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Monazite-(Ce)

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Formula:
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO4)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Commonly reddish brown ...
Hardness:
5 - 5½
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1829 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt from the Greek μουάζω "to be solitary" in allusion to the rarity of its presence in the first known localities. The suffix "Ce" conforms to the Levinson Rulle for rare earth minerals, for the cerium dominant member of the Monazite series.
Monazite Group

The overwhelmingly most common member of the monazite group. Monazite-(Ce) widely distributed mineral as an accessory in granitic igneous rocks and gneissic metamorphic rocks, and in detrital sands derived from them.

Classification of Monazite-(Ce)

Approved
8.AD.50

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
38.4.3.1

38 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
4 : AXO4
19.9.3

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc
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Type Occurrence of Monazite-(Ce)

General Appearance of Type Material:
Red to red-brown tabular crystals
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 19539
Year of Discovery:
1829
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Originally described from a "quartz-leeren Zirkon Granits", which could be the same as a syenite pegmatite.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Occurrences of Monazite-(Ce)

Geological Setting:
Pegmatites of various kinds associated with granitic or syenitic igneous rocks.

Physical Properties of Monazite-(Ce)

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Commonly reddish brown to brown; shades of green to brown, yellow brown, rarely nearly white; yellow, colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White, faintly coloured.
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 5½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {100}, distinct; on {010}, difficult; also on {110}, {101}, and {011}, indistinct as observed at times.
Parting:
Well-marked frequently present on {001}; on {111}, rare.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
5 - 5.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.26 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Density increases with an increase in the Th content (to 5.4).

Crystallography of Monazite-(Ce)

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.7902(10) Å, b = 7.0203(6) Å, c = 6.4674(7) Å
β = 103.6°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.967 : 1 : 0.921
Unit Cell Volume:
V 299.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals usually small but may be large and coarse at times. Frequently flattened {100} or elongate [010]; prismatic by extension of {111} at times; equant, or wedge-shaped by the large development of {100} and {111}. Crystal faces commonly rough, striated or uneven.
Twinning:
On {100}, common; cruciform at times. Also on {001}, lamellar, rare. Doubtfully reported on {201} and {_902}.
Comment:
P11/n
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.285 (35)
3.078 (80)
2.862 (100)
2.151 (40)
1.963 (50)
1.876 (30)
1.738 (40b)

Optical Data of Monazite-(Ce)

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.770 - 1.793 nβ = 1.778 - 1.800 nγ = 1.823 - 1.860
2V:
Measured: 10° to 26°, Calculated: 18° to 24°
Birefringence:
0.060
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.053 - 0.067
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v or r < v, weak
Optical Extinction:
X=b, Z^c = 2° - 6°
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Faint to imperceptible. In pale yellows.

Chemical Properties of Monazite-(Ce)

Formula:
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO4)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Monazite-(Ce) to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Cheralite(Ca,Ce)(Th,Ce)(PO4)2
Gasparite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)(AsO4)
Monazite
Monazite-(La)(La,Ce,Nd)(PO4)
Monazite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)(PO4)
Monazite-(Sm)(Sm,Gd,Ce,Th)(PO4)
RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
Turnerite
Unnamed (Gd-dominant monazite)((Gd,Y,Dy,Sm,Nd),Th,Ca)PO4
8.AD.05NahpoiteNa2HPO4
8.AD.10MonetiteCa(HPO4)
8.AD.10WeiliteCa(HAsO4)
8.AD.10ŠvenekiteCa(H2AsO4)2
8.AD.15Archerite(K,NH4)(H2PO4)
8.AD.15Biphosphammite(NH4,K)(H2PO4)
8.AD.20Phosphammite(NH4)2(HPO4)
8.AD.25BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)
8.AD.30SchultenitePb(HAsO4)
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)Y(AsO4)
8.AD.35DreyeriteBi(VO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)Ce(VO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)Y(VO4)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
8.AD.35PretuliteSc(PO4)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Yb)(Yb,Y,HREE)(PO4)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)La(VO4)
8.AD.40PucheriteBi(VO4)
8.AD.45XimengiteBi(PO4)
8.AD.50Gasparite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)(AsO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(La)(La,Ce,Nd)(PO4)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)(PO4)
8.AD.50RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
8.AD.50Cheralite(Ca,Ce)(Th,Ce)(PO4)2
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)(Sm,Gd,Ce,Th)(PO4)
8.AD.50UM2005-35-VO:CaFePSiTh(Th,Ca)(VO4,SiO4,PO4)
8.AD.55TetrarooseveltiteBi(AsO4)
8.AD.60Chursinite(Hg2+)0.5Hg2+(AsO4)
8.AD.65ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)
19.9.1Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
19.9.4Monazite-(La)(La,Ce,Nd)(PO4)
19.9.5Monazite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)(PO4)
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)(Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2O
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)Na3(Ce,La,Nd)(PO4)2
19.9.10Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.11Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.12Florencite-(Nd)(Nd,La,Ce)Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
19.9.13KolbeckiteScPO4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Monazite-(Ce)

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Magnetism:
Paramagnetic
Other Information:
Slowly decomposed by acids.
Dull brown cathodoluminescence.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of the rare earth elements.

References for Monazite-(Ce)

Reference List:
Lévy (1823) Annals of Philosophy, London: 5: 241 (as Turnerite).

Breithaupt, August (1829) Ueber den Monazit, eine neue Specie des Mineral-Reichs, Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 55: 301-303 (as Monazite).

Brooke, Henry (1831) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 10: 139 (as Mengite).

Shepard, Charles U. (1837) American Journal of Science: 32: 162 (as Edwardsite).

Shepard, Charles (1837) American Journal of Science: 32: 341 (as Eremite).

Wöhler, Friedrich (1846) Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, Göttingen: 19 (as Kryptolith).

Hermann (1847) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 40: 21 (as Monazitoid).

Watts (1849) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 2: 131.

Forbes and Dahll (1855) Nytt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, Oslo: 8: 227 (as Urdit).

Radominski (1874) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 78: 764 (as Kårarfveit).

Dana, Edward S. (1882) American Journal of Science: 24: 247.

Goldschmidt, Victor (1890) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes : vol. 2, 542pp.: 399.

Dana, Edward S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 749.

Ramsay and Zilliacus (1897) Ofv. Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, Helsingfors (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae; Suomen Tiedesura), Förh.: 39.

Schetelig (1913) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 2, no. 9.

Busz (1914) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 39: 492.

Doelter, C. (1914) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3[1]: 546.

Johnstone (1914) Journal of the Society Chem. Ind.: 33: 55.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 51.

Shibata and Kimura (1921) Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan: 42: 957.

Hintze, Carl (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 298.

Pisani analysis in: Lacroix, Alfred (1922)

Minéralogie de Madagascar, Paris. 3 volumes: volume 1: 351.

Hintze, Carl (1923) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 368.

Niggli and Faesy (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 62: 557.

Ellsworth (1932) American Mineralogist: 17: 19.

Bearth (1936) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 14: 442.

Thoreau, Breckpot, and Vaes (1936) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels, Bull.: 22[5]: 1111.

Zemel (1936) Journal of Applied Chemistry, Leningrad: 9: 1969.

Parker (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 572.

Gliszczynski (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 101: 1.

Gordon (1939) Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Notulae Naturae: no. 2.

Parrish (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 651.

Sahama and Vähätalo (1941) C.r. soc. géol. Finlande, no. 14: 50.

Sarkar (1941) Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science: 13: section A: 245.

Mawson (1944) Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia: 68: 3354.

Hutton (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 141.

Holmes (1948) Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 63: 115.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 691-696 (as Monazite).

Mineralogical Magazine (1980): 43: 1031.

Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal (1988): 10: 37.

Demartin, F., Pilati, T., Diella, V., Donzelli, S., Gramaccioli, C.M. (1991): Alpine monazite: further data. Can. Mineral., 29, 61-67.

American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 21-26.

Nicolas Clavier, Renaud Podor, Nicolas Dacheux (2011): Crystal chemistry of the monazite structure. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 31, 941-976.

Ruschel, K., Nasdala, L., Kronz, A., Hanchar, J.M., Többens, D.M., Škoda, R., Finger, F.& Möller, A. (2012): A Raman spectroscopic study on the structural disorder of monazite–(Ce). Mineralogy and Petrology, 105, 41-55.

Internet Links for Monazite-(Ce)

Specimens:
The following Monazite-(Ce) specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Monazite-(Ce)

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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