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Minium

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Formula:
Pb3O4
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Red, brownish-red, ...
Lustre:
Greasy, Dull
Hardness:
Name:
A name originally given to cinnabar. The cinnabar was adulterated with red-lead and, in time, the adulterant alone received the name.
A usually bright red lead oxide.
May be confused with litharge (red PbO) and powdery cinnabar.

Classification of Minium

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
4.BD.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
D : With only large cations
7.2.8.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.11.22

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb
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http://www.mindat.org/min-2721.html
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Occurrences of Minium

Geological Setting:
A rare secondary alteration mineral. Also formed during mine fires.

Physical Properties of Minium

Greasy, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Red, brownish-red, yellowish tint at times; red in transmitted light.
Streak:
Orange-yellow
Hardness (Mohs):
Density:
8.9 - 9.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    8.92 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Minium

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P42/mbc
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.811(5) Å, c = 6.563(3) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.745
Unit Cell Volume:
V 509.51 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Massive, earthy, pulverulent. Microscopic crystalline scales.
Comment:
On synthetic material.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.38 (100)
3.113 (20)
2.903 (50)
2.787 (45)
2.632 (30)
1.903 (20)
1.775 (30)

Optical Data of Minium

Type:
Uniaxial
RI values:
n = 2.42
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Optical Extinction:
Extinction parallel, elongation negative
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X = deep reddish brown, Z = nearly colourless

Chemical Properties of Minium

Formula:
Pb3O4
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Minium to other Species

7.11.1RomarchiteSnO
7.11.2CassiteriteSnO2
7.11.4SchoenfliesiteMg[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.5BurtiteCa[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.6VismirnoviteZn[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.7WickmaniteMn2+[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.8TetrawickmaniteMn2+[Sn4+(OH)6]
7.11.9Jeanbandyite(Fe2+,Mn2+)[Sn4+(OH)6]
7.11.10NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.11Mushistonite(Cu,Zn,Fe2+)[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S(Al,Fe,Zn)2(Al,Sn)6O11(OH)
7.11.13Magnesionigerite
7.11.14ArgutiteGeO2
7.11.15BrunogeieriteFe22+Ge4+O4
7.11.16StottiteFe2+[Ge4+(OH)6]
7.11.17CarboiriteFeAl2(GeO4)O(OH)2
7.11.18OtjisumeitePbGe4O9
7.11.19BartelkeitePb(Fe2+Ge)[Ge2O7](OH)2 · H2O
7.11.20MassicotPbO
7.11.21LithargePbO
7.11.23PlattneritePbO2
7.11.24Scrutinyitealpha-PbO2
7.11.25MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2x where x<=0.5
7.11.26MacedonitePbTiO3
7.11.27CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
7.11.28CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
7.11.29QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)
7.11.30PlumboferritePb2Fe3+11-xMnx2+O19-2x, x = 1/3
7.11.31Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19
7.11.32SenaitePb(Ti,Fe,Mn)21O38

Other Names for Minium

Name in Other Languages:
Russian:Сурик
Simplified Chinese:铅丹
铅华

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Minium

Reference List:
Darbyshire (1932), Journal Chem. Soc. London: 211.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 517-519.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen (1960): 94: 1187.

Internet Links for Minium

Localities for Minium

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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