Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Antlerite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Emerald-green to ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1889 by William F. Hillebrand after the type locality at the Antler Mine, Mohave Co., Arizona, USA.
A secondary mineral occurring in the oxidized zone of copper deposits in arid regions.
Less common than the related and sometimes visually similar brochantite with which it may be confused.

Metastable at ambient temperature with respect to brochantite; appears to form at usually higher temperatures (60-80°C) (Yoder et al., 2007).

Classification of Antlerite

Approved
7.BB.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
30.1.12.1
30.1.12.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
25.2.6

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-268.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Antlerite

Year of Discovery:
1889

Occurrences of Antlerite

Geological Setting:
In weathered zones of carbonate-poor copper deposits in arid regions

Physical Properties of Antlerite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Emerald-green to blackish-green, also light green.
Streak:
Pale green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}, poor on {100}.
Density:
3.88 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.93 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Antlerite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.244(2) Å, b = 11.987(3) Å, c = 6.043(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.688 : 1 : 0.504
Unit Cell Volume:
V 597.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals commonly thick tabular {010}; also equant or short prismatic [001]. Also as cross-fiber veinlets or friable interlaced aggregates of acicular or fibrous crystals; felt-like; granular.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Antlerite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.726 nβ = 1.738 nγ = 1.789
2V:
Measured: 53° , Calculated: 54°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.063
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
very strong r < v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = b = Yellow-green
Y = a = Blue-green
Z = c = Green

Chemical Properties of Antlerite

Formula:
Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Antlerite to other Species

7.BB.05CaminiteMg7(SO4)5(OH)4 · H2O
7.BB.10HauckiteFe33+(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81
7.BB.20DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)O
7.BB.25BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
7.BB.30VergasovaiteCu3(SO4)(MoO4,SO4)O
7.BB.35Klebelsbergite(SbO)4(SO4)(OH)2
7.BB.40SchuetteiteHg32+(SO4)O2
7.BB.45ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5x
7.BB.50XocomecatliteCu3(TeO4)(OH)4
7.BB.55Pauflerite(V4+O)SO4
7.BB.60GrandviewiteCu3Al9(SO4)2(OH)29
25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
25.2.3ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)O
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
25.2.9LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.11KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2O
25.2.13PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)Cl
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2O
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2O
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2O
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Antlerite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in dilute H2SO4.

Pseudomorphs of cuprite after fibrous antlerite have been observed.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Antlerite

Reference List:
Weisbach (1886) Jahrbuch für das Berg- und Hüttenwesen im Königreiche Sachsen, Abhandlungen: 86 (as Arnimite).

Hillebrand (1889) USGS Bull. 55: 54.

Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 232 (as Stelznerit).

Ungemach (1924) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 47: 124.

Audrietyh and Martens (1925) American Mineralogist: 10: 161.

Buttgenbach (1926) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Bulletin: 49: 164 (as Heterobrochantite).

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4224.

Posnjak and Tunell (1929) American Journal of Science: 18: 1.

Binder (1936) Annales de chimie, Paris: 5: 337.

Guillot and Geneslay (1937) Bull. soc. chim.: 4: 125 (artif. material).

Palache (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 293.

Jarrell (1944) Economic Geology: 39: 251.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 544-546.

Hawthorne, F. C., Groat, L. A., Eby, R. K. (1989): Antlerite, Cu3SO4(OH)4, a heteropolyhedral wallpaper structure. Canadian Mineralogist 27 205-209.

Yoder, C. H., Agee, T. M., Ginion, K. E., Hofmann, A. E., Ewanichak, J. E., Schaeffer, C. D., Jr., Carroll, M. J., Schaeffer, R. W. & McCaffrey, P. F. (2007): The relative stabilities of the copper hydroxyl sulphates. Mineralogical Magazine 71, 571-577.

Huang, L., Qui, D. and Zhao, B. (2012): Crystal structure of catena-(μ2-hydroxo)-tris(μ3-hydroxo)-(μ6-sulfato)-tricopper(II), Cu3H4O8S. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - New Crystal Structures, 227, 435-436. [= Antlerite (unrecognised by authors)]

Internet Links for Antlerite

Specimens:
The following Antlerite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Antlerite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2015, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: August 30, 2015 04:36:37 Page generated: August 29, 2015 03:21:16