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Mascagnite

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Formula:
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colourless, grey, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, DullHardness:2 - 2½
Name:
After Paolo Mascagni (1755-1815), Professor of Anatomy, University of Siena, who first described the natural material.


Arcanite-Mascagnite Series. Slightly hygroscopic.

Occurs at active volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, and on burning coal mine dumps.

Classification of Mascagnite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/A.07-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.AD.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:28.2.1.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
2 : A2XO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.1.8

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Type Occurrence of Mascagnite

Type Locality:Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
Year of Discovery:1800

Occurrences of Mascagnite

Geological Setting:Sublimation product from fumeroles, solfataras, burning coal seams.

Physical Properties of Mascagnite

Lustre:Vitreous, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Colourless, grey, yellowish-grey, yellow; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {001}.
Parting:Twin gliding with K1(110), K2(130).
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):1.768 g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.769 g/cm3

Crystallography of Mascagnite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pnma {P21/n 21/m 21/a}
Cell Parameters:a = 7.782Å, b = 5.993Å, c = 10.636Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.299 : 1 : 1.775
Unit Cell Volume:V 496.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Well-formed natural crystals are rare. Mealy crusts and stalactitic forms. Artificial crystals equant to short prismatic [001], frequently flattened {010}; also prismatic [100]; also flattened {100}, rare.
Twinning:On {101} common, often repeated yielding a pseudo-hexagonal habit; also polysynthetic.
Comment:Synthetic

Optical Data of Mascagnite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.520 nβ = 1.523 nγ = 1.533
2V:Measured: 52° , Calculated: 58°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.013

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:relatively strong r > v

Chemical Properties of Mascagnite

Formula:
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:(NH4)2SO4
Essential elements:H, N, O, S
All elements listed in formula:H, N, O, S

Relationship of Mascagnite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Arcanite (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.AD.05Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AD.10Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
7.AD.15Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
7.AD.20Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.25Glauberite
Na
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.30Anhydrite
CaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Anglesite
PbSO
 
4
7.AD.35Baryte
BaSO
 
4
7.AD.35Celestine
SrSO
 
4
7.AD.35Olsacherite
Pb
 
2
(SeO
 
4
)(SO
 
4
)
7.AD.40Kalistrontite
K
 
2
Sr(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AD.40Palmierite
(K,Na)
 
2
Pb(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.1.1Thenardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.2Matteuccite
NaHSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.1.3Mirabilite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
· 10H
 
2
O
25.1.4Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.5Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
25.1.6Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
25.1.7Aphthitalite
(K,Na)
 
3
Na(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.1.9Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.1.10Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Mascagnite

Synonyms:
MascagnineSulfate of Ammonia
Other Languages:
French:Alkali volatil vitriolé
Ammoniaque sulfatée
Sel ammoniac vitriolique
German:Mascagnin
Mascagnit
Schwefelsaures Ammoniak
Italian:Sale ammoniacale composto d'acido sulfureo
Latin:Sal ammoniacum secretum Glauberi
Russian:Масканьит
Spanish:Mascagnita

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:Melts when heated in air and decomposes at a low temperature.
Other Information:Slightly hygroscopic. Soluble in water.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Slightly hygroscopic.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Mascagnite

Reference List:

- +
Sage, B.G. (1777) Eléméns de minéralogie docimastique, second edition, 2 volumes: 1: 62 (as Sel ammoniac vitriolique).

Mascagni (1779) Dei Lagoni del Senese..., Sienna: 36 (as Sale ammoniacale composto d'acido sulfureo)

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 40, 75 (as Maskagnin).

Haüy, R.J. (1822) Traité de minéralogie, second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas: 2: 220 (as Ammoniaque sulfatée).

Mitscherlich (1830) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 18: 169 (artificial crystals).

Tutton (1904) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 38: 602.

Groth, P. (1908) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 322.

Fischer (1911) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 32: 1.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 6: 10.

Ogg (1928) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 5: 354.

Taylor and Boyer (1928) Memoires of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society: 72: 125.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 398-399.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan: 50: 1266-1274.

Periodico di Mineralogia (1985): 54: 32.

Internet Links for Mascagnite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Mascagnite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Mascagnite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Seraing
        • Ougrée
    Hatert, F. et al. Les mineraux de Belgique 2me edition. Brussels 2002
    Bulgaria
     
    • Blagoevgrad Oblast
    Elena Shcherbakova, Larisa Nesheva (2010) Ammonium sulfates from coal mine Pirin REVIEW OF THE BULGARIAN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, vol. 71, part 1–3, , p. 17–23
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.; Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
          • Libušin
    David Parfitt collection
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Trutnov (Trautenau)
          • Radvanice
    Žáček, V., Ondruš, P.: Mineralogy of recently formed sublimates from Kateřina colliery in Radvanice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech geological survey, 1998, vol. 73, no. 2, s. 289-302.
      • Ústí Region
        • Bílina (Bilin)
    Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • South Moravia Region
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Kivu
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399, 476.
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Allier
        • Montluçon
          • Commentry
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
    • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
      • Pas-de-Calais
    Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
    Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German); Sindern, S., Warnsloh, J. M., Witzke, T., Havenith, V., Neef, R. & Etoundi, Y. (2005): Mineralogy and geochemistry of vents formed on the burning coal mining waste dump Anna I, Alsdorf, Germany. Eur. J. Mineral. 17, Beih. 1, 130.
    • Saxony
      • Dresden
        • Freital
    Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Hungary
     
    • Baranya Co.
      • Mecsek Mtns
        • Komló
    Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
        • Pécs
    Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (2008): Ammonium sulphates from burning coal dumps at Komló and Pécs-Vasas, Mecsek Mts., South Hungary. Mineralogia, Special Papers, Vol. 32 (2nd Central-European Mineralogical Conference 2008 (CEMC)), 154.
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Borsodi Mtns
        • Múcsony
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
      • Bükk Mtns
        • Miskolc
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    • Komárom-Esztergom Co.
      • Pilisi Basin
        • Esztergom
    ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
    • Veszprém Co.
      • Bakony Mtns
        • Ajka
    Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
        • Várpalota
    ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399; Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
            • Vulcano Island
    BOMBICCI L. (1875): Corso di mineralogia. - Bologna, 347.
    Netherlands
     
    • Limburg
      • Kerkrade
    Peru
     
    • La Libertad Department
      • Trujillo Province
        • Virù
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399,1104.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
    Poland
     
    • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
      • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
        • Katowice area
    Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
    Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
    Russia
     
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German). ; Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
            • Kopeisk
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Veľký Krtíš Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
    South Africa
     
    • Free State Province
      • Fezile Dabi District
    International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Witbank
    Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K. (2009): Natural and anthropogenic coal fires. In: Umran Dogan, A., and Cutler, J. (eds.): Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Cleveland (Washington, D.C.); International Journal of Coal Geology 72 (2007) 124–140
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
      • Zeravshan Range
        • Yagnob River
    D.I.Belakovskiy data
    No reference listed
    UK
     
    • England
      • Staffordshire
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
    • Scotland
      • Lothian (Mid Lothian)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 399.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Sonoma Co.
        • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
          • West Mayacmas District
    Palache et al (1951), Dana's System of Mineralogy, seventh ed., vol. II: 399; Vonsen, Magnus (1941) Preliminary report on minerals of The Geysers of Sonoma County, California. Mineralogist: 9: 246, 279; Vonsen, Magnus (1946), Minerals at “The Geysers,” Sonoma County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 288; Smith, Robert Leland (1958), Some new occurrences of sassolite in the United States: American Mineralogist: 43: 1205; Dunning, Gail E. and J.F. Cooper (1969a) Letovicite from The Geysers, Sonoma County, California. California Division Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 135; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 239; Dunning, G. S. & Cooper, J. F. (1993): History and minerals of The Geysers Sonoma County, California. Mineralogical Record: 24(5): 339-352
    Goldsmith, E. (1877), On boussingaultite and other minerals from Sonoma County, California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 28: 265; Vonsen, Magnus (1946), Minerals at “The Geysers,” Sonoma County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 288; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 257.
    • Colorado
      • Garfield Co.
        • Glenwood Springs
    GSA Field Guide 10 (2007) pp 101-110
    • Missouri
      • Pettis Co.
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    • Pennsylvania
      • Columbia Co.
      • Schuylkill Co.
    American Mineralogist (1977): 62: 316-320.
        • Shenandoah
    Reed, Juliet C. (1976), Annotated Biblio. of Minerals New to the Pennsylvania List 1965-1974, The Mineralogical Soc. of PA, Inc.: 55-56; Barnes, John H. & Lahham, Davis M. (1971), "Rare Minerals Found in PA," PA. Geol., Vol. 2(5):7-8;
    Venezuela
     
    • Bolívar
      • Pedregal city
    Journal of South American Earth Sciences Volume 27, Issues 2-3, February-March 2009, Pages 211-218
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