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Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

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Formula:
(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Colour:
Blue, Greenish blue
Hardness:
5
Name:
Informal descriptive modifier, introduced by Waldemar Schaller, joined to a mineral name . Although there are several Mn-bearing varieties of fluorapatite, some have been given unique names (manganapatite) and some have not, e.g. purple apatite and pink apatite. The dark blue apatites owe their coloration to pentavalent Mn and it is apparently the intention to give this unusual high valence substitution a separate name: Mn-bearing fluorapatite, although any Mn-bearing fluorapatite with unknown valence Mn, could be included under this generic name.
A variety of Fluorapatite

A high valence manganese-bearing variety of Fluorapatite, generally containing Mn#5+#. The name "Manganapatite" has been incorrectly applied to this variety.

When Mn2+ and, probably some divalent Fe, replaces Ca, the resulting color may be dull green (McConnell, 1973). When Mn3+ is present, a pinkish or violet coloration results which is typical for some alkaline pegmatites of the Lovozero massif. Some purple apatites have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and the purple color has been ascribed to MnMn4+. Mn5+ can replace P and this will result in a blue color (Johnson, Prener, and Kingsley, 1963; Hughes et al., 2004). For example, fluorapatite with high valence Mn#5+# fluorapatite often forms blue rims around orange lithiophilite grains at the Rb-Ta Elash deposit.

NOTE: The names manganapatite or manganoan apatite has been used to describe certain samples of fluorapatite that contain divalent Mn that causes a golden-yellow fluorescent response under UV. Without the manganese, fluorapatite is frequently unresponsive to UV, although there are other fluorescence activators in the apatites. Large amounts of Mn in fluorapatite, generally > 4 weight percent, are poorly fluorescent to non-fluorescent.

Classification of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

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Occurrences of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

Geological Setting:
Pegmatites

Physical Properties of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Blue, Greenish blue
Hardness (Mohs):
5
Hardness Data:
Estimated
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
{0001}, {1010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal

Chemical Properties of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

Formula:
(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
BellitePb5 (AsO4,CrO4, SiO2)3Cl
Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
HydroxylpyromorphitePb5(PO4)3(OH)
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
Manganapatite
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite-2M
Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
OxypyromorphitePb10(PO4)6O
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3Cl
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl

Other Names for Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

Reference List:
Siewert (1874) Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften, Halle: 10: 339 (as Manganapatit).
Otto (1935) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 47: 89.
Quensel, Percy (1937) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 59: 257.
McConnell, Duncan (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 1.
Mason, Brian (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 279.
Palache, Charles, Berman, Harry, and Frondel, Clifford (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 878.
Johnson, P. D., Prener, J. S., and Kingsley, J. D. (1963) Apatite: Origin of Blue Color, Science, v. 141, p. 1179-1180.
Hughes, John M., Ertl, A., Bernhardt, H.-J., Rossman, George R. and Rakovan, John (2004): Mn-rich fluorapatite from Austria: Crystal structure, chemical analysis, and spectroscopic investigations. Am. Mineral. 89, 629-632.

Internet Links for Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

Localities for Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Bridgetown-Greenbushes Shire
      • Greenbushes Tinfield
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Raabs an der Thaya
        • Eibenstein an der Thaya
Hughes, J. M., Ertl, A., Bernhardt, H.-J., Rossman, G. R. & Rakovan, J. (2004): Mn-rich fluorapatite from Austria: Crystal structure, chemical analysis, and spectroscopic investigations. Am. Mineral. 89, 629-632.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Lafaiete (former Queluz de Minas)
China
 
  • Fujian Province
    • Nanping Prefecture
      • Yanping District
Huan Hu, Rucheng Wang, Fontan, F., Aicheng Zhang, and Jiadeng Chen (2007): Presented at the International Symposium: Granitic Pegmatites: The State of the Art, May 06–12, 2007, Porto, Portugal.
  • Henan Province
    • Sanmenxia Prefecture
      • Lushi Co.
        • Guanpo
Ruiling He and Enkui Cao (1985): Geology of Shaanxi 3(2), 39-46.
  • Hubei Province
    • Xiaogan Prefecture
      • Dawu Co.
Zhuying Chen and Lixian Jiang (1989): Mineral Deposits 8(4), 78-84
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Yichun Prefecture
      • Yuanzhou District
        • Yichun complex (Yashan batholith)
Xiaolong Huang, Rucheng Wang, Xiaoming Chen, Huan Hu, and Changshi Liu (2002): Canadian Mineralogist 40(4), 1047-1068.
Egypt
 
  • New Valley Governorate
USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
Finland
 
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Orivesi
      • Eräjärvi area
www.geology.neab.net/minerals/manganap.htm
    • Seinäjoki
      • Peräseinäjoki
www.geology.neab.net/minerals/manganap.htm
France
 
  • Limousin
    • Creuse
      • Crozant
Aubert G Pierrot R (1959) Sur un gisement de pegmatite à Li Mn Nb Ta Sn et Be dans la région de Crozant. Bulleti de la société française de minéralogie et de cristallographie LXXXII p 400
      • Soumans
        • Montebras
Patrice Queneau Collection
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
DILL, H.G., MELCHER, F., GERDES, A. and WEBER, B. (2008): The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe-Mn-Mg-Sc-U-REE-Zn phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite (Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany). Canadian Mineralogist 46, 1131-1157.
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
Dill H.G.: "Mineralogical and chemical composition of the Hagendorf-North Pegmatite, SE Germany - a monographic study", J. Min. Geochem, 2013
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
Thomas, R., and Webster, J.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 570-582.
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Bükk Mts
      • Bükkszentkereszt
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Betafo District
        • Andrembesoa Commune
          • FKT Antsentsindrano
Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur quelques minéraux des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra (Madagascar). Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie 35 , 76-84
      • Sahatany Pegmatite Field (Mt Ibity area)
        • Sahatany Valley
Larsen, K. E. (2003): Mineralene i Sahatany pegmatittfelt, Madagaskar. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift. 25, 5-18 (in norwegian)
Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A. Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 353
Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 353
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Amoron'i Mania Region
      • Ambatofinandrahana District
        • Itremo commune
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-402
Mozambique
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Okatjimukuju Farm 55 (Friedrichsfelde Farm)
P. Keller and O. von Knorring, Eur. J. Mineral. , 1989, 1, pp. 567-593.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
        • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
Geologia Sudetica, 33 (1): 23-31.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Lovozero Massif
          • Seidozero Lake
            • Lepkhe-Nel'm Mt (Lepkhe-Nelm; Nepkha)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Pavel M. Kartashov data
        • Voron'i Tundry
Pavel M. Kartashov
Rwanda
 
  • Western Province
    • Gatumba District
Bertossa, A., 1967. Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda 4, 25-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and O. von Knorring (1998) Type-Mineralogy of Rwanda with Particular Reference to the Buranga Pegmatite. Geologica Belgica 1:1-9
Slovakia
 
  • Bratislava Region
    • Bratislava Co.
      • Bratislava
        • Devín
Chudík, P. & Uher, P. (2009): Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 40. (Abs.)
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
      • Garcirrey
Encarnación Roda-Robles, Alfonso Pesquera (2007) Locality no. 4: The Phosphates-Rich Cañada Pegmatite (Aldehuela de La Bóveda, Salamanca, Spain) in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 67-72.
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • Forcarei
Fuertes-Fuente, M., Martin-Izard, A., Boiron, M.C., and Mangas, J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 332-345.
      • Lalín
Fuertes-Fuente, M., Martin-Izard, A., Boiron, M.C., and Mangas, J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 332-345.
Sweden
 
  • Norrbotten
    • Piteå
No reference listed
  • Skåne
    • Bromölla
      • Näsum
Weibull, M., (1886): Om manganapatit från Vestanå jemte några anmärkningar öfver apatitens sammansättning. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 8, 492-495; Weibull, M. (1898) : Om några Vestanåmineral. Geologiska Föreningens i Stock­holm Förhandlingar 20, 57-66
  • Västerbotten
    • Skellefteå
Grensman, F & Langhof, J.(1991):Åkerberget. Guldgruva med litiumpegmatite. STEIN 18(2),20-22
Quensel, P. (1937): Minerals of the Varuträsk Pegmatite. V. Manganapatite and Manganvoelckorite. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 59: 257-261
Switzerland
 
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Lago Maggiore
      • Brissago
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 196.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Breage
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • White Picacho District
        • Independence Gulch
Am Min 67:97-113
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Bear Valley Mining District
www.mineralsocal.org/bulletin/1999/99_may.htm
  • Colorado
    • Larimer Co.
      • Crystal Mountain Pegmatite District (Storm Mountain District)
Rocks & Min.:62:231 & 234-235.; USGS Prof. Paper 227
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
AmMin 31:329-345 (1946); USGS Prof Paper 255
    • Hartford Co.
      • Glastonbury
        • South Glastonbury
Rocks and Minerals (1999) 74:110-121
    • Litchfield Co.
      • North Canaan
        • Canaan
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
    • Middlesex Co.
      • East Hampton (Chatham)
        • Airline Railroad
Schooner, Richard. (1961): THE MINERALOGY OF CONNECTICUT.
      • Portland
Jones, Robert W. Jr., (1960), Luminescent Minerals of Connecticut, A Guide to Their Properties and Locations. Fluorescent House. Branford, Connecticut.
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Michael W. Kieron collection; Rocks & Minerals (1970) 45:443-449; Rocks & Minerals (1970) 45:595-600
  • Delaware
    • New Castle Co.
      • Wilmington
Dana (1893) Textbook of Mineralogy 17th ed.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Albany
King, V. (ed.), 2009, Maine feldspar, Families, and Feuds
      • Buckfield
Martins da Pedra collection
      • Hartford
Van King
      • Hebron
Van King
      • Newry
King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
      • Stoneham
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Nashua Min Soc. newsletter Jan., 2004
    • Rockingham Co.
Meyers & Stewart 1956. Geology of NH, Part III.
  • New Mexico
    • Taos Co.
      • Picuris District
Dean Alun photo
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
Rocks & Min.:60:110,112,116.
  • Wisconsin
    • Florence Co.
      • Fern
Falster, A. , W.B. Simmons & P.B. Moore (1996) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the Animikie Red Ace pegmatite in Florence County, Wisconsin: Recent Research Developments in Mineralogy: 1: 7-67.
Rocks & Min. (2002) 77:170
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