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Antimony

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Formula:
Sb
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Tin-white
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Member of:
Name:
From the medieval latin 'antimonium', originally applied to stibnite. The etymology is uncertain; the popular etymology, from ἀντίμοναχός anti-monachos or French antimoine, still has adherents; this would mean "monk-killer", and is explained by many early alchemists being monks, and antimony being poisonous. Another popular etymology is the hypothetical Greek word ἀντίμόνος antimonos, "against aloneness", explained as "not found as metal", or "not found unalloyed" [from Wikipedia].

Classification of Antimony

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
1.CA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
A : Arsenic group elements
Dana 7th ed.:
1.3.1.4
1.3.1.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
1.41

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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http://www.mindat.org/min-262.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Antimony

Occurrences of Antimony

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal veins

Physical Properties of Antimony

Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Tin-white
Streak:
Grey
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 3½
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=50 - 69 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect and easy on {0001}, distinct on {1011}, imperfect on {1014} and indistinct on {1120}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
6.61 - 6.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.697 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Antimony

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Space Group Setting:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.307Å, c = 11.273Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.617
Unit Cell Volume:
V 181.10 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Pseudocubic crystals
Twinning:
{0114} Commonly forms fourlings, sixlings and polysynthetic.

Crystallographic forms of Antimony

Crystal Atlas:
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Antimony no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.24 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.29 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Antimony no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.109 (100)
2.248 (70)
2.152 (60)
1.878 (40)
1.416 (60)
1.368 (70)
1.261 (40)

Optical Data of Antimony

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak in air, lively in oil
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=71.6%R2= 74.1%
420nmR1=72.3%R2= 75.1%
440nmR1=72.9%R2= 75.8%
460nmR1=73.6%R2= 76.6%
480nmR1=74.2%R2= 77.3%
500nmR1=74.6%R2= 77.8%
520nmR1=74.7%R2= 77.9%
540nmR1=74.5%R2= 78.0%
560nmR1=74.0%R2= 77.7%
580nmR1=73.3%R2= 77.1%
600nmR1=72.3%R2= 76.6%
620nmR1=71.4%R2= 76.0%
640nmR1=70.3%R2= 75.3%
660nmR1=69.2%R2= 74.8%
680nmR1=68.4%R2= 74.4%
700nmR1=67.7%R2= 74.2%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 78.0%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Antimony

Formula:
Sb
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
As

Relationship of Antimony to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Arsenic (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
1.1CopperCu
1.2SilverAg
1.5GoldAu
1.6AuricuprideCu3Au
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCu
1.8ZincZn
1.9CadmiumCd
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZn
1.12MercuryHg
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2
1.18LuanheiteAg3Hg
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2
1.20IndiumIn
1.21AluminiumAl
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24DiamondC
1.25GraphiteC
1.26ChaoiteC
1.27LonsdaleiteC
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSn
1.30LeadPb
1.31AnyuiiteAu(Pb,Sb)2
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3
1.33ArsenicAs
1.34ArsenolampriteAs
1.35PaxiteCuAs2
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2
1.37DomeykiteCu3As
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7
1.42StibarsenAsSb
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3As
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2
1.48DyscrasiteAg3Sb
1.49BismuthBi
1.50MaldoniteAu2Bi
1.51SulphurS8
1.52RosickýiteS
1.53SeleniumSe
1.54TelluriumTe
1.55ChromiumCr
1.56RheniumRe
1.57IronFe
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-x
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNi
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)
1.64TetrataeniteFeNi
1.65AwaruiteNi3Fe
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHg
1.68PaolovitePd2Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2
1.70CabriitePd2CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I(Pd,Cu,Pt)3Sn
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3Sn
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite(Pd,Pt,Au)3(Pb,Sn)
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82PlatinumPt
1.83HongshiitePtCu
1.84NiggliitePtSn
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFe
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFe
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNi
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Antimony

Name in Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Antimoon
Arabic:إثمد
Armenian:Ծարիր
Azeri:Stibium
Basque:Antimonio
Bosnian (Latin Script):Antimon
Bulgarian:Антимон
Catalan:Antimoni
Corsican:Antimoniu
Croatian:Antimon
Czech:Antimon
Danish:Antimon
Dutch:Antimoon
Esperanto:Antimono
Estonian:Antimon
Finnish:Antimoni
French:Antimoine
Friulian:Antimoni
Galician:Antimonio
Haitian:Antimwàn
Hungarian:Antimon
Icelandic:Antimon
Indonesian:Antimon
Irish Gaelic:Antamón
Italian:Antimonio
Javanese:Antimon
Kapampangan:Antimony
Kurdish (Latin Script):Stîbyûm
Latin:Stibium
Latvian:Antimons
Lithuanian:Stibis
Lojban:antimoni
Low Saxon:Antimon
Luxembourgish:Antimon
Norwegian (Bokmål):Antimon
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Antimon
Occitan:Antimòni
Polish:Antymon
Portuguese:Antimônio
Quechua:Antimunyu
Romanian:Stibiu
Russian:Сурьма
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Антимон
Serbo-Croatian:Antimon
Sicilian:Antimoniu
Simplified Chinese:自然锑
Slovak:Antimón
Slovenian:Antimon
Spanish:Antimonio
Swedish:Antimon
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Сурма
Traditional Chinese:自然銻
Turkish:Antimon
Ukrainian:Стибій
Urdu:کحل
Uzbek (Latin Script):Surma
Vietnamese:Antimon
Welsh:Antimoni

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Antimony

Reference List:
Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Chemische Untersuchung des Gediegen-Spießglanzes von Andreasberg, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 169-172

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 132-133.

Barrett, C.S., Cucka, P. and Haefner, K. (1963): The crystal structure of antimony at 4.2, 78 and 298 K. Acta Crystallographica, 16, 451–453.

Internet Links for Antimony

Specimens:
The following Antimony specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Antimony

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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