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Aphthitalite

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Formula:
(K,Na)
 
3
Na(SO
 
4
)
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless (rare), ...
Hardness:3
Name:From the Greek άφθητος ("aphthitos"), "unalterable", and άλας ("halas"), "salt", in allusion to its stability in air.


Occurs in two widely diversified environments, both as an incrustation in volcanic fumaroles and as a constituent of oceanic and lacustrine salt deposits.

Classification of Aphthitalite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:6/A.08-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.AC.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
Dana 8th edition ID:28.2.2.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
2 : A2XO4
Hey's CIM Ref.:25.1.7

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Type Occurrence of Aphthitalite

Type Locality:Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
Year of Discovery:1835
Geological Setting of type material:Volcanic fumaroles
Associated Minerals at type locality:
ThenarditeSylviteJarositeHematite

Physical Properties of Aphthitalite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Colourless (rare), white, grey, bluish, greenish, reddish; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Imperfect/Fair
On {1010} fair; on {0001} poor.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.656 - 2.71 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.72 g/cm3

Crystallography of Aphthitalite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Cell Parameters:a = 5.67Å, c = 7.33Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.293
Unit Cell Volume:V 204.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals commonly thin to thick tabular with pronounced trigonal development. Distorted pseudo-orthorhombic forms. Bladed aggregates; mammilary; crusts; massive.
Twinning:On {0001} or on {1120}, repeated. Twinned groups on {1120}, similar to aragonite twins.
Crystal Atlas:
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Aphthitalite no.97 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Aphthitalite no.116 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Aphthitalite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.487 - 1.491 nε = 1.492 - 1.499
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.005

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Aphthitalite

Formula:
(K,Na)
 
3
Na(SO
 
4
)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Essential elements:K, Na, O, S
All elements listed in formula:K, Na, O, S

Relationship of Aphthitalite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.AC.05Vanthoffite
Na
 
6
Mg(SO
 
4
)
 
4
7.AC.08Pyracmonite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
Fe(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.10Efremovite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.10Langbeinite
K
 
2
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.10Manganolangbeinite
K
 
2
Mn
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
3
7.AC.15Yavapaiite
KFe(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.15Eldfellite
NaFe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.20Godovikovite
(NH
 
4
)Al(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.20Sabieite
(NH
 
4
)Fe
3+
 
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
7.AC.25Thenardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
7.AC.30Metathenardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
25.1.1Thenardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.2Matteuccite
NaHSO
 
4
· H
 
2
O
25.1.3Mirabilite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
· 10H
 
2
O
25.1.4Arcanite
K
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.5Mercallite
KHSO
 
4
25.1.6Misenite
K
 
8
H
 
6
(SO
 
4
)
 
7
25.1.8Mascagnite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
SO
 
4
25.1.9Letovicite
(NH
 
4
)
 
3
H(SO
 
4
)
 
2
25.1.10Ammonioalunite
(NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6

Other Names for Aphthitalite

Synonyms:
AphtaliteGlaseriteVesuvian Salt
Other Languages:
French:Aphthalose
German:Aftitalit
Aphtalith
Aphthitalith
Aphtitalith
Arcanit (of Haidinger)
Glaserit
Schwefelkalisalz
Italian:Aftalosa
Aftalosia
Aftalosio
Aftitalite
Solfato potassico
Latin:Sal polychrestum Glaseri
Russian:Афтиталит
Spanish:Aftitalita
Aphtalita
Aphthitalita
Glaserita
Varieties:
Ammonium-AphthitaliteCuprian Manganoan Aphthitalite

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in water and in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Aphthitalite

Reference List:

- +
Smithson (1813) Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions: 256 (as Vesuvian Salt).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 477 (as Aphthalose).

Shepard C.U. (1832) Treatise on Mineralogy. First edition: vol. 1, New Haven: 36.

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 676 (as Schwefelkalisalz).

Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 106.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1137 (as Glaserite).

Scacchi, A. (1873): Aftalosa, o Solfato potassico, Note Mineralogiche, Memoria Prima, Napoli, Stamperia del Fibreno, pp 29-39

Bücking (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 561.

Nacken (1907) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 24: 21.

Nacken (1910) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 262.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 41.

Foshag (1920) American Journal of Science: 49: 367.

Washington and Merwin (1921) American Mineralogist: 6: 121.

Zambonini (1921) Rendus comitato geologico d’Italia, Rome, Bollettino: 48(3).

Gossner (1928) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 57: 89.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 3696.

Koechlin (1934) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 256.

Laskiewicz (1934) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 10: 117.

Zambonini, Ferruccio (1935) Mineralogia Vesuviana. Second edition with Quercigh, 463 pp., Naples: 133.

Bianchini (1937) Reale accademia delle scienze fisische e matematiche, Naples, Rend.: [4] 7: 43.

Wells (1937) USGS Bull. 878: 120.

Druzhinin (1938) Academy of Sciences of the USSR Bull., Ser. Chim.: 1141.

Minguzzi (1938) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 9: 359.

Perrier and Bellanca (1940) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 11: 163.

Bellanca (1942) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 13: 21.

Bellanca A.(1944 [1943?]) Sulla struttura dell'aftitalite. . Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma: 14: 67-96.

Bellanca, A. (1946) Ric. sci. e ricostr.: 16: 1254.

Frondel (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 596.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 400-403.

Moore, P.B. (1981) Complex crystal structures related to glaserite, K3Na[SO4]2: evidence for very dense packings among oxysalts. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 104: 536-547.

Egorov-Tismenko, Yu.K., Sokolova, E.V., Smirnova, N.L., and Yamnova, N.A. (1984) The crystal chemistry of the glaserite-type structures. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal, Kiev: 6(6): 3-9 (in Russian).

Acta Crystallographica: B36: 919-921.

Internet Links for Aphthitalite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Aphthitalite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Aphthitalite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
    Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
        • Madura Roadhouse
    Mineralogical Magazine (1977): 41: 33-35.
      • Laverton Shire
        • Lake Rason
    Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39: 346-348.
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Innsbruck
            • Hall
              • Hall valley
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    China
     
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
        • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
    Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
        • Zhongba Co.
    Yong-Sheng Zhang, Mian-Ping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Ling-Zhong Bu (2005): Sea-lake Salt and Chemical Industry [Yanye Yu Huagong] 34(4), 1-5.
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Kivu
      • Goma
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
    France
     
    • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
      • Pas-de-Calais
    Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Fulda
        • Neuhof
    Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
      • Werra valley
        • Heringen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Phillippsthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Celle
        • Hänigsen
    Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
        • Wathlingen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Stassfurt Potash deposit
        • Egeln
          • Westeregeln
    Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
        • Stassfurt
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 447.
    • Thuringia
      • Thuringian Forest
        • Merkers-Kieselbach
    W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
    Iceland
     
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
    Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
      • Surtsey Island
    Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
    Iran
     
    • Qom Province (Ghom Province)
    Rob Lavinsky.
    • Zanjan Province
      • Dandy to Mahneshan road
    Philip Simmons (http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-237193.html)
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
          • Monte Somma
            • Ercolano
              • San Vito
    aphthitalite
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 404, 435.
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Iburi Province
    The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Tony Nikischer specimen
    Norway
     
    • Buskerud
    Hansteen, T.H. & Burke, E.A. (1994): Aphthitalite in high-temperature fluid inclusions in quartz from the Eikeren-Skrim granite complex, the Oslo paleorift. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 74 (4), 238-240
    Peru
     
    • La Libertad Department
      • Trujillo Province
        • Virù
    [var: Ammonium-Aphthitalite] Frondel, C. (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 596. Palache et al (1951) Dana's Sys. Mineralogy, 7th. ed.: 402.
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
        • Aldan Shield
          • Aldan
            • Inagli Massif
    Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Tolbachik volcano
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
              • Second scoria cone
    Zelenski, M.E., Zubkova, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Polekhovsky, Yu.S. & Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2012): Cupromolybdite, Cu3O(MoO4)2, a new fumarolic mineral from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24, 749-757.
    Saudi Arabia
     
    • Mintaqah Makkah
    Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-12, 68 p.
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
    Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278
    Tanzania
     
    • Arusha Region
    Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
    UK
     
    • England
      • Co. Durham
        • Billingham
    Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 172-175.
    Ukraine
     
    • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
    • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
      • Drohobych
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 443.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Deep Springs Valley
    Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Jones, Blair Francis (1965), The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Spring Lake, Inyo County, California. USGS Professional Paper 502-A, 56 pp.: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 629; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 8-9; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
    Foshag, William Frederick (1920c), Apthitalite (glaserite) from Searles Lake, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 49: 367-368; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9.
    • Hawaii
      • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
        • Kau Desert
    American Mineralogist (1921): 6: 121.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
    Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Eddy and Lea Counties
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
      • Eddy Co.
    Philip Simmons (http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-237193.html)
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
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