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Monetite

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Formula:
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
System:TriclinicColour:White, yellow or ...
Hardness:
Name:Named by Charles Upham Shepard in 1882 for the type locality: Moneto Island, near Puerto Rico, Caribbean, one of the two islands where it was initially found. [Locality sometimes given as Moneta Island.]
This page provides mineralogical data about Monetite.

Classification of Monetite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/A.12-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.AD.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 7th edition ID:37.1.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:37.1.1.1

37 : ANHYDROUS ACID PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES AND VANADATES
1 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.4.1

19 : Phosphates
4 : Phosphates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Monetite

Type Locality:Monito Island (Moneta Island; Muna Muna Island), Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Year of Discovery:1882
Geological Setting of type material:Formed by the interaction of bird guano in a limestone cave.

Physical Properties of Monetite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Comment:Formerly given inaccurately as vitreous
Colour:White, yellow or colorless; colorless in transmitted light.
Streak:Colorless to white
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
On three unspecified planes.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):2.929 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.924 g/cm3
Comment:Measured value on artificial material.

Crystallography of Monetite

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Cell Parameters:a = 6.91Å, b = 6.627Å, c = 6.998Å
α = 96.34°, β = 103.82°, γ = 88.33°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.043 : 1 : 1.056
Unit Cell Volume:V 309.28 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Minute crystals forming massive aggregates; crusts, stalactites with rough crystalline surfaces. Crystals have rough surfaces and are frequently configured in interpenetrating groups; commonly flattened {010} with a rhombohedral outline.
Comment:AC(B) 33:1223 (1977), also JCPDS 9-80 (synthetic)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.37 (70)
3.35 (80)
3.13 (20)
2.96 (100)
2.94 (40)
2.75 (20)
2.72 (40)
1.850 (20)
Comments:JCPDS 9-80 (synthetic)

Optical Data of Monetite

Type:Biaxial (+/-)
RI values: nα = 1.587 - 1.600 nβ = 1.615 nγ = 1.631 - 1.640
2V:Measured: 70° , Calculated: 74°
Birefringence:0.043
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.044

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r > v strong
Optical Extinction:Inclined

Chemical Properties of Monetite

Formula:
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca(HPO4)
Essential elements:Ca, H, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Ca, H, O, P

Relationship of Monetite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.AD.05Nahpoite
Na
 
2
HPO
 
4
8.AD.10Weilite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
)
8.AD.10Švenekite
Ca(H
 
2
AsO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AD.15Archerite
(K,NH
 
4
)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
8.AD.15Biphosphammite
(NH
 
4
,K)(H
 
2
PO
 
4
)
8.AD.20Phosphammite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
8.AD.25Buchwaldite
NaCa(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.30Schultenite
Pb(HAsO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)
Y(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Dreyerite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)
Ce(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)
Y(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Y)
Y(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Pretulite
Sc(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Yb)
(Yb,Y,HREE)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)
La(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.40Pucherite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
8.AD.45Ximengite
Bi(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Gasparite-(Ce)
(Ce,REE)(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd,Th)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(La)
(La,Ce,Nd)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Monazite-(Nd)
(Nd,La,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Rooseveltite
Bi(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.50Cheralite
(Ca,Ce)(Th,Ce)(PO
 
4
)
 
2
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)
(Sm,Gd,Ce,Th)(PO
 
4
)
8.AD.50UM2005-35-VO:CaFePSiTh
(Th,Ca)(VO
 
4
,SiO
 
4
,PO
 
4
)
8.AD.55Tetrarooseveltite
Bi(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.60Chursinite
(Hg
+
2
)
 
0.5
Hg
2+
 
(AsO
 
4
)
8.AD.65Clinobisvanite
Bi(VO
 
4
)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.4.2Hydroxylapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
19.4.3Brushite
Ca(HPO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
19.4.4Isoclasite
Ca
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.4.5Buchwaldite
NaCa(PO
 
4
)
19.4.6Canaphite
Na
 
2
Ca(P
 
2
O
 
7
) · 4H
 
2
O
19.4.7Mundrabillaite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Ca(HPO
 
4
)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.4.8Whitlockite
Ca
 
9
Mg(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(HPO
 
4
)
19.4.9Brianite
Na
 
2
CaMg(PO
 
4
)
 
2
19.4.10Petersite-(Y)
(Y,Ce,Nd)Cu
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
37.1.1.2Weilite
Ca(HAsO
 
4
)

Other Names for Monetite

Synonyms:
Chavesite
Other Languages:
German:Monetit
Russian:Монетит
Spanish:Monetita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Other Information:Powdered material takes up water from the atmosphere and forms Brushite.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Monetite

Reference List:

- +
Shepard (1856) American Journal of Science 22: 96 (as Glaubapatite, in part).

Shepard (1882) American Journal of Science: 23: 400.

de Schulten (1901) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 24: 332.

de Schulten (1904) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 27: 120.

Willbourn (1925) Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society: 3, Pt. 3: 57.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 111.

Hill and Hendricks (1936) Ind. Eng. Chem.: 38: 440.

Frondel (1943) American Mineralogist: 28: 215.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 660-661.

American Mineralogist, 1958, v.43, 1148.

Materials Research Bulletin, 1970, v. 5, p. 437.

Acta Crystallographica (1977): B33: 1223-1229.

Internet Links for Monetite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Monetite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Monetite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
    Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
    Greece
     
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
    Skarpelis, N. and Argyraki, A. (2009): The geology and origin of supergene ores in Lavrion (Attica, Greece). Resource Geology, 59, 1-14.
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Aggteleki Mtns
        • Aggtelek
    Kiribati
     
    Dana's New Mineralogy, 1997, Gaines, et al.
    Dana's New Mineralogy, 1997, Gaines, et al.
    Malaysia
     
    • Borneo Island
      • Sarawak
    Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
      • Karibib District
        • Usakos
    Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 409 (in English).
    U. Kolitsch (single-crystal X-ray diffraction)
    Puerto Rico
     
    • Mayaguez
    Shepard (1882) American Journal of Science, ser. 3: 23, 400-405; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 661.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 661.
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
    Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
    Saint Helena
     
    American Mineralogist 28:215-232
    USA
     
    • California
      • Mono Co.
        • Mono Lake
    Cohen, L.H. & P.H. Ribbe (1966), Magnesium phosphate mineral replacdement at Mono Lake California: American Mineralogist: 51: 1755-1765; Ribbe, P.H. and Cohen, L. (1966) Newberyite and monetite from Paoha Island, Mono Lake, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 19: 46; Cooper, J.F. & G.E. Dunning (1969), Struvite found at Mono Lake: California Division Mines & Geol. Min. Info Svc.: 22: 44-45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 314.
    • Hawaii
      • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
    Giorgio Bortolozzi collection
    Venezuela
     
    • Dependencias Federales
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 661.; American Mineralogist 28:215-232
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