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Antlerite

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Formula:
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
System:OrthorhombicColour:Emerald-green to ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:
Name:Named in 1889 by William F. Hillebrand after the type locality at the Antler Mine, Mohave Co., Arizona, USA.


A secondary mineral occurring in the oxidized zone of copper deposits in arid regions.
Less common than the related and sometimes visually similar brochantite with which it may be confused.

Metastable at ambient temperature with respect to brochantite; appears to form at usually higher temperatures (60-80°C) (Yoder et al., 2007).

Classification of Antlerite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/B.01-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.BB.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th edition ID:30.1.12.1
Dana 8th edition ID:30.1.12.1

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.2.6

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag
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Type Occurrence of Antlerite

Type Locality:Antler Mine (Antler Gold Mine; Spuyten Duyvel Mine), Arrastra Mt., Hualapai District, Hualapai (Hualpai) Mts, Mohave Co., Arizona, USA
Year of Discovery:1889

Occurrences of Antlerite

Geological Setting:In weathered zones of carbonate-poor copper deposits in arid regions

Physical Properties of Antlerite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Emerald-green to blackish-green, also light green.
Streak:Pale green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {010}, poor on {100}.
Density (measured):3.88 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.93 g/cm3

Crystallography of Antlerite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 8.244(2) Å, b = 11.987(3) Å, c = 6.043(1) Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.688 : 1 : 0.504
Unit Cell Volume:V 597.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals commonly thick tabular {010}; also equant or short prismatic [001]. Also as cross-fiber veinlets or friable interlaced aggregates of acicular or fibrous crystals; felt-like; granular.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Antlerite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.726 nβ = 1.738 nγ = 1.789
2V:Measured: 53° , Calculated: 54°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.063

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:very strong r < v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X = b = Yellow-green
Y = a = Blue-green
Z = c = Green

Chemical Properties of Antlerite

Formula:
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Essential elements:Cu, H, O, S
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, O, S

Relationship of Antlerite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.BB.05Caminite
Mg
 
7
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(OH)
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.BB.10Hauckite
Fe
3+
3
(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
24
Zn
 
18
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
81
7.BB.20Dolerophanite
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
7.BB.25Brochantite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
7.BB.30Vergasovaite
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(MoO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)O
7.BB.35Klebelsbergite
(SbO)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
7.BB.40Schuetteite
Hg
2+
3
(SO
 
4
)O
 
2
7.BB.45Paraotwayite
Ni(OH)
 
2-x
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
0.5x
7.BB.50Xocomecatlite
Cu
 
3
(TeO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
7.BB.55Pauflerite
(V
4+
 
O)SO
 
4
7.BB.60Grandviewite
Cu
 
3
Al
 
9
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
29
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.2.1Chalcocyanite
CuSO
 
4
25.2.2Bonattite
CuSO
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.3Chalcanthite
CuSO
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
25.2.4Boothite
CuSO
 
4
· 7H
 
2
O
25.2.5Dolerophanite
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)O
25.2.7Brochantite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
25.2.8Posnjakite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
25.2.9Langite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.10Wroewolfeite
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.11Kröhnkite
Na
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.12Natrochalcite
NaCu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
25.2.13Piypite
K
 
2
Cu
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
O
25.2.14Fedotovite
K
 
2
Cu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.15Cyanochroite
K
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.16Euchlorine
KNaCu
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
O
25.2.17Devilline
CaCu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.18Leightonite
K
 
2
Ca
 
2
Cu(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.19Chalcoalumite
CuAl
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
25.2.20Cyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
25.2.21Woodwardite
Cu
 
1-x
Al
 
x
(OH)
 
2
[SO
 
4
]
 
x/2
· nH
 
2
O
25.2.22Campigliaite
Mn
2+
 
Cu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
25.2.23Guildite
CuFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
25.2.24Ransomite
CuFe
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
4
· 6H
 
2
O
25.2.26Klyuchevskite
K
 
3
Cu
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(SO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
25.2.27Poitevinite
(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.2.28Argentojarosite
AgFe
3+
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Antlerite

Synonyms:
ArminiteArnimiteStelznerite
Other Languages:
German:Antlerit
Arminit
Arnimit
Stelznerit
Russian:Антлерит
Simplified Chinese:块铜矾
块铜矿
Spanish:Antlerita
Arminita
Arnimita
Stelznerita
Traditional Chinese:塊銅礬
塊銅礦
Varieties:
Vernadskite

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in dilute H2SO4.

Pseudomorphs of cuprite after fibrous antlerite have been observed.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Antlerite

Reference List:

- +
Weisbach (1886) Jahrbuch für das Berg- und Hüttenwesen im Königreiche Sachsen, Abhandlungen: 86 (as Arnimite).

Hillebrand (1889) USGS Bull. 55: 54.

Arzruni and Thaddéeff (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 232 (as Stelznerit).

Ungemach (1924) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 47: 124.

Audrietyh and Martens (1925) American Mineralogist: 10: 161.

Buttgenbach (1926) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Bulletin: 49: 164 (as Heterobrochantite).

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4224.

Posnjak and Tunell (1929) American Journal of Science: 18: 1.

Binder (1936) Annales de chimie, Paris: 5: 337.

Guillot and Geneslay (1937) Bull. soc. chim.: 4: 125 (artif. material).

Palache (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 293.

Jarrell (1944) Economic Geology: 39: 251.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 544-546.

Hawthorne, F. C., Groat, L. A., Eby, R. K. (1989): Antlerite, Cu3SO4(OH)4, a heteropolyhedral wallpaper structure. Canadian Mineralogist 27 205-209.

Yoder, C. H., Agee, T. M., Ginion, K. E., Hofmann, A. E., Ewanichak, J. E., Schaeffer, C. D., Jr., Carroll, M. J., Schaeffer, R. W. & McCaffrey, P. F. (2007): The relative stabilities of the copper hydroxyl sulphates. Mineralogical Magazine 71, 571-577.

Huang, L., Qui, D. and Zhao, B. (2012): Crystal structure of catena-(μ2-hydroxo)-tris(μ3-hydroxo)-(μ6-sulfato)-tricopper(II), Cu3H4O8S. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - New Crystal Structures, 227, 435-436. [= Antlerite (unrecognised by authors)]

Internet Links for Antlerite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Antlerite on Google
  • Look for Antlerite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Antlerite on Webmineral
  • Look for Antlerite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Antlerite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Antlerite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Antlerite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Wilensky Fine Minerals
  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • Antlerite specimens for sale - minfind.com
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  • Specimens:The following Antlerite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Antlerite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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