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Mirabilite

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Formula:
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
· 10H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white; ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:1½ - 2
Name:Based on the phrase "Sal mirabile" used by J.R. Glauber (1603-1668) when he inadvertently formed the artificial compound while working with sulfuric acid and salt.


Quickly dehydrates to thenardite in dry air.

Classification of Mirabilite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/C.21-80
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.CD.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:29.2.2.1

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
2 : A2XO4·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.1.3

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Occurrences of Mirabilite

Geological Setting:Saline lake deposits, playas and springs; as an efflorescence on clayey, alkalic soils; in caves and sheltered spot on recent lavas. Often deposited from saline waters in cold seasons in sea sprays.

Physical Properties of Mirabilite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Opaque
Colour:Colourless, white; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100} perfect; also reported on {001}, {010}, and {011}.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):1.49 g/cm3

Crystallography of Mirabilite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 12.84Å, b = 10.37Å, c = 11.52Å
β = 107.77°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.238 : 1 : 1.111
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,460.71 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals short prismatic [001]. Usually prismatic to acicular [010]; also thin tabular {100} or {001}, or lath-like due to flattening on {100} and elongation parallel to [010] (artificial material). Massive; efflorescences or masses of interlocking fibers; granular; stalactitic.
Twinning:Interpenetration twinning on {001}; also on {100}.
Crystal Atlas:
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Mirabilite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Optical Data of Mirabilite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.396 nβ = 1.410 nγ = 1.419
2V:Measured: 75° , Calculated: 74°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.023

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none

Chemical Properties of Mirabilite

Formula:
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
· 10H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Na2SO4·10H2O
Essential elements:H, Na, O, S
All elements listed in formula:H, Na, O, S

Relationship of Mirabilite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.CD.05Matteuccite
NaHSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.15Lecontite
(NH
 
4
,K)NaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.20Hydroglauberite
Na
 
10
Ca
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
7.CD.25Eugsterite
Na
 
4
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.30Görgeyite
K
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.35Koktaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.35Syngenite
K
 
2
Ca(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.CD.40Gypsum
CaSO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.45Bassanite
CaSO
 
4
· 0.5H
 
2
O
7.CD.50Zircosulfate
(Zr,Ti)(SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
7.CD.55Schieffelinite
Pb
 
8
(TeO
 
4
)
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
· 8H
 
2
O
7.CD.60Montanite
Bi
 
2
(TeO
 
6
) · 2H
 
2
O
7.CD.65Omongwaite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
5
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.1.1Thénardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.2Matteuccite
NaHSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.1.4Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.5Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
25.1.6Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
25.1.7Aphthitalite
(K,Na)
 
3
Na(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.1.8Mascagnite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.9Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.1.10Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Mirabilite

Synonyms:
ExanthaloseGlauber SaltNatürliches BittersalzNatürliches WundersalzReussin
Sal mirabileSulfate of Soda
Other Languages:
Catalan:Mirabilita
French:Sel de Glauber
Soude sulfatée
German:Gediegen Glaubersalz
Glaubersalz
Mirabilit
Italian:Mirabilite
Latin:Alcali minerale vitriolatum
Russian:Мирабилит
Simplified Chinese:芒硝
Spanish:Mirabilita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Mirabilite

Reference List:

- +
Glauber (1658) Tractatus de natura salium (as Sal mirabile).

Bergmann, T. (1782) Sciagraphia regni mineralis (as Alcali minerale vitriolatum).

Reuss (1791) Crell’s Chemical Journal, London: 2: 18 (as Gediegen Glaubersalz).

Lenz, D.G. (1794) Versuch einer vollständigen Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Mineralien. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 1: 489 (as Natürliches Bittersalz).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 40 (as Reussin).

Haidinger, Wm. (1825) Treatise on Mineralogy, by F. Mohs; translation with considerable additions. 3 volumes, Edinburg: 2: 31.

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 475 (as Exanthalose).

Haidinger, Wm. (1845) Handbuch der bestimmenden Mineralogie. Vienna: 488.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 2: 1182.

Zepharovich (1879) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 100.

Trechmann (1901) Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 73.

Rosický (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 473.

Pardillo (1915) Bol. r. soc. española hist. nat.: 15: 153; ...(abstract) Min. Abs. (1920): 1: 78.

Peck (1917) American Mineralogist: 2: 62.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 49.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 111.

Wells (1923) USGS Bulletin 717: 2.

Schaller (1932) USGS Bulletin 833: 81.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 148.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 439-442.

Cocco, G., Rossetti, V. (1959), La cella elementare della mirabilite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 231-232.

Acta Crystallographica (1978): B34: 3502-3510.

Journal of the American Chemical Society: 83: 820-824.

Best Localities for Mirabilite

Best of Species:Mirabilite

Internet Links for Mirabilite

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  • External Links:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Mirabilite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Localities for Mirabilite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Buckley Island quadrangle
    Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
    • Eastern Antarctica
      • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
        • Lützow-Holm Bay
          • East Ongul Island
    Watanuki/ Torii/ Nishiyama/ Morikawa, 1979
      • Victoria Land
    Alfredo Petrov collection (ex- Eugene Carmichael collection, acquired 1981)
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    • Salta
      • Los Andes Department
    Alonso, R.N., 1999. Los salares de la Puna y sus recursos evaporíticos, Jujuy, Salta y Catamarca. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales SEGEMAR, Anales 35:1907-1921.
    VINANTE, D. y ALONSO, R.N.. Evapofacies del Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna argentina: distribucion y genesis. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2006, vol.61, n.2, pp. 286-297
    Peña, Hugo A. (1970): Minerales y rocas de aplicación de la Provincia de Tucumán. Dirección Provincial de Minas. Tucumán. República Argentina.; Hugo A. Peña (1970): Minerales y rocas de aplicación de la Provincia de Tucumán. Secretaría de Estado de Comercio, Industria y Minería. Dirección Provincial de Minas. Tucumán. República Argentina.
      • Burruyacú Department
    J. R. Neder, C. E. Gamundi y R. I. Fernández (1987). Las salinas de El Timbó, mineralogía e importancia económica. Departamento de Burruyacu, provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. 10° Congreso Geológico Argentino, 1: 65-69.
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
      • Simoca Department
    Raúl J. Tauber Larry (2013).
      • Trancas Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Hugo A. Peña (1979) - Minerales y Rocas de Aplicación de la Provincia de Tucumán. Dirección Provincial de Minas. Tucumán.
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Windeyer Co.
    P. Sutton (1982) Mirabilite from south-western N.S.W, The Australian Mineralogist.37: 200. P. Sutton (2004) Minerals from evaporative basins in the Mallee District, Murray Basin, south-eastern Australia. 10:1, 13-28
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Industrieviertel
        • Puchberg am Schneeberg
    Exel, R. (1993): Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs. Eigenverlag R. Exel, 447 pages.
    • Salzburg
      • Abtenau
        • Webing
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Golling
        • Grubach
          • Moosegg
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
      • Hallein
        • Dürrnberg
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441; A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Gastein valley
          • Bad Gastein
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Salzburg
        • Untersberg massif
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Styria
      • Bad Aussee
        • Altaussee
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441; R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Innsbruck
            • Hall
              • Hall valley
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Upper Austria
      • Gmunden
        • Bad Ischl
          • Perneck
    No reference listed
        • Hallstatt
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Kirchdorf an der Krems
        • Spital am Pyhrn
    Collected by Gerhard Brandstetter
    Bolivia
     
    • La Paz Department
      • Loayza Province
    Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
    • Potosí Department
      • Nor Lípez Province
    Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia); Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
        • San Juan
    Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
    Canada
     
    • Nova Scotia
      • Hants Co.
        • Windsor
    Henry How, "On the Occurrence of Natro-Boro-Calcite with Glauber Salt in the Gypsum of Nova Scotia", The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol 6, pg. 54-60, Jul-Oct 1857.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 449.
    China
     
    • Henan Province
      • Puyang Prefecture
    Renwei Li and Maoan Xin (1989): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 7(4), 141-148
    • Hubei Province
      • Xiaogan Prefecture
    Wu Xiang and Zhengyu Bao (1999): Geology and Prospecting 35(3), 36-37, 45
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
        • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 57-59.
    Zhenmin Liu, Boyun Li, Guoqing Liu, and Shaokang Xu (2007): Geology of Chemical Minerals 29(4), 193-201
      • Xilin Gol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
        • East Ujimqin Banner (Dongwuzhumuqin Co.; Dongwu Qi)
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 50-51.
    • Jiangsu Province
      • Huai'an Prefecture
        • Hongze Co.
          • Xishunhe
    Warren, J.K. (2006): Evaporites - Sediments, Resources and Hydrocarbons. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), 1035 pp.
    • Qinghai Province
      • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
    Sun Da-peng, Li Bing-xiao, Ma Yua-hua, and Lin Qun-zhu (2002): Journal of Salt Lake Research 10(4), 1-12.
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
    Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.
    Mianping Zheng (1997): An Introduction to Saline Lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht, NL), 319 pp.
    Dapeng Sun (1991): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 12(4), 57-65; Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.
        • Dulan Co.
    Xiao Ying-kai, Liu Wei-guo, Zhou Yin-min, and Wang Yun-hui (2000): Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 18(2), 169-177.
        • Lenghu Co.
    Mianping Zheng (1997): An Introduction to Saline Lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht, NL), 319 pp.
        • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
    Mianping Zheng (1997): An Introduction to Saline Lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht, NL), 319 pp.
    • Shanxi Province
      • Yuncheng Prefecture
        • Yanhu District
    Li Xia and Li Jingying (1998): Journal of Xi'an Engineering University 20(1).
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Xainza Co. (Shenzha Co.)
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 157-161.
      • Ngari Prefecture
        • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
    Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
    Mienping Zheng and Wengao Liu (1982): Geological Review 28(3), 263-266; Zheng Xiyu (1984): Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 2(2), 218-226; Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 191-195
        • Gêrzê Co. (Gaize Co.)
    Lejun Wei, Mianping Zheng, Xifang Liu, Keqin Cai, and Zhen Nie (2002): Acta Geologica Sinica 76(3), 271-282
      • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
        • Zhongba Co.
    Wen Qi and Mianping Zheng (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 77(2); Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 183-190
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Chenglin Liu, Pengcheng Jiao, Yongzhi Chen, and Mili Wang (2008): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 30(4), 397-404
      • Bo'ertala Autonomous Prefecture (Börtala Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Jinghe Co. (Jing Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Changji Autonomous Prefecture (Sanji Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Fukang Co.
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Barkol Co. (Barköl Co.; Balikun Co.)
    Wei Dongyan, Liu Zhermin, Deng Xiaoling, and Xu Shaokang (1992): Proceedings of the 29th International Geological Congress (Kyoto, August 24 - September 3, 1992).
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
        • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
          • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 100-103.
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Wulumuqi Prefecture (Ürümqi Prefecture; Ürümchi Prefecture)
        • Dabancheng District
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Tacheng Prefecture (Tarbaghatay Prefecture)
          • Hebukesai'er Co. (Hoboksar Co.; Kobuksar Co.; Qobuqsar Co.)
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 137-145.
    • Yunnan Province
      • Kunming Prefecture
        • Anning Co.
          • Anning basin
    Kamitani, M., Okumura, K., Teraoka, Y., Miyano, S., and Watanabe, Y. (2007): Mineral Resources Map of East Asia. Geological Survey of Japan
      • Xishuangbanna Autonomous Prefecture
        • Mengla Co.
    Kamitani, M., Okumura, K., Teraoka, Y., Miyano, S., and Watanabe, Y. (2007): Mineral Resources Map of East Asia. Geological Survey of Japan
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad; Carlsbad)
    Cílek, V., Vylita, T., Filippi, M.: Mineralogie karlovarské vřídelní desky a jejího podloží. Minerál, 2006, 14, 1, 3-10.
      • Ústí Region
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Egypt
     
    • Western Desert
    Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
    France
     
    • Alsace
      • Haut-Rhin
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch)
          • Neuenberg
    Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
        • Tarascon-sur-Ariège
          • Arignac
    D. DESCOUENS (1984) - Les Mines de gypse d'Arnave et Arignac - Monde et Minéraux, 62, pp 16-17
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Lüneburg
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Mecklenburg-West Pomerania
      • Neubrandenburg
        • Friedland
    A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Saarland
      • Saarlouis
        • Rammelfangen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Halle
        • Teutschenthal
    Witzke, T. & Denk, M. (2011): Eine temporäre Mirabilit-Mineralisation bei Teutschenthal, Sachsen-Anhalt. Aufschluss 62, 353-360.
    • Saxony
      • Dresden
    Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Rudabányai Mtns
        • Alsótelekes
    www.minerals- of-the- carpathians.eu (Editor:Szakáll)
    • Nógrád Co.
      • Cserhát Mtns
    Geoda - Journal of the Hungarian Friends of Minerals, 2007 august.
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    Sinno R. – (1957) Trona, thenardite e mirabilite nei Campi Flegrei. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 1-12.
    • Sicily
      • Agrigento Province
        • Agrigento (Girgenti)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
          • Mt Etna
    www.cse.speleo.it
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
            • Vulcano Island
    COSSA A. (1878): Ricerche chimiche su minerali e rocce dell’Isola di Vulcano - Memorie R. Acc. Naz. Lincei – serie 3 – 2, 14 pp.
    • Tuscany
      • Siena Province
        • Chiusdino
    Mineralogical Record, 15 (1), 27-36.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Tohoku region
        • Akita prefecture
          • Odate
    Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Vakinankaratra Region
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
        • Santa Eulalia District
          • East Camp
    Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
    Netherlands
     
    • Limburg
      • Brunssum
    T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Bay of Plenty
    R.MARTIN, K.A.RODGERS, P.R.L.BROWNE The nature and significance of sulphate-rich, aluminous efflorescences from the Te Kopia geothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine, June 1999, Vol. 63(3), pp. 413-419
      • Waikato
        • Taupo
          • Orakeikorako Thermal Area
    Rod Martin, Minerals of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako, Taupo Volcanic Zone. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
    Norway
     
    • Buskerud
      • Kongsberg
        • Kongsberg Silver Mining District
          • Overberget Mining Field
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68. p. 111
    Nordrum, F.S.(1995): Mineralfunn på Kongsberg etter nedleggelsen av Sølvverket. Bergverksmuseets skrift nr 9 ,42-47
    • Nordland
      • Ballangen
        • Råna
    Bøe, P. (1998): Utfellinger av natriumsulfatene mirabilitt og thenarditt i Ballangen, Ofoten, knyttet til Rånagabbroen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 64-68
    Poland
     
    • Małopolskie
      • Wieliczka
    Wiewiórka J. 1972: Wtórny mirabilit z Wieliczki. Spraw. z Pos. Kom. PAN Oddz. w Krakowie T. 15/1
    Romania
     
    • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
      • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
    • Brăila Co.
      • Brăila
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Russia
     
    • Central Region
      • Moscow Oblast' (Moskovskaya Oblast')
    Pekin, A. (2011) Minerals of Moscow. Russian Journal of General Chemistry. Jun2011, Vol. 81 Issue 6, p1381-1391.
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    • Volga Region
      • Astrakhan' Oblast'
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Detva Co.
        • Vígľašská Huta - Kalinka
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    Spain
     
    • La Rioja
    No reference listed
    • Madrid
      • Ciempozuelos
    - González del Tánago, Ch. and González del Tánago, J. (2002). Minerales y minas de Madrid
    John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268,
    Switzerland
     
    • Aargau
      • Birmenstorf
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 277.
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Bex
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 277.
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Khatlon
      • Kuljabskij Raion (Kulyabskaya)
        • Kamysh-Kurgan
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Turkey
     
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Ankara Province
    Ortı́, F., Gündogan, I., & Helvaci, C. (2002). Sodium sulphate deposits of Neogene age: the Kirmir formation, Beypazari basin, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 146(3), 305-333.
      • Niğde Province
    Altay, T., Karakaya, M.Ç., and Murat, A. (2010): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2010.
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Balkan Province
    John K. Warren, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 98, Issues 3–4, February 2010, Pages 217-268, ; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 449.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cumbria
        • South Eastern Region (Westmorland)
          • Vale of Eden
    [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Krasnoperekopsk Area
    Geologiya SSSR. Poleznye iskopaemye (The geology of USSR. Commercial mineral) - Nedra (Moscou), 1974, vol. VIII, 205 p.
    Geologiya SSSR. Poleznye iskopaemye (The geology of USSR. Commercial mineral)- Nedra (Moscou), 1974, vol. VIII, 205 p.
    • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
      • Drohobych
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 443.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Camp Verde District
    [MinRec 14:90]
    MRDS database Dep. ID #10062403, MRDS ID #TC35800.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300, 395; Guild, F.N. (1910), Mineralogy of Arizona; Silliman, B. (1881), Mineralogical Notes, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 22:198-205; Blake, W.P. (1890), Mineralogical notes, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 39:43-45; Peirce, H.W. (1969), Salines, in Mineral and water resources of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 180: 417-424; Thompson, J.R. (1983), Camp Verde evaporites, Min.Rec.: 14:85-90; Univ. of AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 45; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 59.
    • California
      • Imperial Co.
        • Bertram
          • Bertram siding
    Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1954), Salines in southern California: California Division Mines Bulletin 170, ch. VIII: 5-14; Morton, Paul K. (1977), Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California, County Report 7, California Division of Mines and Geology: 84-85.
    Tucker, W. Burling (1924a), Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 20: 87; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
      • Inyo Co.
        • Deep Springs Valley
        • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
          • Ryan
    Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
        • Owens Valley
          • Olancha
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
      • Kern Co.
        • Kramer District
          • Boron
    Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 165, 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280.
    Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1074; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 38; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
      • Mono Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
      • Napa Co.
        • Knoxville District
          • Knoxville
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Graeff, F.W. (1910), Nitrate deposits of southern California: Engineering & Mining Journal: 90: 173; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
    De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 534; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 30; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
      • San Luis Obispo Co.
        • Carrizo Plain
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
          • Soda Lake area
    Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914e), Sodium sulphate in the Carrizo Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California: USGS Bulletin 540: 428-433; Franke, Herbert A. (1935a), Mines and mineral resources of San Luis Obispo County, California: California Division Mines Report 31: 455; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280.
    • Colorado
      • Clear Creek Co.
        • Georgetown District
          • Illinois Mine
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Delta Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • El Paso Co.
        • Manitou District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Evergreen District (Malachite District)
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Mesa Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Teller Co.
        • Cripple Creek District
          • Anaconda
    Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185
    Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185
    • Hawaii
      • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
        • Kau Desert
    www.routledge-ny.com/ref/caves/hawaii.pdf
    Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
    Anderson (1994) Kentucky Geol. Survey Ser. XI Spec. Pub 20
      • Edmonson Co.
        • Mammoth Cave National Park
    • Michigan
      • Dickinson Co.
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Houghton Co.
        • Houghton
    Rocks & Min.:58:109.
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Soda Lake District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441; NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada.
      • Clark Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441; Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
        • Muddy Mts
          • Muddy Mountains District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lyon Co.
        • Mason Valley
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441; NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada.
      • Mineral Co.
    NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
      • Pershing Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    • New Mexico
      • Catron Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Doña Ana Co.
        • White Sands National Monument
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • Eddy Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Otero Co.
    2008 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
        • Tularosa District
          • Valmont
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
      • Torrance Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    • North Dakota
      • Divide Co.
        • Alkabo
    https://www.dmr.nd.gov/ndgs/Mineral/nd_saltnew.asp
    https://www.dmr.nd.gov/ndgs/Mineral/nd_saltnew.asp
      • Mountrail Co.
        • Palermo
    Geology of Mountrail County, North Dakota. Bulletin (North Dakota Geological Survey) ;, 55, pt. 4.
    Geology of Mountrail County, North Dakota. Bulletin (North Dakota Geological Survey) ;, 55, pt. 4.
    • Pennsylvania
    www.libraries.psu.edu/emsl/guides/X/delaware.htm.
    • South Dakota
      • Custer Co.
    http://windcave.areaparks.com/parkinfo.html?pid=17374
    • Utah
      • Box Elder Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
          • South Arm
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Davis Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Salt Lake Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Tooele Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Washington
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441; www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
        • Oroville District
          • Oroville
    No reference listed
    • Wyoming
      • Albany Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
    Osterwald, F. W. and D. B. Osterwald (1952) Wyoming Mineral Resources. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 45
    Osterwald, F. W. and D. B. Osterwald (1952) Wyoming Mineral Resources. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 45
    Osterwald, F. W. and D. B. Osterwald (1952) Wyoming Mineral Resources. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 45
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.; Osterwald, F. W. and D. B. Osterwald (1952) Wyoming Mineral Resources. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 45
      • Carbon Co.
    Osterwald, F. W. and D. B. Osterwald (1952) Wyoming Mineral Resources. Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin 45
      • Natrona Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
        • Sweetwater Valley
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 441.
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