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Mammothite

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Formula:
Pb
 
6
Cu
 
4
AlSb
5+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Sb was originally assumed to be trivalent.
System:MonoclinicColour:Cerulean blue, ...
Hardness:3
Name:
Named in 1985 by Donald R. Peacor, Pete J. Dunn, G. Schnorrer-Köhler, and Richard A. Bideaux, for the Mammoth vein (one the the two principal veins at Tiger) and the town of Mammoth, Arizona, which was named for the mine.


May superficially resemble very thinly bladed caledonite. Specimens need verification data.

Classification of Mammothite

IMA status:Approved 1983
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.10-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.BC.60

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:30.1.14.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:26.26

26 : Sulphates with Halide
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Type Occurrence of Mammothite

Type Locality:Mammoth-Saint Anthony Mine (Mammoth-St Anthony Mine; Mammoth Mine; St. Anthony Mine), St. Anthony deposit, Tiger, Mammoth District, Pinal Co., Arizona, USA
General Appearance of Type Material:Teal blue striated crystals
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Smithsonian Institution
Year of Discovery:1983
Geological Setting of type material:Oxidation zone
Associated Minerals at type locality:
AnglesitePhosgenite

Occurrences of Mammothite

Geological Setting:Noted in furnace slags reacting with salt water.

Physical Properties of Mammothite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Cerulean blue, blue-green, pale blue
Streak:Pale blue
Hardness (Mohs):3
Tenacity:Very brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Distinct on {010}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (calculated):5.21 g/cm3
Comment:"measured > 4.2"

Crystallography of Mammothite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 18.93(3) Å, b = 7.22Å, c = 11.35(2) Å
β = 112.43°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.622 : 1 : 1.572
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,433.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Tabular to prismatic and acicular crystals, radial aggregates.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
10.4 (60)
6.67 (90)
6.08 (60)
5.24 (30)
4.72 (80)
3.59 (30)
3.05 (90)
2.896 (100)
Comments:ICDD 38-389

Optical Data of Mammothite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.868 nβ = 1.892 nγ = 1.928
2V:Measured: 80° , Calculated: 80°
Birefringence:0.060
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.060

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:in pale blues

Chemical Properties of Mammothite

Formula:
Pb
 
6
Cu
 
4
AlSb
5+
 
O
 
2
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2


Sb was originally assumed to be trivalent.
Simplified for copy/paste:Pb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2
Essential elements:Al, Cl, Cu, H, O, Pb, S, Sb
All elements listed in formula:Al, Cl, Cu, H, O, Pb, S, Sb

Relationship of Mammothite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.BC.05D'Ansite
Na
 
21
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
10
Cl
 
3
7.BC.10Alunite
KAl
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)
Pb(Fe
3+
 
,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Dorallcharite
(Tl,K)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Huangite
Ca
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite
(H
 
3
O)Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Jarosite
KFe
3+
 
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natroalunite
(Na,K)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Natrojarosite
NaFe
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Osarizawaite
Pb(Al,Cu)
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Plumbojarosite
Pb
 
0.5
Fe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite
(H
 
3
O)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Walthierite
Ba
 
0.5
Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)
Pb(Fe
3+
2
Zn)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.15Ye'elimite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
(SO
 
4
)O
 
12
7.BC.20Atlasovite
K(BiO)Cu
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
O
 
3
Cl
7.BC.20Nabokoite
KCu
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)OCl
7.BC.25Chlorothionite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
7.BC.30Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.30Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
7.BC.35Kamchatkite
KCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
OCl
7.BC.40Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
7.BC.45Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.45Alumoklyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
7.BC.50Caledonite
Pb
 
5
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
7.BC.55Wherryite
Pb
 
7
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
7.BC.65Linarite
PbCu(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
7.BC.65Schmiederite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
6+
 
O
 
4
)(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.65Munakataite
Pb
 
2
Cu
 
2
(Se
4+
 
O
 
3
)(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.BC.70Chenite
Pb
 
4
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
7.BC.75Krivovichevite
Pb
 
3
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
7
7.BC.80Anhydrokainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
26.1Kogarkoite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)F
26.2Sulphohalite
Na
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
FCl
26.3Schairerite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(F,Cl)
26.4Galeite
Na
 
15
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
F
 
4
Cl
26.5Connellite
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
26.6Chlorothionite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)Cl
 
2
26.7Kamchatkite
KCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
OCl
26.8Spangolite
Cu
 
6
Al(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
Cl · 3H
 
2
O
26.9Aubertite
CuAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · 14H
 
2
O
26.10Magnesioaubertite
(Mg,Cu)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · 14H
 
2
O
26.11Svyazhinite
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 14H
 
2
O
26.12D'Ansite
Na
 
21
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
10
Cl
 
3
26.13Anhydrokainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl
26.14Kainite
KMg(SO
 
4
)Cl · 3H
 
2
O
26.15Mosesite
(Hg
 
2
N)(Cl,SO
 
4
,MoO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
26.16Kleinite
(Hg
 
2
N)(Cl,SO
 
4
) · nH
 
2
O
26.17Wilcoxite
MgAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 17H
 
2
O
26.18Creedite
Ca
 
3
SO
 
4
Al
 
2
F
 
8
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
26.19Lannonite
Mg
 
2
Ca
 
4
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
F
 
8
· 24H
 
2
O
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)
Ca
 
3
(Y,Ce)[F|SO
 
4
|(AlF
 
6
)
 
2
] · 10H
 
2
O
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)
Ca
 
3
(Ce,Y)[F|SO
 
4
|(AlF
 
6
)
 
2
] · 10H
 
2
O
26.22Grandreefite
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)F
 
2
26.23Pseudograndreefite
Pb
 
6
(SO
 
4
)F
 
10
26.24Sundiusite
Pb
 
10
(SO
 
4
)O
 
8
Cl
 
2
26.25Caracolite
Na
 
3
Pb
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
26.27Atlasovite
K(BiO)Cu
 
6
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
O
 
3
Cl
26.28Xitieshanite
Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)Cl · 6H
 
2
O
26.29Nabokoite
KCu
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)OCl

Other Names for Mammothite

Synonyms:
IMA1983-076a
Other Languages:
German:Mammothit
Russian:Маммотит
Spanish:Mammothita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Mammothite

Reference List:

- +
Peacor, D.R., Dunn, P.J., Schnorrer-Köhler, G. & Bideaux, R.A. (1985): Mammothite, a new mineral from Tiger, Arizona and Laurium, Greece. The Mineralogical Record, 16, 117-120.

Effenberger, H. (1985): The crystal structure of mammothite, Pb6Cu4AlSbO2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 34, 279-288.

American Mineralogist (1986): 71: 229-230.

Internet Links for Mammothite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Mammothite on Google
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Mammothite on Webmineral
  • Look for Mammothite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Mammothite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
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  • Fabre Minerals - search for Mammothite specimens
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  • Localities for Mammothite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1985): Neue Schlackenmineralien von Lavrion. Lapis, 10 (5), 13-16; 50.
          • Sounion area
    van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
    Stephan Wolfsried collection
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Italy
     
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Piombino
    Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Painted Rock Mts
          • Painted Rock District
            • Theba
    EDX analysis Association Jean WYART, Paris - specimen Georges FAVREAU
      • Pinal Co.
        • Mammoth District
          • Tiger
            • St. Anthony deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 287; Peacor, D., et al (1985), Mammothite, a new mineral from Tiger, AZ, and Laurium, Greece, Min.Rec.: 15: 117-120.
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