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Melanterite

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Formula:
FeSO4 · 7H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colorless to white or ...
Hardness:
2
Name:
Named in 1850 from the Greek μελαντηρία for "copperas," meaning ferrous sulfate.
Melanterite Group.
Iron analogue of boothite and zincmelanterite.

Melanterite is a hydrated iron sulphate formed after the decomposition of pyrite or other iron minerals due to the action of surface waters. It is often found in mines as a post-mining formation on mine walls.

May dehydrate to siderotile.

CAUTION: Melanterite is an indicator of the possible presence of sulfuric acid and should not be handled with bare hands or inhaled.

Classification of Melanterite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.CB.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
29.6.10.1
29.6.10.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O
25.10.5

25 : Sulphates
10 : Sulphates of Fe alone
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Occurrences of Melanterite

Geological Setting:
A secondary mineral formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals, such as pyrite and marcasite, it is found occurring naturally in sheltered crevices and cavities in sulfidic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and in coal and lignite deposits. It also forms readily on the walls, timbers, and other structures in mines.

Physical Properties of Melanterite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colorless to white or green, also greenish-blue to blue with increased Cu content; colourless to pale green in transmitted light.
Comment:
Usually a yellowish-white after exposure to air and moisture.
Streak:
White.
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {001}, distinct on {110}.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
1.89 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.893 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Melanterite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.077Å, b = 6.509Å, c = 11.054Å
β = 105.6°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.163 : 1 : 1.698
Unit Cell Volume:
V 975.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals rare, equant to short prismatic parallel to [001] with prominent {110} and {001}; thick tabular {010} or {10_1}, also pseudo-octahedral due to equal development of {110}, {001}, and {_101}; more typically found as beard-like efflorescences, or as capillary to fibrous aggregates; it may also be stalactic or concretionary.
Twinning:
None reported.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.49(10)
4.90(100)
4.87(50)
4.03(10)
3.78(60)
3.73(20)
3.29(20)
3.21(10)

Optical Data of Melanterite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.470 - 1.471 nβ = 1.477 - 1.480 nγ = 1.486
2V:
Measured: 86° , Calculated: 80°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.016
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Melanterite

Formula:
FeSO4 · 7H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Soluble in water.
Common Impurities:
Cu,Mg

Relationship of Melanterite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2O
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 10H2O
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2O
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2O
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2O
25.10.1SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
25.10.2RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
25.10.3SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
25.10.4FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2O
25.10.6Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
25.10.7LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2O
25.10.8KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
25.10.9CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
25.10.10ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2O
25.10.11QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 10H2O
25.10.12FerricopiapiteFe5(SO4)6O(OH) · 20H2O
25.10.13MetahohmanniteFe23+(SO4)2O · 4H2O
25.10.14HohmanniteFe23+(SO4)2O · 8H2O
25.10.15ButleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
25.10.16ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
25.10.17AmarantiteFe23+(SO4)2O · 7H2O
25.10.18FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
25.10.19Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
25.10.20RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
25.10.21BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
25.10.22CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O

Other Names for Melanterite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Melanterite

Reference List:
Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 482 (as Mélantérie).

Chapman, E.J. (1843) Practical Mineralogy. London, Paris, and Leipzig: 14 (as Melantherite).

Haidinger, Wm. (1850) Handbuch der bestimmenden Mineralogie. Vienna, 2nd. Edition: 489 (as Melanterit).

Erofejeff (1867) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 56: 63.

Raimondi, A. (1878) Minéraux du Pérou: Catalogue raisonné d’une collection des principaux types minéraux de la République. 336pp., Paris: 212 (as Alcaparrosa verde).

Zepharovich (1879) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 79: 183.

Retgers (1889) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 3: 534.

Michel (1894) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 17: 204.

Edgren (1901) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 23: 329.

Schaller (1903) University of California, Department of Geology Bull.: 3: 191.

Pilipenko (1915) Bull. Imp. Tomsk. Univ., no. 63 [Min. Abs.: 2: 113 (1923)].

Goldschmidt, V. (1916) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 3: 111.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 120.

Collins (1923) Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 32.

Niggli and Faesy (1924) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 59: 258.

Vavrinecz (1927) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 66: 167.

Westenbrink (1927) Recueil des travaux chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique, Leyden: 46: 105.

Zsivny (1928) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 66: 651.

Vavrinecz (1929) Magyar Chemiai Folyóirat, Budapest: 35: 1.

Hey (1930) Mineralogical Magazine: 22: 413.

Eckel (1933) American Mineralogist: 18: 449.

Machatschki (1935) Zbl. Min.: 53.

Ungemach (1935) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 58: 159.

Simpson (1937) Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia: 23: 17.

Milton and Johnston (1938) Economic geology: 33: 749.

Ness (1940) Naturwissenschaften: 28: 78.

Mélon (1944) Ann. soc. géol. Belgique: 67: B56.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 499-504.

Acta Crystallographica (1964): 17: 1167-1174.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 611.

Peterson, R.C. (2003b) Dehydration of mine waste. The relationship among melanterite FeSO4·7H2O, siderotil FeSO4·5H2O and rozenite FeSO4·4H2O. Geological Association of Canada-Mineralogical Association of Canada-Society of Economic Geologists Abstracts Volume 28: 134-135.

Internet Links for Melanterite

Specimens:
The following Melanterite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Melanterite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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