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Metatorbernite

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Formula:
Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Pale green to dark green
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1916 by Arthur Francis Hallimond for "meta" for its lower hydration level and its relationship to torbernite.
Meta-autunite Group.

A secondary mineral resulting from the weathering/dehydration of Torbernite. Forms also directly above 75° C.
Crystals can be either cloudy and dull or translucent and glassy.

Classification of Metatorbernite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.EB.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
E : Uranyl phosphates and arsenates
B : UO2:RO4 = 1:1
40.2a.13.2

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
2a : AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
19.11.11

19 : Phosphates
11 : Phosphates of U
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Type Occurrence of Metatorbernite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Deep green blocky tetragonal crystals
Year of Discovery:
1916
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Found at two polymetallic deposits containing uranium mineralization: Redruth, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom and at Schneeberg, Saxony, Germany.

Occurrences of Metatorbernite

Geological Setting:
Secondary mineral in weathering uranium-bearing deposits.

Physical Properties of Metatorbernite

Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Lustre pearly on {010}
Colour:
Pale green to dark green
Comment:
May exhibit anomalous interference colours.
Streak:
pale green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {001}
indistict on {010}
Density:
3.52 - 3.70 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.71(5) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Metatorbernite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P4/n
Space Group Setting:
P4/n
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.9756(5) Å, c = 17.349(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.487
Unit Cell Volume:
V 844.2 ų
Z:
2
Morphology:
Commonly as paramorphs after torbernite, square tabular crystals, flattened on {001} and modified by {011}, in lamellar or subparallel to sheaflike aggregates, rosettes.
Twinning:
Merohedral twinning.
Comment:
Data for synthetic crystal.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.71 (100)
5.44 (75)
4.93 (75)
3.678 (100)
3.480 (80)
3.232 (80)
2.931 (70)

Optical Data of Metatorbernite

Type:
Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nω = 1.618 - 1.631 nε = 1.622 - 1.628
Birefringence:
0.004
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O = Green
E = Pale green to blue
Comments:
Anomalously biaxial in sectors.

Chemical Properties of Metatorbernite

Formula:
Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ca,Ba,Mg

Relationship of Metatorbernite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Metazeunerite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AbernathyiteK(UO2)(AsO4) · 4H2O
BassetiteFe2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Chernikovite(H3O)2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
LehneriteMn2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Meta-ankoleiteK2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
MetaheinrichiteBa(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
MetakahleriteFe2+(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
MetakirchheimeriteCo(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
MetalodèviteZn(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
MetanováčekiteMg(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 4-8H2O
Metauranocircite-IBa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 7H2O
MetauranospiniteCa(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
MetazeuneriteCu(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Natrouranospinite(Na2,Ca)(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 5H2O
Uramarsite(NH4,H3O)2(UO2)2(AsO4,PO4)2 · 6H2O
Uramphite(NH4)2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
8.EB.05AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
8.EB.05HeinrichiteBa(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.EB.05KahleriteFe(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 12H2O
8.EB.05Nováčekite-IMg(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 12H2O
8.EB.05SaléeiteMg(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
8.EB.05TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
8.EB.05UranocirciteBa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
8.EB.05UranospiniteCa(UO2)(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.EB.05Xiangjiangite(Fe3+,Al)(UO2)4(PO4)2(SO4)2(OH) · 22H2O
8.EB.05ZeuneriteCu(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 12H2O
8.EB.05MetarauchiteNi(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.05RauchiteNi(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.EB.10BassetiteFe2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10LehneriteMn2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
8.EB.10MetasaléeiteMg(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10Metauranocircite-IBa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 7H2O
8.EB.10MetauranospiniteCa(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10MetaheinrichiteBa(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10MetakahleriteFe2+(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10MetakirchheimeriteCo(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10MetanováčekiteMg(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 4-8H2O
8.EB.10MetazeuneriteCu(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.EB.10PrzhevalskitePb2(UO2)3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 3H2O
8.EB.10Meta-lodèvite
8.EB.15AbernathyiteK(UO2)(AsO4) · 4H2O
8.EB.15Chernikovite(H3O)2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
8.EB.15Meta-ankoleiteK2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
8.EB.15Natrouranospinite(Na2,Ca)(UO2)2(AsO4)2 · 5H2O
8.EB.15Trögerite(UO2)3(AsO4)2 · 12H2O (?)
8.EB.15Uramphite(NH4)2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
8.EB.15Uramarsite(NH4,H3O)2(UO2)2(AsO4,PO4)2 · 6H2O
8.EB.20ThreadgolditeAl(UO2)2(PO4)2(OH) · 8H2O
8.EB.20ChistyakovaiteAl(UO2)2(AsO4)2(F,OH) · 6.5H2O
8.EB.25ArsenuranospathiteAl[(UO2)(AsO4)]2F(H2O)20
8.EB.25Uranospathite(Al,☐)(UO2)2(PO4)2F · 20(H2O,F)
8.EB.30Vochtenite(Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(UO2)4(PO4)4(OH) · 12-13H2O
8.EB.35CoconinoiteFe23+Al2(UO2)2(PO4)4(SO4)(OH)2 · 20H2O
8.EB.40RanunculiteHAl(UO2)(PO4)(OH)3 · 4H2O
8.EB.45TrianguliteAl3(UO2)4(PO4)4(OH)5 · 5H2O
8.EB.50FurongiteAl13(UO2)7(PO4)13(OH)14 · 58H2O
8.EB.55SabugaliteHAl(UO2)4(PO4)4 · 16H2O
19.11.1LermontoviteU(PO4)(OH) · H2O
19.11.2MetavanmeersscheiteU6+(UO2)3(PO4)2(OH)6 · 2H2O
19.11.3VanmeersscheiteU6+(UO2)3(PO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
19.11.4Chernikovite(H3O)2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
19.11.5VyacheslaviteU(PO4)(OH) · nH2O
19.11.6MetanatroautuniteNa(UO2)(PO4)(H2O)3
19.11.7YingjiangiteK2Ca(UO2)7(PO4)4(OH)6 · 6H2O
19.11.8Meta-ankoleiteK2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
19.11.9Uramphite(NH4)2(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6H2O
19.11.10TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
19.11.12SaléeiteMg(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
19.11.13NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
19.11.14Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
19.11.15AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
19.11.16Pseudo-autunite(H3O)4Ca2(UO2)2(PO4)4 · 5H2O
19.11.17PhurcaliteCa2(UO2)3(PO4)2O2 · 7H2O
19.11.18Phosphuranylite(H3O)3KCa(UO2)7(PO4)4O4 · 8H2O
19.11.19UlrichiteCaCu(UO2)(PO4)2 · 4H2O
19.11.20BergeniteCa2Ba4(UO2)9(PO4)6O6 · 16H2O
19.11.21Metauranocircite-IBa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 7H2O
19.11.22UranocirciteBa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
19.11.23RanunculiteHAl(UO2)(PO4)(OH)3 · 4H2O
19.11.24TrianguliteAl3(UO2)4(PO4)4(OH)5 · 5H2O
19.11.25MunditeAl(UO2)3(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5.5H2O
19.11.26UpaliteAl(UO2)3(PO4)2O(OH) · 7H2O
19.11.27FurongiteAl13(UO2)7(PO4)13(OH)14 · 58H2O
19.11.28ThreadgolditeAl(UO2)2(PO4)2(OH) · 8H2O
19.11.29PhuralumiteAl2(UO2)3(PO4)3(OH)2 · 13H2O
19.11.30MoreauiteAl3(UO2)(PO4)3(OH)2 · 13H2O
19.11.31SabugaliteHAl(UO2)4(PO4)4 · 16H2O
19.11.32Uranospathite(Al,☐)(UO2)2(PO4)2F · 20(H2O,F)
19.11.33AlthupiteAlTh(UO2)7(PO4)4(OH)5O2 · 15H2O
19.11.34Françoisite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,Sm)(UO2)3(PO4)2O(OH) · 6H2O
19.11.35Kivuite(Th,Ca,Pb)(UO2)4(HPO4)2(OH)8 · 7H2O
19.11.36ParsonsitePb2(UO2)(PO4)2
19.11.37DewindtiteH2Pb3(UO2)2(PO4)4O4 · 12H2O
19.11.38DumontitePb2(UO2)3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 3H2O
19.11.39PrzhevalskitePb2(UO2)3(PO4)2(OH)4 · 3H2O
19.11.40LehneriteMn2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
19.11.41BassetiteFe2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
19.11.42Vochtenite(Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(UO2)4(PO4)4(OH) · 12-13H2O

Other Names for Metatorbernite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Not fluorescent. (Epitaxial intergrowths with other uranyl "micas" may fluoresce, however.)
Other Information:
Radioactive. Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Metatorbernite

Reference List:
Pisani (1861) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 52: 817.

Rinne (1901) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 618 (as Metakupferuranit).

Buchholz (1903) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 362.

Arthur Francis Hallimond (1916) The Crystallography and Dehydration of Torbernite, Mineralogical Magazine: 17: 326.

Stočes (1918) Rozpr. České Ak.: 27:, no. 27.

Bowen (1919) American Journal of Science: 48: 195.

Hallimond (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 19: 43.

Buttgenbach (1924) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Bulletin, Annales: 47 (annex): 31C.

Hess (1924) US Geological Survey Bulletin 750D: 70.

Pelloux (1934) Atti Soc. Ligustica Sc. Lett. Genova: 13: 137.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 991-992.

Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. U.S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 1064, 208–211.

Ross, M., H.T. Evans, Jr., and D.E. Appleman (1964) Studies of the torbernite minerals (II): the crystal structure of meta-torbernite. American Mineralogist: 49: 1603–1621.

Bollettino della Societa dei Naturalisti in Napoli: 53: 99-104.

Stergiou, A.C., P.J. Rentzeperis, and S. Sklavounos (1993) Refinement of the crystal structure of metatorbernite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1993): 205: 1-7.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 211: 701-702.

Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano: 84: 134-138.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 364.

Locock, A. J. & Burns, P. C. (2003): Crystal structures and synthesis of the copper-dominant members of the autunite and meta-autunite groups: torbernite, zeunerite, metatorbernite and metazeunerite. Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 489-502.

Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

Suzuki, Y., Sato, T., Isobe, H., Kogure, T., Murakami, T. (2005): Dehydration processes in the meta-autunite group minerals meta-autunite, metasaléeite, and metatorbernite. American Mineralogist 90, 1308-1314.

Stubbs, Joanne E.; Post, Jeffrey E.; Elbert, David C.; Heaney, Peter J.; Veblen, David R. (2010): Uranyl phosphate sheet reconstruction during dehydration of metatorbernite [Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2•8H2O]. American Mineralogist 95, 1132-1140.

Internet Links for Metatorbernite

Specimens:
The following Metatorbernite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Metatorbernite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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