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Aphthitalite

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Formula:
(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Colourless (rare), ...
Hardness:
3
Name:
From the Greek άφθητος ("aphthitos"), "unalterable", and άλας ("halas"), "salt", in allusion to its stability in air.
Occurs in two widely diversified environments, both as an incrustation in volcanic fumaroles and as a constituent of oceanic and lacustrine salt deposits.

Classification of Aphthitalite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7.AC.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
28.2.2.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
2 : A2XO4
25.1.7

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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First Recorded Occurrence of Aphthitalite

Year of Discovery:
1835
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Volcanic fumaroles
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Physical Properties of Aphthitalite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless (rare), white, grey, bluish, greenish, reddish; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {1010} fair; on {0001} poor.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.656 - 2.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.72 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Aphthitalite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.67Å, c = 7.33Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.293
Unit Cell Volume:
V 204.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals commonly thin to thick tabular with pronounced trigonal development. Distorted pseudo-orthorhombic forms. Bladed aggregates; mammilary; crusts; massive.
Twinning:
On {0001} or on {1120}, repeated. Twinned groups on {1120}, similar to aragonite twins.

Crystallographic forms of Aphthitalite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Aphthitalite no.97 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Aphthitalite no.116 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Aphthitalite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.487 - 1.491 nε = 1.492 - 1.499
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of Aphthitalite

Formula:
(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Aphthitalite to other Species

7.AC.05VanthoffiteNa6Mg(SO4)4
7.AC.08Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3
7.AC.10Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
7.AC.10LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3
7.AC.10ManganolangbeiniteK2Mn2(SO4)3
7.AC.15YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2
7.AC.15EldfelliteNaFe3+(SO4)2
7.AC.20Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2
7.AC.20Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2
7.AC.25ThénarditeNa2SO4
7.AC.30MetathenarditeNa2SO4
25.1.1ThénarditeNa2SO4
25.1.2MatteucciteNaHSO4 · H2O
25.1.3MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
25.1.4ArcaniteK2SO4
25.1.5MercalliteKHSO4
25.1.6MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7
25.1.8Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
25.1.9Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
25.1.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Aphthitalite

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in water and in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Aphthitalite

Reference List:
Smithson (1813) Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions: 256 (as Vesuvian Salt).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 477 (as Aphthalose).

Shepard C.U. (1832) Treatise on Mineralogy. First edition: vol. 1, New Haven: 36.

Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 676 (as Schwefelkalisalz).

Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 106.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1137 (as Glaserite).

Scacchi, A. (1873): Aftalosa, o Solfato potassico, Note Mineralogiche, Memoria Prima, Napoli, Stamperia del Fibreno, pp 29-39

Bücking (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 561.

Nacken (1907) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 24: 21.

Nacken (1910) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 262.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 41.

Foshag (1920) American Journal of Science: 49: 367.

Washington and Merwin (1921) American Mineralogist: 6: 121.

Zambonini (1921) Rendus comitato geologico d’Italia, Rome, Bollettino: 48(3).

Gossner (1928) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 57: 89.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 3696.

Koechlin (1934) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 256.

Laskiewicz (1934) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 10: 117.

Zambonini, Ferruccio (1935) Mineralogia Vesuviana. Second edition with Quercigh, 463 pp., Naples: 133.

Bianchini (1937) Reale accademia delle scienze fisische e matematiche, Naples, Rend.: [4] 7: 43.

Wells (1937) USGS Bull. 878: 120.

Druzhinin (1938) Academy of Sciences of the USSR Bull., Ser. Chim.: 1141.

Minguzzi (1938) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 9: 359.

Perrier and Bellanca (1940) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 11: 163.

Bellanca (1942) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 13: 21.

Bellanca A.(1944 [1943?]) Sulla struttura dell'aftitalite. . Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma: 14: 67-96.

Bellanca, A. (1946) Ric. sci. e ricostr.: 16: 1254.

Frondel (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 596.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 400-403.

Moore, P.B. (1981) Complex crystal structures related to glaserite, K3Na[SO4]2: evidence for very dense packings among oxysalts. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 104: 536-547.

Egorov-Tismenko, Yu.K., Sokolova, E.V., Smirnova, N.L., and Yamnova, N.A. (1984) The crystal chemistry of the glaserite-type structures. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal, Kiev: 6(6): 3-9 (in Russian).

Acta Crystallographica: B36: 919-921.

Internet Links for Aphthitalite

Specimens:
The following Aphthitalite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Aphthitalite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson
      • Madura Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1977): 41: 33-35.
    • Laverton Shire
      • Lake Rason
Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39: 346-348.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Yuanyi Zhao, Mianping Zheng, Xingong Cai, Pingjia Zhao, Wen Zhao, Yunwu Wang, and Xu Ma (2004): Geological Bulletin of China 23(7), 680-685
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Qian Wu, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2013): Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 29(1), 36-44
Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Shuanghu Co.
Yuanyi Zhao (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(1), 99-106
    • Ngari Prefecture
      • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
      • Zhongba Co.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Yongsheng Zhang, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2005): Sea-Lake Salt and Chemical Industry 34(4), 1-5
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Kivu
    • Goma
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
France
 
  • Nord-Pas-de-Calais
    • Pas-de-Calais
Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
      • Neuhof
Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
    • Werra valley
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Westeregeln
Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
      • Stassfurt
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 447.
  • Thuringia
    • Thuringian Forest
      • Merkers-Kieselbach
W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
Iceland
 
  • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
    • Heimaey island
      • Heimaey
Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
    • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Iran
 
  • Qom Province (Ghom Province)
Rob Lavinsky.
  • Zanjan Province
    • Dandy to Mahneshan road
Philip Simmons (http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-237193.html)
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
            • San Vito
aphthitalite
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 404, 435.
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Iburi Province
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Tony Nikischer specimen
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
Hansteen, T.H. & Burke, E.A. (1994): Aphthitalite in high-temperature fluid inclusions in quartz from the Eikeren-Skrim granite complex, the Oslo paleorift. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 74 (4), 238-240
Peru
 
  • La Libertad Department
    • Trujillo Province
      • Virù
[var: Ammonium-Aphthitalite] Frondel, C. (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 596. Palache et al (1951) Dana's Sys. Mineralogy, 7th. ed.: 402.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Tolbachik volcano
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
            • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Lykova, I.S., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2014): New arsenate minerals from the Arsenatnaya fumarole, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. I. Yurmarinite, Na7(Fe3+,Mg,Cu)4(AsO4)6. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 905-917
Zelenski, M.E., Zubkova, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Polekhovsky, Yu.S. & Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2012): Cupromolybdite, Cu3O(MoO4)2, a new fumarolic mineral from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24, 749-757.
Saudi Arabia
 
  • Mintaqah Makkah
Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-12, 68 p.
Sweden
 
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • Billingham
Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 172-175.
Ukraine
 
  • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • Drohobych
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 443.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Deep Springs Valley
Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Jones, Blair Francis (1965), The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Spring Lake, Inyo County, California. USGS Professional Paper 502-A, 56 pp.: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 629; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 8-9; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
Foshag, William Frederick (1920c), Apthitalite (glaserite) from Searles Lake, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 49: 367-368; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9.
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
      • Kau Desert
American Mineralogist (1921): 6: 121.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy and Lea Counties
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
    • Eddy Co.
Philip Simmons (http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-237193.html)
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
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