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Antimony

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Formula:
Sb
System:TrigonalColour:Tin-white
Lustre:MetallicHardness:3 - 3½
Member of:Arsenic Group
Name:From the medieval latin 'antimonium', originally applied to stibnite. The etymology is uncertain; the popular etymology, from ἀντίμοναχός anti-monachos or French antimoine, still has adherents; this would mean "monk-killer", and is explained by many early alchemists being monks, and antimony being poisonous. Another popular etymology is the hypothetical Greek word ἀντίμόνος antimonos, "against aloneness", explained as "not found as metal", or "not found unalloyed" [from Wikipedia].

Classification of Antimony

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/B.01-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.CA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
A : Arsenic group elements
Dana 7th edition ID:1.3.1.4
Dana 8th edition ID:1.3.1.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.41

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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Type Occurrence of Antimony

Type Locality:Sala Silver Mine, Sala, Västmanland, Sweden

Occurrences of Antimony

Geological Setting:Hydrothermal veins

Physical Properties of Antimony

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Tin-white
Streak:Grey
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 3½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=50 - 69 kg/mm2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect and easy on {0001}, distinct on {1011}, imperfect on {1014} and indistinct on {1120}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):6.61 - 6.71 g/cm3
Density (calculated):6.697 g/cm3

Crystallography of Antimony

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3m {R3 2/m}
Space Group Setting:R3m
Cell Parameters:a = 4.307Å, c = 11.273Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.617
Unit Cell Volume:V 181.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:6
Morphology:Pseudocubic crystals
Twinning:{0114} Commonly forms fourlings, sixlings and polysynthetic.
Crystal Atlas:
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Antimony no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.24 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.29 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.109 (100)
2.248 (70)
2.152 (60)
1.878 (40)
1.416 (60)
1.368 (70)
1.261 (40)

Optical Data of Antimony

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Weak in air, lively in oil
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=71.6%R2= 74.1%
420nmR1=72.3%R2= 75.1%
440nmR1=72.9%R2= 75.8%
460nmR1=73.6%R2= 76.6%
480nmR1=74.2%R2= 77.3%
500nmR1=74.6%R2= 77.8%
520nmR1=74.7%R2= 77.9%
540nmR1=74.5%R2= 78.0%
560nmR1=74.0%R2= 77.7%
580nmR1=73.3%R2= 77.1%
600nmR1=72.3%R2= 76.6%
620nmR1=71.4%R2= 76.0%
640nmR1=70.3%R2= 75.3%
660nmR1=69.2%R2= 74.8%
680nmR1=68.4%R2= 74.4%
700nmR1=67.7%R2= 74.2%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 78.0%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Antimony

Formula:
Sb
Essential elements:Sb
All elements listed in formula:Sb
Common Impurities:As

Relationship of Antimony to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Arsenic (see here)
Member of:Arsenic Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Common Associates:
StibniteStibarsenSphaleriteSilverQuartz
PyriteGalena
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.CA.05Arsenic
As
1.CA.05Bismuth
Bi
1.CA.05Stibarsen
AsSb
1.CA.10Arsenolamprite
As
1.CA.10Pararsenolamprite
(As,Sb)
1.CA.15Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.3.1.1Arsenic
As
1.3.1.2Arsenolamprite
As
1.3.1.3Stibarsen
AsSb
1.3.1.5Bismuth
Bi
1.3.1.6Pararsenolamprite
(As,Sb)

Other Names for Antimony

Synonyms:
Native Antimony
Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Antimoon
Arabic:إثمد
Armenian:Ծարիր
Azeri:Stibium
Basque:Antimonio
Bosnian (Latin Script):Antimon
Bulgarian:Антимон
Catalan:Antimoni
Corsican:Antimoniu
Croatian:Antimon
Czech:Antimon
Danish:Antimon
Dutch:Antimoon
Esperanto:Antimono
Estonian:Antimon
Finnish:Antimoni
French:Antimoine
Friulian:Antimoni
Galician:Antimonio
German:Antimon
Gediegen Spießglanz
Spießglanzkönig
Greek:Αντιμόνιο
Haitian:Antimwàn
Hebrew:אנטימון
Hindi:एन्टिमोनी
Hungarian:Antimon
Icelandic:Antimon
Ido:Antimonio
Indonesian:Antimon
Irish Gaelic:Antamón
Italian:Antimonio
Japanese:自然アンチモン
Javanese:Antimon
Kapampangan:Antimony
Korean:안티모니
Kurdish (Latin Script):Stîbyûm
Latin:Stibium
Latvian:Antimons
Lithuanian:Stibis
Lojban:antimoni
Low Saxon:Antimon
Luxembourgish:Antimon
Malayalam:ആന്റിമണി
Manx:Antimoan
Marathi:अँटिमोनी
Norwegian (Bokmål):Antimon
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Antimon
Occitan:Antimòni
Persian:آنتیموان
Polish:Antymon
Portuguese:Antimônio
Quechua:Antimunyu
Romanian:Stibiu
Russian:Сурьма
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Антимон
Serbo-Croatian:Antimon
Sicilian:Antimoniu
Simplified Chinese:自然锑
Slovak:Antimón
Slovenian:Antimon
Spanish:Antimonio
Swedish:Antimon
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Сурма
Tamil:ஆண்ட்டிமனி
Thai:พลวง
Traditional Chinese:自然銻
Turkish:Antimon
Ukrainian:Стибій
Urdu:کحل
Uzbek (Latin Script):Surma
Vietnamese:Antimon
Welsh:Antimoni
Varieties:
Bismuthian Antimony

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Antimony

Reference List:

- +
Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des Gediegen-Spießglanzes von Andreasberg, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 169-172

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 132-133.

Barrett, C.S., Cucka, P. and Haefner, K. (1963): The crystal structure of antimony at 4.2, 78 and 298 K. Acta Crystallographica, 16, 451–453.

Internet Links for Antimony

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    Localities for Antimony

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