0.5
O
 
4
4.BB.25Xieite
Fe
2+
 
Cr
 
2
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.20.1Wüstite
FeO
7.20.2Magnetite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.4Hematite
Fe
 
2
O
 
3
7.20.5Goethite
α-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.6Akaganeite
β-Fe
3+
 
O(OH,Cl)
7.20.7Feroxyhyte
Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.8Lepidocrocite
γ-Fe
3+
 
O(OH)
7.20.9Ferrihydrite
Fe
3+
5
O
 
3
(OH)
 
9
7.20.10Amakinite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(OH)
 
2
7.20.11Magnesioferrite
MgFe
3+
2
O
 
4
7.20.12Muskoxite
Mg
 
7
Fe
 
4
O
 
13
· 10H
 
2
O
7.20.13Srebrodolskite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
2
O
 
5
7.20.14Hercynite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
O
 
4
7.20.15Brownmillerite
Ca
 
2
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
5

Other Names for Maghemite

Synonyms:
Ferromagnetic ferric oxideγ-Fe2O3OxymagniteSosmanite
Other Languages:
German:Maghemit
Italian:Maghemite
Russian:Маггемит
Simplified Chinese:磁赤铁矿
Spanish:Maghemita
Ukrainian:Маґгеміт
Varieties:
AlumomaghemiteHydromaghemite

Other Information

Magnetism:Ferromagnetic
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Maghemite

Reference List:

- +
Sosman and Posnjak (1925) Washington Academy of Science, Journal: 15: 329.

Wagner (1927) Economic Geology: 22: 845.

Schneiderhöhn and Ramdohr (1931) 2: 537.

Winchell (1931) American Mineralogist: 16: 270 (as oxymagnite).

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 708-709.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology (1979) 69: 249.

Internet Links for Maghemite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Maghemite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Maghemite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Cunningham Co.
        • Trundle
    Narromine 1:250 000 Mine Data Sheets
      • Kennedy Co.
        • Fifield
    Narromine 1:250 000 Mine Data Sheets
      • Narromine Co.
        • Narromine
    Narromine 1:250 000 Mine Data Sheets
      • Robinson Co.
        • Cobar
    A.N. Lorrigan (2005) Eulara Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit, Cobar District NSW Cooperative Research Centre for Landscape Environments and Mineral exploration
    • Tasmania
      • Corinna-Savage River district
    Bottrill & Taheri, 2008, Savage River mine, Unpub. Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania
    • Victoria
      • Northern Grampians Shire
        • Carapooee
    Birch, W. D. (2008): Gem corundum from the St Arnaud district, Western Victoria, Australia. Australian J. of Mineralogy 14, 73-78.
      • Otway Ranges
    • Western Australia
      • Halls Creek Shire
    Song, Y., Moon, H. S., & Chon, H. T. (1995). New occurrence and characterization of Niserpentines in the Kwangcheon area, Korea. Clay Minerals, 30(3), 211-224.
      • Wiluna Shire
        • Mount Keith
    Grguric, B.A. (2003) Minerals of the MKD5 nickel deposit, Mount Keith, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 9, No. 2 , pg. 55-71.
      • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
    Recent Investigations of the Mitchell Plateau Bauxite Deposits, Western Australia; TWH Parker and SB Sadlier; Mitchell Plateau Bauxite Company and Alcoa of Australia Limited; 1984
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
    Schulz, O. (1979): Die Sideritlager in den Paragneisen von Bärenbach bei Hüttenberg, Kärnten. Carinthia II 169./89., 37-57.
    • Salzburg
      • Salzburg
        • Untersberg massif
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Sill valley (Wipp valley)
          • Stubai valley
            • Unterberg valley
              • Habicht
    Vavtar, F. (1986): Das Zinn-Kupfer-Erzvorkommen am Glücksgrat (Stubai-Kristallin). Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 35, 287-298.
    Bolivia
     
    • Santa Cruz Department
      • Chiquitos Province
    Brazil
     
    • Bahia
      • Boquira (former Macaúbas)
    Misi, A., Iyer, S. S., Tassinari, C. C., Kyle, J. R., Coelho, C. E., Franca-Rocha, W. J., ... & Carvalho, I. G. (1999). Geological and isotopic constraints on the metallogenic evolution of the Proterozoic sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (Ag) deposits of Brazil. Gondwana Research, 2(1), 47-65
    • Mato Grosso do Sul
      • Corumbá
    Barbosa, O. (1950) Esclarecimiento sobre e estratigrafia da serie Jacadigo. Min e Metal, 151.
    Cameroon
     
    • East Region
      • Lomié
    Yongue-Fouateu, R., Yemefack, M., Wouatong, A.S.L., Ndjigui, P.D., and Bilong, P. (2009): Clay Minerals 44(2), 221-237
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Kamloops Mining Division
        • Little Fort
    Dana 7:I:708.
      • Skeena Mining Division
        • Queen Charlotte Islands
          • Graham Island
    Petruk, W. (1963): A manganese occurrence on Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C. Can. Mineral. 7, 670-673.
    • Ontario
      • Cochrane District
        • South of Ridge Lake Area
    SAGE, R.P. (1981) Geology of the Martison carbonatite complex. Ontario Geological Survey Open File Report 5420, 99p.
      • Hastings Co.
        • Madoc area
          • Madoc Township
    Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines MDI Number: MDI31C12SE00249
    • Québec
      • Laurentides
        • Deux-Montagnes RCM
          • Oka
    Gold (1969)
    Channel Islands
     
    • Jersey
    Ch. Wagner and D. Velde, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 173-187.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Cobija Punta Tames district
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
        • Michilla District
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
        • Taltal
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
    Rull, F., Martinez‐Frias, J., Sansano, A., Medina, J., & Edwards, H. G. M. (2004). Comparative micro‐Raman study of the Nakhla and Vaca Muerta meteorites. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35(6), 497-503.
      • Tocopilla Province
        • Punta Blanca area
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
    Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Anqing Prefecture
        • Huaining Co.
          • Yueshan ore field
    Xikun Chen (1987): Mineral Deposits 6(4), 43-52
    • Fujian Province
      • Longyan Prefecture
        • Xinluo District
    Guangwu Mao, Yulin Zhu, and Mingan Hu (2013): Geology and Exploration 49(1), 130-143
    • Guizhou Province
      • Zunyi Prefecture
        • Zunyi Co.
    Kehua Yin (2009): Geology and Prospecting 45(3), 273-279
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Yan Mts (Yanshan)
    Zuxiang Yu (1984): Acta Petrologica Mineralogica et Analytica 3(3), 231-240
      • Handan Prefecture
        • Wu'an Co.
    Jianmin Zheng, Jingwen Mao, Maohong Chen, Guangdong Li, and Changyong Ban (2007): Geological Bulletin of China 26(2), 150-154
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
        • Ejin Banner (Ejina Co.)
    Guixiang Meng, Qingtian Lü, Jiayong Yan, Yong Wang, Yueqing Yang, and Jinhua Zhao (2009): Mineral Deposits 28(6), 815-829
      • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
        • Bayan Obo Mining District
          • Bayan Obo
    Zonglin Hou (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(7), 1-5, 22
      • Hulunbuir League (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
        • Old Barag Banner (Chenba'erhu Co.)
    Feng Yuan, Degao Zhai, Jiajun Liu, Xiaodong Mao, Jianping Wang, Lidong Liu, Huailing Ma, Shouguang Wang, and Yuxi Li (2012): Geological Bulletin of China 31(6), 954-968
      • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
        • Linxi Co.
    Guozheng Wang (2002): Geology and Prospecting 38(2), 42-45
    • Jiangsu Province
      • Nanjing Prefecture
        • Jiangning District
    Zhongsuo Li (1983): Geology and Prospecting 20(11), 15-19
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Dandong Prefecture
        • Fengcheng Co.
    Ruheng Fang and Yafan Zhang (1983): Geological Review 48(6), 527-533
      • Liaoyang Prefecture
        • Gongchangling District
    Shuguang Li, Xiachen Zhi, Jiangfeng Chen, Junxin Wang, and Yanyao Deng (1983): Geochimica 12(2), 162-169
    • Shanxi Province
      • Datong Prefecture
        • Lingqiu Co.
    http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of03-220/DATABASE/lode_deposits.txt
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Huili Co.
          • Lalachang Cu deposit (Lala Cu deposit)
    Zhimin Zhu, Lingxi Zeng, Jiayun Zhou, Liping Luo, Jiabiao Chen, and Bing Shen (2009): Geological Journal of China Universities 15(4), 485-495
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Ngari Prefecture
        • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
    Zhenghua Hu, Feng Ding, Juxing Tang, Zhijun Li, Xiaofeng Yao, Shilin Deng, Zhi Zhang, Yiyun Wang, Hongxing Wang, Junlong Song, and Wei Chen (2012): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 33(4), 588-600
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Hejing Co. (Xejing Co.)
          • Gongnaisigou
    Xiujun Hu and Wenge Chen (2010): Resources Survey & Environment 31(3), 185-193
      • Kashi Prefecture (Kashgar Prefecture; Qeshqer Prefecture)
        • Tashiku'ergan Co. (Taxkorgan Co.; Tashqurqan Co.)
    Jianwei Hu, Daoze Zhuang, and Wanzhi Yang (2010): Geological Bulletin of China 29(10), 1495-1503
      • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
        • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
    Songtao Deng, Zhaojie Guo, and Zhicheng Zhang (2006): Geology and Prospecting 42(6), 17-20
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
          • Aletai Co. (Altay Co.)
            • Kelang basin
    Zhixin Zhang, Fuquan Yang, Chengke Huang, Feng Liu, Fengmai Chai, and Xinxia Geng (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(5), 1025-1037
          • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
            • Maizi basin
    Lingang Xu, Jingwen Mao, Fuquan Yang, Huishou He, Jianmin Zheng, Jianguo Li, Yongbiao Cai, Xiaoling Zha, and Jianjing Gao (2007): Mineral Deposits 26(4), 455-463; Fuquan Yang, Jingwen Mao, Lingang Xu, Yan Zhang, Feng Liu, Chenglin Huang, Gang Zhou, Guoren Liu, and Junzhi Dai (2007): Acta Petrologica Sinica 23(10), 2443-2456
    Zhixin Zhang, Fuquan Yang, Fengmei Chai, Feng Liu, Xinxia Geng, Shujun Lü, Liping Jiang, Tianzhi Zhong, and Liujin Ouyang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(1), 87-102; Fuquan Yang, Feng Liu, Fengmei Chai, Zhixin Zhang, Xinxia Geng, Shujun Lü, Liping Jiang, and Liujin Ouyang (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(4), 575-598
        • Xinyuan Co. (Künes Co.)
          • Awulale Fe ore field
    Wuhan Huaze Science & Technology Development Co. Ltd., 2007
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Heqing Co.
    Xiao'ou Zhao (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(6), 1-8
    Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
    Colombia
     
    • Córdoba Department
      • Mun. de Montelíbano
    Econ Geol (2004) 99:1197-1213
    Cuba
     
    • Camagüey Province
      • Camagüey
    T. Gallardo, A. Chang, E. Tauler and J. A. Proenza (2010): El Yacimiento de San Felipe (Camagüey, Cuba): un Ejemplo de Lateritas Niquelíferas Tipo Arcilla. Macla 13, 87-88
    • Holguín Province
      • Mayarí-Baracoa Belt
        • Moa-Baracoa District
          • Moa Ni ore field
    Marsh, E.E. and Anderson, E.D., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1259, 9 p.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Trutnov (Trautenau)
          • Radvanice
    Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
    Ondruš, P., Veselovský, F., Gabašová, A., Hloušek, J., Šrein, V. (2003) Supplement to secondary and rock-forming minerals of the Jáchymov ore dsitrict. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 48, 149–155
      • Ústí Region
        • Most
          • Líšnice
    Žáček V, Skála R., Dvořák Z.: Spinelidy v pyrometamorfovaných horninách Mostecké pánve. Minerál, 2010, 18, 1, 21-31.
        • Třebenice (Trebnitz)
    Rost R.: Doplňky k mineralogii pyropových štěrků v Českém středohoří. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1962, 7, 4, 407-417.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Javorník (Jauernig)
          • Horní Hostice
    Zimák, J.: Mineralogie železných rud na historickém ložisku Horní Hoštice v Rychlebských horách (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2008, vol. 16, 2, 238-242.
    Dominican Republic
     
    • La Vega Province
      • Bonao
        • Falcondo Mine
    Tamara Gallardo, Esperanca Tauler, Joaquin A. Proenza, John F. Lewis, Salvador Gali, Manuel Labrador, Francisco Longo, Giovanni Bloise: Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Loma Ortega Ni Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic. Macla no 13. septiembre ‘10, Revista de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Kraichgau
        • Sinsheim
    Frenzel, G. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 409-444.
    Frenzel, G. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 409-444.
      • Odenwald
        • Eberbach
          • Katzenbuckel
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Maroldsweisach
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Laach lake volcanic complex
          • Kruft
    Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neue Mineralien und Bestimmungen (18), Mineralien-Welt 8/3, 15, 1997
          • Mendig
            • Niedermendig
    Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neue Mineralien und Bestimmungen (18), Mineralien-Welt 8/3, 15, 1997
    Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neue Mineralien und Bestimmungen (18), Mineralien-Welt 8/3, 15, 1997
              • Wingertsberg
    Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neue Mineralien und Bestimmungen (18), Mineralien-Welt 8/3, 15, 1997
    • Schleswig-Holstein
      • Plön
        • Damsdorf - Stocksee - Tensfeld area
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    India
     
    • Andhra Pradesh
      • Guntur District
    Canadian Mineralogist (1965) 8:334-338
    Israel
     
    • Negev
    Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
    • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    Murashko, M. et al (2010) Zapiski RMO, 139, 3, 22-30.
    Italy
     
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
        • Alban Hills
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
        • Campagnano di Roma
    "Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
        • Rome
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
        • Sacrofano Caldera
    Pasquale Antonazzo Collection (2009)
      • Viterbo Province
        • Làtera volcano
          • Onano
    M.E. Ciriotti (2005) Probed
    • Sardinia
      • Nuoro Province
        • Gadoni
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
        • Aurina Valley (Ahrnbach Valley)
          • Predoi (Prettau)
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
    • Tuscany
      • Arezzo Province
        • Valdarno (Val d'Arno)
          • Cavriglia
            • Santa Barbara lignite District
    Mineralogical Record, 25 (4), 293-299.
      • Grosseto Province
        • Pitigliano
    M.E. Ciriotti (2005) Probed
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chugoku Region
        • Yamaguchi Prefecture
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated by the Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kyushu Region
      • Nansei Archipelago
        • Okinawa Prefecture
          • Ishigaki Island
            • Kabira
    Powder XRD by John Attard, January 2008.
          • Okinawa Island
            • Yanbaru region
    Field trip observations, Alfredo Petrov.
    Alfredo Petrov collection
    Madagascar
     
    • Antsiranana Province
      • Diana Region (Northern Region)
        • Ambanja District
          • Ampasindava Peninsula
    Wolfgang Hampel (2011)
    Mexico
     
    • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
      • Mun. de Mulegé
    RODRIGUEZ-DIAZ, Augusto Antonio et al. Metallogeny of the Santa Rosa manganese deposit, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Bol. Soc. Geol. Mex [online]. 2010, vol.62, n.1, pp. 141-159
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
        • Santa Eulalia District
          • East Camp
    Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
    Mongolia
     
    • Ömnögovi Aimag
      • Shara Hulasa Hiid
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Morocco
     
    Dr. Vivian Gornitz (2013) A "wet" Mars meteorite from the desert. Bulletin of the New York Mineralogical Club, 127, #4, 3.
    Namibia
     
    • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
      • Tsumeb
    Gebhard, G. (1999) Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany. 284 (in English).
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Poya North Commune
        • Népoui
    [var: Alumomaghemite] T. Sameshima et al. , Am. Min. , 1983, 68, pp. 1076-1082. / C. Campiglio et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1986, 109, pp. 423-440.
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Te Aroha
    Courtney, S.F., King, P. & Rodgers, K.A., (1990). A Check List of Minerals from the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. New Zealand Natural Sciences 17: 95-98.
    Nicaragua
     
    • Chontales Department
    Darce (1995) Econ Geol 85:1059-1071
    Nigeria
     
    • Kogi State
      • Lokoja District
    Mücke, A., Badejoko, T.A., and Akande, S.O. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 284-296.
    Norway
     
    • Telemark
      • Nome
        • Fen Complex
    Andersen, T. (1983): Iron ores in the Fen central complex, Telemark (S.Norway): Petrography, chemical evolution and conditions of equilibrium. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 63, 73-82
          • Søve Mines
    Andersen, T. (1983): Iron ores in the Fen central complex, Telemark (S.Norway): Petrography, chemical evolution and conditions of equilibrium. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 63, 73-82
    • Vestfold
      • Holmestrand
    R.O.V.Everdingen (1960): Paleomagnetic analysis of permian extrusives in the Oslo region, Norway. Studies on the igneous rock complex of the Oslo region XVII. Skrifter utgitt av Det norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, I. Mat. Naturv. Klasse 1960 no.1
    Portugal
     
    • Beja District
      • Ferreira do Alentejo
        • Odivelas
    CanMin 41:1105-1124 (2003)
    Republic of Macedonia
     
    • Kratovo-Zletovo ore District
    RMZ - Materials and Geoenvironment Vol 52 No. 3 pp 535-548 (2006)
    Romania
     
    • Buzău Co.
    Slavoaca, R., Slavoaca, D.C., 2000. Water chemistry and hydrochemical processes assessment in zones with Land slip in Buzău and Vrancea, SE Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 79, Suppl. I, 2000, p.99-101
    Slavoaca, R., Slavoaca, D.C., 2000. Water chemistry and hydrochemical processes assessment in zones with Land slip in Buzău and Vrancea, SE Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 79, Suppl. I, 2000, p.99-101
    • Mehedinti Co.
    Udubaªa, S. S., Constantinescu, S., Popescu-pogrion, N., Grecu, N. M. & Udubaªa, G. (2006) Mössbauer (ngr), Xrd, Tem/saed And Esr Investigations On Some Sulphides From Costeªti, Valea Lui Stan And Jidoªtiþa Gold Ores (southern Carpathians, Romania). Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.123
    Russia
     
    • Central Region
      • Belgorodskaya Oblast'
        • Kursk Manet Anomaly group
    Belykh, V.I., Dunai, E.I., and Lugovaya, I.P. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(2), 147-159.
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
        • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
          • Svetlyi
            • Buruktal District
              • Buruktal massif
    Talovina, I.V., Lazarenkov, V.G., and Vorontsova, N.I. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(5), 403-415.
    Saudi Arabia
     
    • Mintaqah Ash Sharqiyah
      • Rub' al-Khali
    Meteoritics, Vol. 17, p.179
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Brezno Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    • Košice Region
      • Košice Co.
        • Družstevná pri Hornáde
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
        • Červenica
          • Dubník
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
    South Africa
     
    Wagner P A (1927) Changes in the oxidation of iron in magnetite, Economic Geology 22, 845-846
    • Gauteng Province
      • Pretoria
    Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Waterberg District
          • Onverwacht
    du Plessis, G., Jonck, G.J., and Kruger, R. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 362-370.
    Spain
     
    • Aragón
      • Zaragoza
        • Luesma
    -Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza, 463 pags.
    • Catalonia
      • Girona (Gerona)
        • La Selva
          • Sant Martí Sacalm-Susqueda
    Mata-Perelló (1990) "Els minerals de Catalunya" Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Barcelona: 441p
        • Ripollès
          • Setcases
            • Costabona Mountain
    Mata i Perelló, J.M. (1990). Els minerals de Catalunya. Institut d´Estudis Catalans
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
    Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2): 14-42
    Kresten, P. (1979): The Alnö Complex. Nordic Carbonatite Symosium-Alnö, 1979
    • Västmanland
      • Norberg
        • Getback ore field
    No reference listed
    Switzerland
     
    • Schaffhausen
      • Neuhausen
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 261.
      • Neunkirch
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 261.
    • Zürich
      • Zürich
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 261.
    Turkey
     
    • Black Sea Region
      • Zonguldak Province
    USGS Prof Paper 550C ppC158-C161
    U.S. Virgin Islands
     
    Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
    UK
     
    • England
    Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Nome Borough
        • Seward Peninsula
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/schoenfliesite.pdf.
    • Arizona
      • Coconino Co.
        • Winslow
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 282, 403; Gigl, P.D. & F. Dachille (1968), Effect of pressure and temperature on the reversal transitions of stishovite, Meteorites: 4: 123-136; Mead, C., et al (1965), Metallic spheroids from Meteor Crater, AZ, Am.Min.: 50: 667-681.
      • Mohave Co.
        • Lost Basin Mts (Lost Basin Range)
          • Lost Basin District
    Theodore, T.G., et al (1987), USGS PP 1361: 43-44, 141 (Table 11).
      • Pima Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 282.
    • California
    Newhouse, Walter Harry & J.P. Glass (1936), Some physical properties of certain iron oxides: Economic Geology: 31: 701; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246.
      • Kern Co.
        • Gorman District
          • Lebec
            • Tejon Tin project (Gorman Tin project)
    Wiese, J.H. & L.R. Page (1946), Tin deposits of the Gorman district, Kern County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division Mines (Report 42): 42(1): 31, 49; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 161.
    Wiese, J.H. & L.R. Page (1946), Tin deposits of the Gorman district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 51; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 246.; emberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 161.
    Wiese, J.H. & L.R. Page (1946), Tin deposits of the Gorman district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42(1): 47; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 161.
      • Mariposa Co.
    Alfredo Petrov collection
      • Riverside Co.
        • Eagle Mts
          • Monte Negro District (Eagle Mountain District)
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 247.
      • Shasta Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • West Shasta Copper - Zinc District
            • Iron Mountain [town]
              • Iron Mountain
    Sosman, Robert Browning & E. Posnjak (1925), Ferromagnetic ferric oxide, artificial and natural: Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 15: 332; Newhouse, Walter Harry & J.P. Glass (1936), Some physical properties of certain iron oxides: Economic Geology: 31: 701; Kinkel, Arthur Rudolph, Jr. & J.P. Albers (1951), Geology of the massive sulphide deposits at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 14: 9; Kinkel, Arthur Rudolph, Jr., Wayne E. Hall & J.P. Albers (1956) Geology and base metal deposits of west Shasta copper-zinc district, Shasta County, California: USGS PP 285, 156 pp.: 119.
    • Colorado
      • Eagle Co.
        • Gore Mts
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Pitkin Co.
        • White Rock Granodiorite
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Connecticut
      • Middlesex Co.
        • Haddam
    Weissman, Jeffrey G. and Anthony Nikischer. (2005): PHOTOGRAPHIC GUIDE TO MINERAL SPECIES. 2nd edition. CD distributed by Excalibur Mineral Corporation.
    • Massachusetts
      • Dukes Co.
        • Martha's Vineyard
          • Chilmark
    Kaye, Clifford A. and Mrose, Mary E. (1965). Magnetic Spherules, Colored Corundum, and Other Unusual Constituents of Heavy Beach Sand, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts (Geological Survey Research 1965, USGS Paper 525-C)
      • Franklin Co.
        • Rowe
    Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
    • Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
        • Safford District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • North Carolina
      • Cleveland Co.
    Agortino,John P.D and Whitlow,Jesse W.(1985) Cassiterite Occurrences in the Shelby Area North and South Carolina: U.S Geological Survey Bulletin 1569
    • Oregon
      • Josephine Co.
        • Josephine Creek District
    www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Bird.html.
    • Tennessee
      • Anderson Co.
        • Oak Ridge
    Rock & Minerals Vol. 84 No. 4 Jul/Aug 2011
    • Virginia
      • Rockbridge Co.
        • Glasgow
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Washington Co.
        • Alvarado
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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