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Mascagnite

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Paolo Mascagni
Formula:
(NH4)2SO4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, grey, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Name:
After Paolo Mascagni (1755-1815), Professor of Anatomy, University of Siena, who first described the natural material.
Arcanite-Mascagnite Series. Slightly hygroscopic.

Occurs at active volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, and on burning coal mine dumps.

Classification of Mascagnite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.AD.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
28.2.1.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
2 : A2XO4
25.1.8

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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http://www.mindat.org/min-2584.html
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Type Occurrence of Mascagnite

Year of Discovery:
1800

Occurrences of Mascagnite

Geological Setting:
Sublimation product from fumeroles, solfataras, burning coal seams.

Physical Properties of Mascagnite

Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless, grey, yellowish-grey, yellow; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½
Tenacity:
Sectile
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001}.
Parting:
Twin gliding with K1(110), K2(130).
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
1.768 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.769 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Mascagnite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.782Å, b = 5.993Å, c = 10.636Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.299 : 1 : 1.775
Unit Cell Volume:
V 496.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Well-formed natural crystals are rare. Mealy crusts and stalactitic forms. Artificial crystals equant to short prismatic [001], frequently flattened {010}; also prismatic [100]; also flattened {100}, rare.
Twinning:
On {101} common, often repeated yielding a pseudo-hexagonal habit; also polysynthetic.
Comment:
Synthetic

Optical Data of Mascagnite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.520 nβ = 1.523 nγ = 1.533
2V:
Measured: 52° , Calculated: 58°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.013
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively strong r > v

Chemical Properties of Mascagnite

Formula:
(NH4)2SO4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Mascagnite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Arcanite (see here)
7.AD.05ArcaniteK2SO4
7.AD.10MercalliteKHSO4
7.AD.15MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7
7.AD.20Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
7.AD.25GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
7.AD.30AnhydriteCaSO4
7.AD.35AnglesitePbSO4
7.AD.35BaryteBaSO4
7.AD.35CelestineSrSO4
7.AD.35OlsacheritePb2(SeO4)(SO4)
7.AD.40KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2
7.AD.40Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2
25.1.1ThénarditeNa2SO4
25.1.2MatteucciteNaHSO4 · H2O
25.1.3MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
25.1.4ArcaniteK2SO4
25.1.5MercalliteKHSO4
25.1.6MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7
25.1.7Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
25.1.9Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
25.1.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Mascagnite

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Melts when heated in air and decomposes at a low temperature.
Other Information:
Slightly hygroscopic. Soluble in water.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Slightly hygroscopic.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Mascagnite

Reference List:
Sage, B.G. (1777) Eléméns de minéralogie docimastique, second edition, 2 volumes: 1: 62 (as Sel ammoniac vitriolique).

Mascagni (1779) Dei Lagoni del Senese..., Sienna: 36 (as Sale ammoniacale composto d'acido sulfureo)

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 40, 75 (as Maskagnin).

Haüy, R.J. (1822) Traité de minéralogie, second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas: 2: 220 (as Ammoniaque sulfatée).

Mitscherlich (1830) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 18: 169 (artificial crystals).

Tutton (1904) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 38: 602.

Groth, P. (1908) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 322.

Fischer (1911) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 32: 1.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 6: 10.

Ogg (1928) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 5: 354.

Taylor and Boyer (1928) Memoires of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society: 72: 125.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 398-399.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan: 50: 1266-1274.

Periodico di Mineralogia (1985): 54: 32.

Internet Links for Mascagnite

Localities for Mascagnite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leoben
Meixner, H. (1954): Neue Mineralfunde in den österreichischen Ostalpen XIII.- Carinthia II, 144./64., 18-29.
Belgium
 
  • Liège Province
    • Seraing
      • Ougrée
Hatert, F. et al. Les mineraux de Belgique 2me edition. Brussels 2002
Bulgaria
 
  • Blagoevgrad Oblast
Elena Shcherbakova, Larisa Nesheva (2010) Ammonium sulfates from coal mine Pirin REVIEW OF THE BULGARIAN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, vol. 71, part 1–3, , p. 17–23
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.; Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
        • Libušin
David Parfitt collection
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Trutnov (Trautenau)
        • Radvanice
Žáček, V., Ondruš, P.: Mineralogy of recently formed sublimates from Kateřina colliery in Radvanice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech geological survey, 1998, vol. 73, no. 2, s. 289-302.
    • Ústí Region
      • Bílina (Bilin)
Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
Handbook of Mineralogy
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Kivu
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399, 476.
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Allier
      • Montluçon
        • Commentry
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
  • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
    • Pas-de-Calais
Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German); Sindern, S., Warnsloh, J. M., Witzke, T., Havenith, V., Neef, R. & Etoundi, Y. (2005): Mineralogy and geochemistry of vents formed on the burning coal mining waste dump Anna I, Alsdorf, Germany. Eur. J. Mineral. 17, Beih. 1, 130.
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Freital
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Komló
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
      • Pécs
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (2008): Ammonium sulphates from burning coal dumps at Komló and Pécs-Vasas, Mecsek Mts., South Hungary. Mineralogia, Special Papers, Vol. 32 (2nd Central-European Mineralogical Conference 2008 (CEMC)), 154.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Borsodi Mts
      • Múcsony
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
    • Bükk Mts
      • Miskolc
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
  • Komárom-Esztergom Co.
    • Pilisi Basin
      • Esztergom
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Bakony Mts
      • Ajka
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
      • Várpalota
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
Italy (TL)
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399; Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
BOMBICCI L. (1875): Corso di mineralogia. - Bologna, 347.
Netherlands
 
  • Limburg
    • Kerkrade
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Manawatu-Wanganui
      • Tongariro National Park
Johnstone, R. D. 1979, Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Peru
 
  • La Libertad Department
    • Trujillo Province
      • Virù
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399,1104.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Katowice area
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German). ; Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
          • Kopeisk
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Veľký Krtíš Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
    • Fezile Dabi District
International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Witbank
Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.); International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
D.I.Belakovskiy data
No reference listed
UK
 
  • England
    • Staffordshire
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
  • Scotland
    • Lothian
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
USA
 
  • California
    • Sonoma Co.
      • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
        • West Mayacmas District
Palache et al (1951), Dana's System of Mineralogy, seventh ed., vol. II: 399; Vonsen, Magnus (1941) Preliminary report on minerals of The Geysers of Sonoma County, California. Mineralogist: 9: 246, 279; Vonsen, Magnus (1946), Minerals at “The Geysers,” Sonoma County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 288; Smith, Robert Leland (1958), Some new occurrences of sassolite in the United States: American Mineralogist: 43: 1205; Dunning, Gail E. and J.F. Cooper (1969a) Letovicite from The Geysers, Sonoma County, California. California Division Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 135; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 239; Dunning, G. S. & Cooper, J. F. (1993): History and minerals of The Geysers Sonoma County, California. Mineralogical Record: 24(5): 339-352
Goldsmith, E. (1877), On boussingaultite and other minerals from Sonoma County, California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 28: 265; Vonsen, Magnus (1946), Minerals at “The Geysers,” Sonoma County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 288; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 257.
  • Colorado
    • Garfield Co.
      • Glenwood Springs
GSA Field Guide 10 (2007) pp 101-110
  • Missouri
    • Pettis Co.
R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
  • Pennsylvania
    • Columbia Co.
    • Schuylkill Co.
American Mineralogist (1977): 62: 316-320.
      • Shenandoah
Reed, Juliet C. (1976), Annotated Biblio. of Minerals New to the Pennsylvania List 1965-1974, The Mineralogical Soc. of PA, Inc.: 55-56; Barnes, John H. & Lahham, Davis M. (1971), "Rare Minerals Found in PA," PA. Geol., Vol. 2(5):7-8;
Venezuela
 
  • Bolívar
    • Pedregal city
Journal of South American Earth Sciences Volume 27, Issues 2-3, February-March 2009, Pages 211-218
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