Mindat Logo

Monazite-(Ce)

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.



Formula:
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO
 
4
)
System:MonoclinicColour:Commonly reddish brown ...
Hardness:5 - 5½
Member of:Monazite Group
Name:Named in 1829 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt from the Greek μουάζω "to be solitary" in allusion to the rarity of its presence in the first known localities. The suffix "Ce" conforms to the Levinson Rulle for rare earth minerals, for the cerium dominant member of the Monazite series.


Monazite Group

The overwhelmingly most common member of the monazite group. Monazite-(Ce) widely distributed mineral as an accessory in granitic igneous rocks and gneissic metamorphic rocks, and in detrital sands derived from them.

Classification of Monazite-(Ce)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/A.15-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.AD.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:38.4.3.1

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
4 : AXO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.9.3

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-2751.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Monazite-(Ce)

Type Locality:Ilmen Natural Reserve, Ilmen Mts, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Southern Urals, Urals Region, Russia
General Appearance of Type Material:Red to red-brown tabular crystals
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 19539
Year of Discovery:1829
Geological Setting of type material:Originally described from a "quartz-leeren Zirkon Granits", which could be the same as a syenite pegmatite.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
ZirconIlmenite

Occurrences of Monazite-(Ce)

Geological Setting:Pegmatites of various kinds associated with granitic or syenitic igneous rocks.

Physical Properties of Monazite-(Ce)

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Commonly reddish brown to brown; shades of green to brown, yellow brown, rarely nearly white; yellow, colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White, faintly coloured.
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 5½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
On {100}, distinct; on {010}, difficult; also on {110}, {101}, and {011}, indistinct as observed at times.
Parting:Well-marked frequently present on {001}; on {111}, rare.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):5 - 5.5 g/cm3
Density (calculated):5.26 g/cm3
Comment:Density increases with an increase in the Th content (to 5.4).

Crystallography of Monazite-(Ce)

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Cell Parameters:a = 6.7902(10) Å, b = 7.0203(6) Å, c = 6.4674(7) Å
β = 103.6°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.967 : 1 : 0.921
Unit Cell Volume:V 299.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals usually small but may be large and coarse at times. Frequently flattened {100} or elongate [010]; prismatic by extension of {111} at times; equant, or wedge-shaped by the large development of {100} and {111}. Crystal faces commonly rough, striated or uneven.
Twinning:On {100}, common; cruciform at times. Also on {001}, lamellar, rare. Doubtfully reported on {201} and {_902}.
Comment:P11/n
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.285 (35)
3.078 (80)
2.862 (100)
2.151 (40)
1.963 (50)
1.876 (30)
1.738 (40b)

Optical Data of Monazite-(Ce)

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.770 - 1.793 nβ = 1.778 - 1.800 nγ = 1.823 - 1.860
2V:Measured: 10° to 26°, Calculated: 18° to 24°
Birefringence:0.060
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.053 - 0.067

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v or r < v, weak
Optical Extinction:X=b, Z^c = 2° - 6°
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:Faint to imperceptible. In pale yellows.

Chemical Properties of Monazite-(Ce)

Formula:
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO
 
4
)
Simplified for copy/paste:(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO4)
Essential elements:Ce, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Ce, La, Nd, O, P, Th

Relationship of Monazite-(Ce) to other Species

Member of:Monazite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Cheralite
(Ca,Ce)(Th,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
Gasparite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)(AsO
 
4
)
Monazite
Monazite-(La)
(La,Ce,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
Monazite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
Monazite-(Sm)
(Sm,Gd,Ce,Th)(PO
 
4
)
Rooseveltite
Bi(AsO
 
4
)
Turnerite
Unnamed (Gd-dominant monazite)
((Gd,Y,Dy,Sm,Nd),Th,Ca)PO
 
4
Common Associates:
ZirconXenotime-(Y)Samarskite-(Y)MagnetiteIlmenite
GadoliniteFergusoniteColumbite-TantaliteApatite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.AD.05Nahpoite
Na
 
2
HPO
 
4
8.AD.10Monetite
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
8.AD.10Weilite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
)
8.AD.10Švenekite
Ca(H
 
2
AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AD.15Archerite
(K,NH
 
4
)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
8.AD.15Biphosphammite
(NH
 
4
,K)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
8.AD.20Phosphammite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
8.AD.25Buchwaldite
NaCa(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.30Schultenite
Pb(HAsO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)
Y(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Dreyerite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)
Ce(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)
Y(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Y)
Y(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Pretulite
Sc(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,HREE)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)
La(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.40Pucherite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.45Ximengite
Bi(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Gasparite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(La)
(La,Ce,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Rooseveltite
Bi(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Cheralite
(Ca,Ce)(Th,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)
(Sm,Gd,Ce,Th)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50UM2005-35-VO:CaFePSiTh
(Th,Ca)(VO
 
4
,SiO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
8.AD.55Tetrarooseveltite
Bi(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.60Chursinite
(Hg
+
2
)
 
0.5
Hg
2+
 
(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.65Clinobisvanite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.9.1Xenotime-(Y)
Y(PO
 
4
)
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)
Y(PO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
19.9.4Monazite-(La)
(La,Ce,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.5Monazite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)
(La,Ce)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)
(Nd,Ce,La)(PO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)
Na
 
3
(Ce,La,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.9.10Florencite-(Ce)
CeAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.11Florencite-(La)
LaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.12Florencite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
19.9.13Kolbeckite
ScPO
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Monazite-(Ce)

Synonyms:
CryptoliteEdwardsite (of Shepard)EremiteKorarfveiteMengite (of Brooke)
Phosphocerite
Other Languages:
German:Edwardsit
Edwarsit
Karafveit
Kryptolith
Kularit
Monazit-(Ce)
Monazitoid
Russian:Монацит-(Ce)
Simplified Chinese:铈独居石
Spanish:Edwardsita
Kularita
Swedish:Kårarfveit
Traditional Chinese:鈰獨居石
Varieties:
KulariteSilicomonaziteTurnerite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Magnetism:Paramagnetic
Other Information:Slowly decomposed by acids.
Dull brown cathodoluminescence.
Health Warning:Radioactive if rich in thorium or uranium.
Industrial Uses:Ore of the rare earth elements.

References for Monazite-(Ce)

Reference List:

- +
Lévy (1823) Annals of Philosophy, London: 5: 241 (as Turnerite).

Breithaupt, August (1829) Ueber den Monazit, eine neue Specie des Mineral-Reichs, Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 55: 301-303 (as Monazite).

Brooke, Henry (1831) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 10: 139 (as Mengite).

Shepard, Charles U. (1837) American Journal of Science: 32: 162 (as Edwardsite).

Shepard, Charles (1837) American Journal of Science: 32: 341 (as Eremite).

Wöhler, Friedrich (1846) Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, Göttingen: 19 (as Kryptolith).

Hermann (1847) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 40: 21 (as Monazitoid).

Watts (1849) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 2: 131.

Forbes and Dahll (1855) Nytt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, Oslo: 8: 227 (as Urdit).

Radominski (1874) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 78: 764 (as Kårarfveit).

Dana, Edward S. (1882) American Journal of Science: 24: 247.

Goldschmidt, Victor (1890) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes : vol. 2, 542pp.: 399.

Dana, Edward S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 749.

Ramsay and Zilliacus (1897) Ofv. Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, Helsingfors (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae; Suomen Tiedesura), Förh.: 39.

Schetelig (1913) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 2, no. 9.

Busz (1914) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 39: 492.

Doelter, C. (1914) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3[1]: 546.

Johnstone (1914) Journal of the Society Chem. Ind.: 33: 55.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 51.

Shibata and Kimura (1921) Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan: 42: 957.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 298.

Pisani analysis in: Lacroix, Alfred (1922)

Minéralogie de Madagascar, Paris. 3 volumes: volume 1: 351.

Hintze, Carl (1923) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 368.

Niggli and Faesy (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 62: 557.

Ellsworth (1932) American Mineralogist: 17: 19.

Bearth (1936) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 14: 442.

Thoreau, Breckpot, and Vaes (1936) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels, Bull.: 22[5]: 1111.

Zemel (1936) Journal of Applied Chemistry, Leningrad: 9: 1969.

Parker (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 572.

Gliszczynski (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 101: 1.

Gordon (1939) Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Notulae Naturae: no. 2.

Parrish (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 651.

Sahama and Vähätalo (1941) C.r. soc. géol. Finlande, no. 14: 50.

Sarkar (1941) Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science: 13: section A: 245.

Mawson (1944) Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia: 68: 3354.

Hutton (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 141.

Holmes (1948) Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 63: 115.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 691-696 (as Monazite).

Mineralogical Magazine (1980): 43: 1031.

Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal (1988): 10: 37.

Demartin, F., Pilati, T., Diella, V., Donzelli, S., Gramaccioli, C.M. (1991): Alpine monazite: further data. Can. Mineral., 29, 61-67.

American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 21-26.

Nicolas Clavier, Renaud Podor, Nicolas Dacheux (2011): Crystal chemistry of the monazite structure. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 31, 941-976.

Ruschel, K., Nasdala, L., Kronz, A., Hanchar, J.M., Többens, D.M., Škoda, R., Finger, F.& Möller, A. (2012): A Raman spectroscopic study on the structural disorder of monazite–(Ce). Mineralogy and Petrology, 105, 41-55.

Internet Links for Monazite-(Ce)

Search Engines:
  • Look for Monazite-(Ce) on Google
  • Look for Monazite-(Ce) images on Google
  • External Links:
  • Look for Monazite-(Ce) on Webmineral
  • Look for Monazite-(Ce) on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Monazite-(Ce) on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Monazite-(Ce) details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
  • Monazite-(Ce) specimens for sale - minfind.com
  • Fine and rare minerals from mintreasure.com
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Top quality minerals from Kristalle of California
  • Fine minerals from bisbeeborn.com
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • rare and unusual minerals mainly crystallized
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
  • High-end worldwide specimens & outstanding customer service
  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • Specimens:The following Monazite-(Ce) specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Monazite-(Ce)

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    Mineral and/or Locality  
    Search Google  
    Copyright © Jolyon Ralph and Ida Chau 1993-2014. Site Map. Locality, mineral & photograph data are the copyright of the individuals who submitted them. Site hosted & developed by Jolyon Ralph. Mindat.org is an online information resource dedicated to providing free mineralogical information to all. Mindat relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters. Mindat does not offer minerals for sale. If you would like to add information to improve the quality of our database, then click here to register.
    Current server date and time: October 3, 2014 17:14:42
    Mineral and Locality Search
    Mineral:
    and/or Locality:
    Options
    Fade toolbar when not in focusFix toolbar to bottom of page
    Hide Social Media Links
    Slideshow frame delay seconds