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Anthophyllite

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Formula:
☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
The anthophyllite group are orthorhombic amphiboles in the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup. The minerals in this root name group may have either Pnma or Pnmn (proto- prefixed name) space-group symmetry. The anthophyllite group's composition is defined with A(Na+K+2Ca)<0.5 apfu and C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<1 apfu.

Anthophyllite has a standard Pnma space-group symmetry and is defined with Mg as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
White, greenish grey, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Name:
First described by Schumacher (1801) as a new mineral from the Kongsberg area, Norway. He named it "anthophyllum" from the Latin meaning "clove" (itself derived from the Greek άνθος for "flower" and φύλλον for "leaf" ), in allusion to its common clove-brown colour.
Dimorph of:
May be easily confused with proto-anthophyllite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Anthophyllite.

Classification of Anthophyllite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DE.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
66.1.2.1

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
14.21.5

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
21 : Silicates of Fe and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Anthophyllite

Physical Properties of Anthophyllite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
White, greenish grey, green, clove brown, or brownish green
Streak:
White to greyish-white.
Hardness (Mohs):
5½ - 6
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {210}, imperfect on {010}, {100}
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.85 - 3.57 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.67 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Anthophyllite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 18.5Å, b = 17.9Å, c = 5.28Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.034 : 1 : 0.295
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,748.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Anthophyllite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.598 - 1.674 nβ = 1.605 - 1.685 nγ = 1.615 - 1.697
2V:
Measured: 57° to 90°, Calculated: 82° to 90°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.017 - 0.023
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of Anthophyllite

Formula:
☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

The anthophyllite group are orthorhombic amphiboles in the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup. The minerals in this root name group may have either Pnma or Pnmn (proto- prefixed name) space-group symmetry. The anthophyllite group's composition is defined with A(Na+K+2Ca)<0.5 apfu and C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<1 apfu.

Anthophyllite has a standard Pnma space-group symmetry and is defined with Mg as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Mn,Ca,Na

Relationship of Anthophyllite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Ferro-anthophyllite (see here)
Forms a series with Gedrite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
Ferro-anthophyllite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Proto-anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Proto-ferro-anthophyllite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z32+Z23+}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
9.DE.05Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn22+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Mn52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe23+Li}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloite{Ca}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al3Si5O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Sadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Si5Al3O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaite{K}{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe42+Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Barroisite☐{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe42+(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe32+Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe42+Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻[Na2][Fe32+Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermannite[Na][Na2][Mn42+(Fe3+)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻{Na2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn22+Mn33+)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe32+,Mg)Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNa(Na2)(Fe22+Fe23+Li)(Si8O22)(F)2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22](F,OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn23+LiTi4+}Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Mg4Fe3+][Si8O22][(F,OH)2]
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe22+Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2
14.21.1Olivine(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
14.21.2Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
14.21.3Wadsleyite(Mg,Fe2+)2(SiO4)
14.21.4ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
14.21.6Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.7 Magnesiocummingtonite
14.21.8Grunerite☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.9MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
14.21.10Chesterite(Mg,Fe)17Si20O54(OH)6
14.21.11Jimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.12Clinojimthompsonite(Mg,Fe)5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.13MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
14.21.14Balangeroite(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+)42Si16O54(OH)40

Other Names for Anthophyllite

Other Information

Health Risks:
Asbestiform habits of the mineral should be handled with care.

References for Anthophyllite

Reference List:
Schumacher, C.F. (1801) Versuch eines Verzeichnisses der in den Dänisch-Nordischen Staaten sich findenden einfachen Mineralien. Kopenhagen, 96. [first description of the mineral]

Rabbitt, J.C. (1948) A new study of the anthophyllite series. American Mineralogist: 33: 263-323.

Chakraborty, K.L. (1963) Relationship of anthophyllite, cummingtonite and mangano-cummingtonite in the metamorphosed Wabush iron-formation, Labrador. The Canadian Mineralogist: 7: 738-750.

Veblen, D.R. (1980) Anthophyllite asbestos: microstructure, intergrown sheet silicates, and mechanism of fiber formation. American Mineralogist: 65: 1075-1086.

Walitzi, E.M., Walter, F., Ettinger, K. (1989) Verfeinerung der Kristallstruktur von Anthophyllit vom Ochsenkogel/Gleinalpe, Österreich. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 188: 237-244.

Raade, G. (1996) Minerals originally described from Norway. Bergverksmuseets skrift: 11: 20.

Ford, F.D., Skippen, G.B. (1997) Petrology of the Flinton Creek metaperidotites: enstatite - magnesite and anthophyllite - magnesite assemblages from the Grenville Province. The Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 1221-1236.

Mandarino, J.A. (1998) The second list of additions and corrections to the glossary of mineral species (1995). The Amphibole Group. Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Champness, P.E., Rodgers, K.A. (2000) The origin of iridescence in anthophyllite-gedrite from Simiuttat, Nuuk district, southern West Greenland. Mineralogical Magazine: 64: 885-889.

Elliott-Meadows, S.R., Froese, E., Appleyard, E.C. (2000) Cordierite — anthophyllite — cummingtonite rocks from the Lar deposit, Laurie Lake, Manitoba. The Canadian Mineralogist: 38: 545-550.

Ishida, K., Hawthorne, F.C. (2003) Fine structure in the infrared OH-stretching bands of holmquistite and anthophyllite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 30: 330-336.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 1-21.

Schindler, M., Sokolova, E., Abdu, Y., Hawthorne, F.C., Evans, B.W., Ishida, K. (2008) The crystal chemistry of the gedrite-group amphiboles. I. Crystal structure and site populations. Mineralogical Magazine: 72: 703-730.

Hawthorne, F.C., Schindler, M., Abdu, Y., Sokolova, E., Evans, B.W., Ishida, K. (2008) The crystal chemistry of the gedrite-group amphiboles. II. Stereochemistry and chemical relations. Mineralogical Magazine: 72: 731-745.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacher, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. American Mineralogist: 97: 2031-2048.

Nestola, F., Pasqual, D., Welch, M.D., Oberti, R. (2012) The effects of composition upon the high-pressure behaviour of amphiboles: compression of gedrite to 7 GPa and a comparison with anthophyllite and proto-amphibole. Mineralogical Magazine: 76: 987-995.

Internet Links for Anthophyllite

Localities for Anthophyllite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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