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Metatorbernite

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Formula:
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
System:TetragonalColour:Pale green to dark green
Hardness:
Member of:Meta-autunite Group
Name:Named in 1916 by Arthur Francis Hallimond for "meta" for its lower hydration level and its relationship to torbernite.


Meta-autunite Group.

A secondary mineral resulting from the weathering/dehydration of Torbernite. Forms also directly above 75° C.
Crystals can be either cloudy and dull or translucent and glassy.

Classification of Metatorbernite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/E.02-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.EB.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
E : Uranyl phosphates and arsenates
B : UO2:RO4 = 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:40.2a.13.2

40 : HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
2a : AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.11.11

19 : Phosphates
11 : Phosphates of U
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Type Occurrence of Metatorbernite

Co-type Localities:Schneeberg District, Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany
Redruth, Camborne - Redruth - St Day District, Cornwall, England, UK
General Appearance of Type Material:Deep green blocky tetragonal crystals
Year of Discovery:1916
Geological Setting of type material:Found at two polymetallic deposits containing uranium mineralization: Redruth, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom and at Schneeberg, Saxony, Germany.

Occurrences of Metatorbernite

Geological Setting:Secondary mineral in weathering uranium-bearing deposits.

Physical Properties of Metatorbernite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Lustre pearly on {010}
Colour:Pale green to dark green
Comment:May exhibit anomalous interference colours.
Streak:pale green
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {001}
indistict on {010}
Density (measured):3.52 - 3.70 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.71(5) g/cm3

Crystallography of Metatorbernite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:P4/n
Space Group Setting:P4/n
Cell Parameters:a = 6.9756(5) Å, c = 17.349(2) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 2.487
Unit Cell Volume:V 844.2 ų
Z:2
Morphology:Commonly as paramorphs after torbernite, square tabular crystals, flattened on {001} and modified by {011}, in lamellar or subparallel to sheaflike aggregates, rosettes.
Twinning:Merohedral twinning.
Comment:Data for synthetic crystal.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
8.71 (100)
5.44 (75)
4.93 (75)
3.678 (100)
3.480 (80)
3.232 (80)
2.931 (70)

Optical Data of Metatorbernite

Type:Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values: nω = 1.618 - 1.631 nε = 1.622 - 1.628
Birefringence:0.004
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.004

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r > v extreme
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:O = Green
E = Pale green to blue
Comments:Anomalously biaxial in sectors.

Chemical Properties of Metatorbernite

Formula:
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2·8H2O
Essential elements:Cu, H, O, P, U
All elements listed in formula:Cu, H, O, P, U
Common Impurities:Ca,Ba,Mg

Relationship of Metatorbernite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Metazeunerite (see here)
Member of:Meta-autunite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Abernathyite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Bassetite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Chernikovite
(H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Lehnerite
Mn
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Meta-ankoleite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Meta-autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6-8H
 
2
O
Metaheinrichite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Metakahlerite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Metakirchheimerite
Co(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Metalodèvite
Zn(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
Metanováčekite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4-8H
 
2
O
Metauranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
Metauranospinite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Metazeunerite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
Natrouranospinite
(Na
 
2
,Ca)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
Uramarsite
(NH
 
4
,H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Uramphite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
Common Associates:
TorberniteMeta-autuniteUraninite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.EB.05Autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Heinrichite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Kahlerite
Fe(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Nováčekite-I
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Saléeite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Torbernite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Uranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Uranospinite
Ca(UO
 
2
)(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Xiangjiangite
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 22H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Zeunerite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Metarauchite
Ni(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.05Rauchite
Ni(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Bassetite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Lehnerite
Mn
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Meta-autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6-8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metasaléeite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metauranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metauranospinite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metaheinrichite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metakahlerite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metakirchheimerite
Co(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metanováčekite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4-8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Metazeunerite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Przhevalskite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
8.EB.10Meta-lodèvite
8.EB.15Abernathyite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Chernikovite
(H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Meta-ankoleite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Natrouranospinite
(Na
 
2
,Ca)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Trögerite
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O (?)
8.EB.15Uramphite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.15Uramarsite
(NH
 
4
,H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
8.EB.20Threadgoldite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 8H
 
2
O
8.EB.20Chistyakovaite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(F,OH) · 6.5H
 
2
O
8.EB.25Arsenuranospathite
HAl(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
· 40H
 
2
O
8.EB.25Uranospathite
(Al,☐)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 20(H
 
2
O,F)
8.EB.30Vochtenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH) · 12-13H
 
2
O
8.EB.35Coconinoite
Fe
3+
2
Al
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· 20H
 
2
O
8.EB.40Ranunculite
HAl(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
8.EB.45Triangulite
Al
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
8.EB.50Furongite
Al
 
13
(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
13
(OH)
 
14
· 58H
 
2
O
8.EB.55Sabugalite
HAl(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 16H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.11.1Lermontovite
U(PO
 
4
)(OH) · H
 
2
O
19.11.2Metavanmeersscheite
U
6+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
19.11.3Vanmeersscheite
U
6+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 4H
 
2
O
19.11.4Chernikovite
(H
 
3
O)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.5Vyacheslavite
U(PO
 
4
)(OH) · nH
 
2
O
19.11.6Metanatroautunite
Na(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)(H
 
2
O)
 
3
19.11.7Yingjiangite
K
 
2
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.8Meta-ankoleite
K
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.9Uramphite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
19.11.10Torbernite
Cu(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 12H
 
2
O
19.11.12Saléeite
Mg(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
19.11.13Ningyoite
CaU(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 1-2H
 
2
O
19.11.14Meta-autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 6-8H
 
2
O
19.11.15Autunite
Ca(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 11H
 
2
O
19.11.16Pseudo-autunite
(H
 
3
O)
 
4
Ca
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
19.11.17Phurcalite
Ca
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
19.11.18Phosphuranylite
(H
 
3
O)
 
3
KCa(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
19.11.19Ulrichite
CaCu(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
19.11.20Bergenite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
4
(UO
 
2
)
 
9
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
O
 
6
· 16H
 
2
O
19.11.21Metauranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 7H
 
2
O
19.11.22Uranocircite
Ba(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 10H
 
2
O
19.11.23Ranunculite
HAl(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
19.11.24Triangulite
Al
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
· 5H
 
2
O
19.11.25Mundite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
3
· 5.5H
 
2
O
19.11.26Upalite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
19.11.27Furongite
Al
 
13
(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
13
(OH)
 
14
· 58H
 
2
O
19.11.28Threadgoldite
Al(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 8H
 
2
O
19.11.29Phuralumite
Al
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
· 13H
 
2
O
19.11.30Moreauite
Al
 
3
(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
2
· 13H
 
2
O
19.11.31Sabugalite
HAl(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
· 16H
 
2
O
19.11.32Uranospathite
(Al,☐)(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 20(H
 
2
O,F)
19.11.33Althupite
AlTh(UO
 
2
)
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
5
O
 
2
· 15H
 
2
O
19.11.34Françoisite-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,Sm)(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
O(OH) · 6H
 
2
O
19.11.35Kivuite
(Th,Ca,Pb)(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 7H
 
2
O
19.11.36Parsonsite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
19.11.37Dewindtite
H
 
2
Pb
 
3
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.11.38Dumontite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
19.11.39Przhevalskite
Pb
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
19.11.40Lehnerite
Mn
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.11.41Bassetite
Fe
2+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.11.42Vochtenite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(UO
 
2
)
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH) · 12-13H
 
2
O

Other Names for Metatorbernite

Synonyms:
Meta-chalcoliteMeta-torbernite I
Other Languages:
German:Metakupferuranit
Metatorbernit
Russian:Метаторбернит
Simplified Chinese:偏铜铀云母
变铜铀云母
Spanish:Metatorbernita
Traditional Chinese:偏銅鈾雲母
變銅鈾雲母

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent. (Epitaxial intergrowths with other uranyl "micas" may fluoresce, however.)
Other Information:Radioactive. Soluble in acids.
Health Warning:Contains uranium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Avoid prolonged exposure in proximity of the body. Store away from inhabited areas.

References for Metatorbernite

Reference List:

- +
Pisani (1861) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 52: 817.

Rinne (1901) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 618 (as Metakupferuranit).

Buchholz (1903) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 362.

Arthur Francis Hallimond (1916) The Crystallography and Dehydration of Torbernite, Mineralogical Magazine: 17: 326.

Stočes (1918) Rozpr. České Ak.: 27:, no. 27.

Bowen (1919) American Journal of Science: 48: 195.

Hallimond (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 19: 43.

Buttgenbach (1924) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Bulletin, Annales: 47 (annex): 31C.

Hess (1924) US Geological Survey Bulletin 750D: 70.

Pelloux (1934) Atti Soc. Ligustica Sc. Lett. Genova: 13: 137.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 991-992.

Frondel, C. (1958) Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. U.S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 1064, 208–211.

Ross, M., H.T. Evans, Jr., and D.E. Appleman (1964) Studies of the torbernite minerals (II): the crystal structure of meta-torbernite. American Mineralogist: 49: 1603–1621.

Bollettino della Societa dei Naturalisti in Napoli: 53: 99-104.

Stergiou, A.C., P.J. Rentzeperis, and S. Sklavounos (1993) Refinement of the crystal structure of metatorbernite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1993): 205: 1-7.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 211: 701-702.

Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano: 84: 134-138.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 364.

Locock, A. J. & Burns, P. C. (2003): Crystal structures and synthesis of the copper-dominant members of the autunite and meta-autunite groups: torbernite, zeunerite, metatorbernite and metazeunerite. Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 489-502.

Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

Suzuki, Y., Sato, T., Isobe, H., Kogure, T., Murakami, T. (2005): Dehydration processes in the meta-autunite group minerals meta-autunite, metasaléeite, and metatorbernite. American Mineralogist 90, 1308-1314.

Stubbs, Joanne E.; Post, Jeffrey E.; Elbert, David C.; Heaney, Peter J.; Veblen, David R. (2010): Uranyl phosphate sheet reconstruction during dehydration of metatorbernite [Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2•8H2O]. American Mineralogist 95, 1132-1140.

Internet Links for Metatorbernite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Metatorbernite on Webmineral
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  • Look for Metatorbernite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Metatorbernite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Metatorbernite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Search for Metatorbernite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Fabre Minerals - search for Metatorbernite specimens
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
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  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Find Metatorbernite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Specimens:The following Metatorbernite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

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