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Minnesotaite

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Formula:
(Fe,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
System:TriclinicColour:Greenish-gray to olive ...
Lustre:Resinous, Waxy, GreasyHardness:1½ - 2
Name:
For its occurrence in the state of Minnesota.
Isostructural with:Pyrophyllite-Talc Group


Compare also ferripyrophyllite.

Classification of Minnesotaite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/H.09-50
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.EC.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
Dana 8th edition ID:71.2.1.5

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
2 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.21.9

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
21 : Silicates of Fe and Mg
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Type Occurrence of Minnesotaite

Co-type Localities:Cuyuna North Range, Crow Wing Co., Minnesota, USA
Mesabi Range, St. Louis Co., Minnesota, USA
Drill Core M4450, Mesabi Range, St. Louis Co., Minnesota, USA
Year of Discovery:1944
Geological Setting of type material:Banded Iron Formation

Occurrences of Minnesotaite

Geological Setting:Low grade metamorphosed banded iron formations; also hydrothermal alteration around sulphide veins.

Physical Properties of Minnesotaite

Lustre:Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Comment:Low luster is common
Colour:Greenish-gray to olive green
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
Micaceous on {001}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Comment:Usually fine-grained
Density (measured):3.01 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.97 g/cm3

Crystallography of Minnesotaite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 5.623(2) Å, b = 9.419(2) Å, c = 9.624(3) Å
α = 85.21(3)°, β = 95.64(3)°, γ = 90.00°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.597 : 1 : 1.022
Unit Cell Volume:V 505.46 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Usually fine-grained dense masses of microscopic plates or needles
Twinning:Inferred from single crystal X-ray analysis
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
9.54 (100)
4.78 (20)
3.18 (50)
2.76 (30)
2.66 (40)
2.54 (30)
2.53 (50)
2.21 (20)
Comments:2.54 and 2.53 frequently overlap; 41-594

Optical Data of Minnesotaite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.578 - 1.583 nβ = 1.578 - 1.622 nγ = 1.615 - 1.623
2V:Measured: 4°
Birefringence:0.037-0.040
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.037 - 0.040

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v moderate
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X= pale green
Z= colorless to pale greenish yellow

Chemical Properties of Minnesotaite

Formula:
(Fe,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Fe,Mg)3(Si4O10)(OH)2
Essential elements:Fe, H, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, Mg, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Al,Mn,Ca,Na,K,H2O

Relationship of Minnesotaite to other Species

Structurally related to group(s):
Pyrophyllite-Talc Group
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.EC.05Talc
Mg
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.05Willemseite
(Ni,Mg)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.10Ferripyrophyllite
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.10Pyrophyllite
Al
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Boromuscovite
KAl
 
2
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Celadonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Fe
3+
 
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Chernykhite
(Ba,Na)(V
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Montdorite
(K,Na)
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
9.EC.15Muscovite
KAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Nanpingite
CsAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.15Paragonite
NaAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Roscoelite
K(V
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Tobelite
(NH
 
4
,K)Al
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Aluminoceladonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Chromphyllite
K(Cr,Al)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.15Ferroaluminoceladonite
K(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Ferroceladonite
K(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)(Fe
3+
 
,Al)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Chromceladonite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)(Cr,Al)(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.15Tainiolite
KLiMg
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.15Ganterite
(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Annite
KFe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Ephesite
LiNaAl
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Hendricksite
K(Zn,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Masutomilite
(K,Rb)(Li,Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Norrishite
KLiMn
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)O
 
2
9.EC.20Phlogopite
KMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.20Polylithionite
KLi
 
2
Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Preiswerkite
NaMg
 
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Siderophyllite
KFe
2+
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Tetraferriphlogopite
KMg
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.20Fluorotetraferriphlogopite
KMg
 
3
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Wonesite
(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
9.EC.20Eastonite
KMg
 
2
Al(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Tetraferriannite
KFe
2+
3
((Fe
3+
 
,Al)Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Trilithionite
K(Li
 
1.5
Al
 
1.5
)(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Fluorannite
KFe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Shirokshinite
KNaMg
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Shirozulite
K(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Sokolovaite
CsLi
 
2
Al(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Aspidolite
NaMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Fluorophlogopite
KMg
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi
(Cs,K)(Al,Li)
 
2.6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Suhailite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
2+
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.20Yangzhumingite
KMg
 
2.5
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.20Orlovite
KLi
 
2
Ti(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)OF
9.EC.20Oxyphlogopite
K(Mg,Ti,Fe)
 
3
[(Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
](O,F)
 
2
9.EC.25Brammallite
(Na,H
 
3
O)(Al,Mg,Fe)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.30Margarite
CaAl
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Anandite
(Ba,K)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
((Si,Al,Fe)
 
4
O
 
10
)(S,OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Bityite
LiCaAl
 
2
(AlBeSi
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Clintonite
Ca(Mg,Al)
 
3
(Al
 
3
SiO
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn
2+
 
,Al)
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite
(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(O,OH,F)
 
2
9.EC.35Fluorokinoshitalite
BaMg
 
3
(Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)F
 
2
9.EC.40Beidellite
(Na,Ca
 
0.5
)
 
0.3
Al
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.40Kurumsakite
(Zn,Ni,Cu)
 
8
Al
 
8
V
5+
2
Si
 
5
O
 
35
· 27H
 
2
O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite
(Na,Ca)
 
0.33
(Al,Mg)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.40Nontronite
Na
 
0.3
Fe
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.40Volkonskoite
Ca
 
0.3
(Cr,Mg,Fe)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.40Yakhontovite
(Ca,Na)
 
0.5
(Cu,Fe,Mg)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
9.EC.45Hectorite
Na
 
0.3
(Mg,Li)
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
9.EC.45Saponite
Ca
 
0.25
(Mg,Fe)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.45Sauconite
Na
 
0.3
Zn
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.45Spadaite
MgSiO
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite
(Ca,Na)
 
x
Mg
 
3-x
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
9.EC.45Swinefordite
Li(Al,Li,Mg)
 
4
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.45Zincsilite
Zn
 
3
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.45Ferrosaponite
Ca
 
0.3
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
3
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.50Vermiculite
(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
3
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.55Baileychlore
(Zn,Fe,Al,Mg)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Chamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Clinochlore
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Cookeite
(Al
 
2
Li)Al
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Franklinfurnaceite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
 
Mn
2+
3
Mn
3+
 
(Zn
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Gonyerite
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
5
Fe
3+
 
(Fe
3+
 
Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Nimite
(Ni,Mg,Al)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Orthochamosite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,O)
 
8
9.EC.55Pennantite
Mn
2+
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Sudoite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Donbassite
Al
 
4.33
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.55Glagolevite
Na(Mg,Al)
 
6
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH,O)
 
8
9.EC.55Borocookeite
Li
 
1+3x
Al
 
4-x
(BSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
9.EC.60Aliettite
Ca
 
0.2
Mg
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EC.60Corrensite
(Mg,Fe)
 
9
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
10
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.60Dozyite
Mg
 
7
Al
 
2
(Al
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
15
)(OH)
 
12
9.EC.60Hydrobiotite
K(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.60Karpinskite
(Ni,Mg)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
5
(OH)
 
2
(?)
9.EC.60Kulkeite
Mg
 
8
Al(AlSi
 
7
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
10
9.EC.60Lunijianlaite
Li
 
0.7
Al
 
6.2
(AlSi
 
7
O
 
20
)(OH,O)
 
10
9.EC.60Rectorite
(Na,Ca)Al
 
4
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
)(OH)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
9.EC.60Saliotite
(Li,Na)Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
5
9.EC.60Tosudite
Na
 
0.5
(Al,Mg)
 
6
((Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
18
)(OH)
 
12
· 5H
 
2
O
9.EC.60Brinrobertsite
Na
 
0.3
Al
 
4
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 3.5 H
 
2
O
9.EC.65Macaulayite
(Fe,Al)
 
24
Si
 
4
O
 
43
(OH)
 
2
9.EC.70Burckhardtite
Pb
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Mn
3+
 
)Te
4+
 
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
9.EC.75Ferrisurite
(Pb,Ca)
 
2.4
Fe
3+
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
10
)(CO
 
3
)
 
1.7
(OH)
 
3
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.75Surite
(Pb,Ca)
 
3
(Al,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
9.EC.75Niksergievite
(Ba,Ca)
 
2
Al
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
6
· nH
 
2
O
9.EC.80Kegelite
Pb
 
8
Al
 
4
(Si
 
8
O
 
20
)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.21.1Olivine
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.21.2Ringwoodite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
SiO
 
4
14.21.3Wadsleyite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
14.21.4Clinoferrosilite
Fe
2+
 
SiO
 
3
14.21.5Anthophyllite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.21.6Cummingtonite
☐{Mg
 
2
}{Mg
 
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.21.7 Magnesiocummingtonite
14.21.8Grunerite
☐{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
2+
5
}(Si
 
8
O
 
22
)(OH)
 
2
14.21.10Chesterite
(Mg,Fe)
 
17
Si
 
20
O
 
54
(OH)
 
6
14.21.11Jimthompsonite
(Mg,Fe)
 
5
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
2
14.21.12Clinojimthompsonite
(Mg,Fe)
 
5
Si
 
6
O
 
16
(OH)
 
2
14.21.13Majorite
Mg
 
3
(Fe
2+
 
,Si,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
14.21.14Balangeroite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
42
Si
 
16
O
 
54
(OH)
 
40

Other Names for Minnesotaite

Synonyms:
Iron-Talc
Other Languages:
German:Minnesotait
Simplified Chinese:铁滑石
Spanish:Minnesotaita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Minnesotaite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1944): 29: 363-372.

Canadian Mineralogist (1986): 24: 479-497.

Internet Links for Minnesotaite

Search Engines:
  • Look for Minnesotaite on Google
  • Look for Minnesotaite images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Minnesotaite on Webmineral
  • Look for Minnesotaite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Minnesotaite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Minnesotaite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Minnesotaite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Find Minnesotaite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Minnesotaite specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Mineral Classics - Worldwide Collector Quality Minerals and Gems
  • The Arkenstone - Fine Minerals
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Localities for Minnesotaite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Victoria
      • Northern Grampians Shire
        • Stawell
    http://www.earth2006.org.au/papers/extendedpdf/Wilson.pdf#search=%22Magdala%20gold%20deposit%22
    • Western Australia
      • Ashburton Shire
        • Tom Price
    Barley, M.E., Pickard, A.L., Hagemann, S.G., and Folkert, S.L. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 784-789.
      • Cue Shire
        • Madoonga Station
    Gole, M.(1980): Mineralogy and Petrology of Very low Grade Metamorphic Grade Archaean Banded Iron Formations Weld Range Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1980):65:8-25
      • East Pilbara Shire
        • Marillana Station
    Lascelles, D. F. (2006): Econ. Geol. 101, 1359-1376.
      • Yalgoo Shire
        • Mount Gibson Station
    The Mount Gibson Banded Iron Formation-Hosted Magnetite Deposits. Two Distinct Processes for the Origin of High Grade Iron Ore; DF Lascelles; Economic Geology; V101, May 2006, pp 651-666
    Brazil
     
    • Pará
      • Carajás mineral province
        • Parauapebas
    Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Slocan Mining Division
        • Riondel
    Handbook of Mineralogy; Min Rec (1977) 8:34-36; Can Mineral September 1986 v. 24 no. 3 p. 479-497
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Labrador
    C. Klein, and R. P. Fink, 1976, Petrology of the Sokoman Iron Formation in the Howells River area, at the western edge of the Labrador Trough, Economic Geology, v. 71; no. 2; p. 453-487
    C. Klein, and R. P. Fink, 1976, Petrology of the Sokoman Iron Formation in the Howells River area, at the western edge of the Labrador Trough, Economic Geology, v. 71; no. 2; p. 453-487
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Rouyn-Noranda TE
    Galley, A.G., Jonasson, I.R., and Watkinson, D.H. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 619-637.; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:2006-2017
      • Côte-Nord
        • Caniapiscau RCM
    Can Mineral September 1986 v. 24 no. 3 p. 479-497
    Can Mineral September 1986 v. 24 no. 3 p. 479-497; Carl M. Lesher (1978) Mineralogy and petrology of the Sokoman Iron Formation near Ardua Lake, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 15:480-500
    Can Mineral September 1986 v. 24 no. 3 p. 479-497
    China
     
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Xilin Gol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
        • Erenhot Co. (Erlianhaote Co.)
          • Wenduermiao Fe deposit
    Feng Xiancan, Yang Ruiying, Song Guisen, Li Chenggui, and Lu Guojun (1986): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(4), 333-337.
    • Shanxi Province
      • Lüliang Prefecture
        • Lan Co.
    Jinchu Zhu and Fusheng Zhang (1987): Mineral Deposits 6(1), 11-21
    • Sichuan Province
      • Bazhong Prefecture
        • Nanjiang Co.
    Hongbing Hao and Wei Zhang (2001): Acta Geologica Sichuan 21(1), 35-38
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Kittilä
    Paakkola, Juhani 1971. The volcanic complex and associated manganiferous iron formation of the Porkonen-Pahtavaara area in Finnish Lapland. Bulletin de la Commission Géologique de Finlande 247.
    India
     
    • Karnataka
      • Tumkur District
        • Chitradurga belt
    Saravanan, C.S., and Mishra, B. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 597-605.
    Ireland
     
    • Co. Galway
      • Killimor
    Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Cuneo Province
        • Po Valley
          • Monviso
    P. Nisio and J.M. Lardeaux, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 427-437.
    • Sardinia
      • Nuoro Province
        • Gadoni
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Sabelli, C., Ibba, A. (1999): I minerali di Funtana Raminosa. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/1999, 10-27.
    Romania
     
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    South Africa
     
    • North West Province
      • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
    Hammond, N. Q. & Moore, J. M. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 483-503.
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Kalahari manganese field
        • Hotazel
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Murcia
      • Sierra de Cartagena
    Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy
    Sweden
     
    • Västmanland
      • Hällefors
        • Hjulsjö
    Mineralogical Magazine (1985) 49 (353), 611-613
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
    Handbook of Mineralogy
    USA
     
    • Arkansas
      • Garland Co.
        • Wilson Springs (Potash Sulfur Springs)
    Rocks & Min.: 63:108.
    • Massachusetts
      • Essex Co.
    Bozhilov, K. N. & B. W. Evans (2001): Ferroanthophyllite in Rockport grunerite: A transmission electron microscopy study. (American Mineralogist 86(10):1252-1260)
    • Michigan
      • Baraga Co.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
        • Marquette iron range
          • Champion
    Rocks & Min.:58:111 & 61:328.
          • Palmer
    Rocks & Min.:58:111.
          • Republic
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Minnesota
    Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
      • Crow Wing Co.
    Can Min 20 (1982), 579; Am Min 50:148-169
    USGS Prof Paper 407
          • Riverton
    Am Min 50:148-169; Can Mineral September 1986 v. 24 no. 3 p. 479-497
    Econ Geology (1993)88:104-122
      • Itasca Co.
        • Mesabi Range
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • St. Louis Co.
    Can Min 20 (1982), 579
    Can Mineral September 1986 v. 24 no. 3 p. 479-497
    Am Min 29:363-372
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 70-71
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    55TH INSTITUTE ON LAKE SUPERIOR GEOLOGY (2009) PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 55 p. 54-55
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • New Mexico
      • McKinley Co.
        • Grants District
          • Ambrosia Lake area
    NMBMMR Memoir 38 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region 1979
    • Washington
      • Ferry Co.
        • Belcher District
          • Cooke Mountain
    Can Mineral February 1998 v. 36 no. 1 p. 147-162
    • Wisconsin
      • Ashland Co.
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
      • Iron Co.
        • Gogebic Range
    Rocks & Min. Vol. 73 (1998)
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