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Mullite

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Formula:
Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
(x ~ 0.4)
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:
6 - 7
Name:
After the discovery locality, the Isle of Mull, Scotland.
Synthetic mullite is well-known as a high-performance ceramic.

Classification of Mullite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.AF.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
52.2.3.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
15.4

15 : Silicates of Aluminum
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http://www.mindat.org/min-2806.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Mullite

Year of Discovery:
1924

Physical Properties of Mullite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 7
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {010}
Density:
3.11 - 3.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.17 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Mullite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pbam
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.5785(6) Å, b = 7.6817(7) Å, c = 2.8864(3) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.987 : 1 : 0.376
Unit Cell Volume:
V 168.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic to acicular
Comment:
On synthetic material.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.39 (50)
3.390 (100)
3.428 (95)
2.694 (40)
2.542 (50)
2.206 (60)
1.5242 (35)
Comments:
For synthetic material.

Optical Data of Mullite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.642 - 1.653 nβ = 1.644 - 1.655 nγ = 1.654 - 1.679
2V:
Measured: 20° to 50°, Calculated: 34° to 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012 - 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X=Y= colorless
Z= rose-pink

Chemical Properties of Mullite

Formula:
Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x

(x ~ 0.4)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Fe,Na,K

Relationship of Mullite to other Species

9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)
9.AF.30Magnesiostaurolite(Mg,Li,Fe2+)1.5-2Al9(SiO4)4O6(OH)2
9.AF.30Staurolite(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)1.5-2Al9(SiO4)4O6(OH,O)2
9.AF.30Zincostaurolite(Zn,Li,Fe2+,Mg)1.5-2Al9(SiO4)4O6(OH)2
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
9.AF.50Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
9.AF.55SonoliteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH,F)2
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
9.AF.65Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn92+(SiO4)4(OH)2
9.AF.75FranciscaniteMn62+(V5+,☐)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6
9.AF.75ÖrebroiteMn32+(Sb5+,Fe3+)(SiO4)(O,OH)3
9.AF.75WeliniteMn62+(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6
9.AF.80EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.85Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
15.1AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
15.2KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
15.3SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
15.5PyrophylliteAl2(Si4O10)(OH)2
15.6DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
15.7NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
15.8KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
15.9Metahalloysite
15.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
15.11Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O

Other Names for Mullite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Mullite

Reference List:
American Mineralogist (1924): 9: 211.

Brindley, G.W. and Nakahira, M. (1959) The kaolinite-mullite reaction series: I, Survey of outstanding problems. II, Metakaolin. III, The high-temperature phases. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 42: 311-324.

Ernst, W.G. & S.E. Calvert (1969), An experimental study of the recrystallization of porcelanite and its bearing on the origin of some bedded cherts: American Journal of Science: 267A: 114-133.

Cameron, W.E. (1977) Mullite: a substituted alumina. American Mineralogist: 62: 747-755.

Leonard, A.J. (1977) Structural analysis of the transition phases in the kaolinite-mullite thermal sequence. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 60: 37-43.

Angel, R.J., and Prewitt, C.T. (1986): Crystal structure of mullite: A re-examination of the average structure. American Mineralogist 71, 1476-1482.

Srikrisna, K., Thomas, G., Martinez, R., Corral, M.P., de Aza, S., and Moya, J.S. (1990) Kaolinite-mullite reaction series: a TEM study. Journal of Materials Science: 25: 607-612.

American Mineralogist (1991): 76: 332.

Lee, S., Kim, Y.J., and Moon, H.S. (1999) Phase transformation sequence from kaolinite to mullite investigated by an energy-filtering transmission electron microscope. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 82: 2841-2848.

Voll, D., Angerer, P., Beran, A., and Schneider, H. (2002) A new assignment of IR vibrational modes in mullite. Vibrational Spectroscopy: 30: 237-243.

Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Cultrone, G., Sanchez-Navas, A., and Sbastian, E. (2003) TEM study of mullite growth after muscovite breakdown. American Mineralogist: 88: 713-724.

Internet Links for Mullite

Localities for Mullite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
"Aus der Tiefe der Vulkane", Fritz-Jandl-Postl (2011)
China
 
  • Gansu Province
    • Jiuquan Prefecture
      • Subei Co.
        • Gongpoquan ore field
Gansu Province Metallurgical and Geological Exploration Team No. 4 (1978): Geology and Prospecting 14(8), 20-23
Guangce Zeng, Baoming Pan, and Shangyue Shen (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(1), 84-86
  • Shanxi Province
    • Yangquan Prefecture
      • Kuang District
Querol, X.; Izquierdo, M.; Monfort, E.; Alvarez, E.; Font, O.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Zhuang, X.; Lu, W.; Wang, Y. (2008): International Journal of Coal Geology 75, 93-104
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
        • Libušin
David Parfitt collection; Hyrsl J., Korbel P.; Tschechien & Slowakei, Mineralien und Fundstellen. Bode Verlag, 2008. Page 268-273
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Trutnov (Trautenau)
        • Radvanice
Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
    • Ústí Region
      • Most
Ferry FEDIUK, Anna LANGROVÁ and Karel MELKA. 2003. "North Bohemian Porcellanites and their Mineral Composition: the Case of the Dobrčice Quarry, the Most Basin" GeoLines 15, p. 35-43. PDF: http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume15/G15-035.pdf
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Haute-Loire
      • Le Puy-en-Velay
        • Espaly-Saint-Marcel
Barrier D, Pourtier G, Médard P (2004) Minéralogie du mont Denise (Haute-Loire). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 83: 3-11.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Fichtelgebirge
        • Marktredwitz
          • Pechbrunn
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Kemnath
        • Waldeck
Pöllmann et al. (2007): Aufschluss 58, 227-233.
      • Wiesau
        • Triebendorf
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Hesse
    • Cornberg
Müller, G. (1967): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 14, 176-189.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
T. Witzke, F. de Wit, U. Kolitsch and G. Blaß (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, 203-240; in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Andernach
        • Nickenich
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Daun
        • Oberstadtfeld
Leu, K., Der Vulkanabbau "Auf´m Kopp" bei Oberstadtfeld in der Westeifel, Lapis 2/1995
        • Üdersdorf
Schäfer, H., Die Mineralien der Einschlüsse und Auswürflinge in den Schlacken des Emmelberges bei Üdersdorf / Eifel, Der Aufschluss 30, 273-282, 1979
Guth, G., Interessante Neufunde für den Basaltbruch Liley (Löley) bei Üdersdorf in der Westeifel Mineralien-Welt 2/2000
      • Gerolstein
        • Roth
Blaß, G. & Schüller, W. (2012): Der Rother Kopf in der Vulkaneifel. Lapis, 37 (3), 20-29.
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
      • Laach lake volcanic complex
        • Kruft
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
        • Mendig
          • Niedermendig
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
            • Wingertsberg
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Hentschel, G., Neufunde seltener Minerale im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Aufschluß 28, 129-133, 1977
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Niederzissen
        • Burgbrohl
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Polch
        • Ochtendung
Lapis 1988(7+8), 70-72
  • Saxony
    • Zwickau
      • Oelsnitz
T. Witzke (1996): Die Minerale der brennenden Halde der Steinkohlengrube "Deutschland-schacht" in Oelsnitz bei Zwickau.- Aufschluss 47, 41-48
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Vas Co.
    • Kemeneshát
      • Celldömölk
Szakáll & Gatter. Hun. Min. Spec., 1993
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
Russo, M. & Preite, D. (2011): Nuove specie minerali al Monte Somma: IV. Mullite. Micro, 2/2011, 60-61
  • Latium
    • Viterbo Province
      • Piansano
Burli, M., Nizi, L., Pucci, R., Signoretti, E (2010): Mullite et Cordierite nella cava di Cellere (VT), Il Cercapietre , 1-2 / 2010, pp. 41-48
  • Sardinia
    • Oristano Province
      • Mt. Arci
        • Marrubiu
Bortolozi G. (1986) - Mullite e Pseudobrookite del M. Arci (Or) - Riv. Mineral. Ital. , Milano, Fasc. 3, pag. 136
Bortolozi G. (1986) - Mullite e Pseudobrookite del M. Arci (Or) - Riv. Mineral. Ital. , Milano, Fasc. 3, pag. 136
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu region
      • Nagano prefecture
Matsubara et al (1998) Ganko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 34.
Netherlands
 
  • Limburg
    • Kerkrade
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Bay of Plenty
      • Rotorua
        • Mt Ngongotaha
Martin Stolworthy Collection
    • Waikato
      • Taupo
        • Atiamuri
Personal collection of Rod Martin
        • Lake Taupo
Collection of RJ Martin
Thornton, J. (Ed.), The Micro-Scope, No. 41, February 2002
Essence of Microscope, 2004
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Katowice area
        • Łaziska
Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska, Upper Silesia.Mag. Thesis (unpublished)
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Anabarskii massif
        • Popigai river
Masaitis, V. L. (1998). Popigai crater: Origin and distribution of diamond‐bearing impactites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33(2), 349-359.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
No reference listed
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Michalovce Co.
Bacsó,Z.,Ďuďa,R.,1988: Metalogenéza a rudné formácie rudného poľa Remetské Hámre. Min.Slovaca,Bratislava, 3, 193-220p
    • Sobrance Co.
      • Remetské Hámre
[Eur.J.Mineral. 13:177-186]
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
    • Lejweleputswa District
      • Boshof
Mathias, M., Siebert, J.C., and Rickwood, P.C. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 75-123.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
Robert A. Jenkins
  • Aragón
    • Teruel
      • Montalbán
- Calvo, M. (2008): Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza. 463 pags.
      • Utrillas
-- Calvo, M. (2008): Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza. 463 pags.
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Strathclyde (Argyllshire)
      • Isle of Mull
No reference listed
BMS Database
N L. Bowen, J W. Greig and E G. Zies. Mullite, a silicate of alumina. Jour Wash. Acad. Sci., 14, 183, 1924.
BMS Database; Am Min 50:1982-2022
USA
 
  • Idaho
    • Shoshone Co.
      • Goat Mountain District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Illinois
    • Vermilion Co.
      • Danville
        • Hegeler
Piatak, N. M. & Seal, R. R., II (2010): Mineralogy and the release of trace elements from slag from the Hegeler Zinc smelter, Illinois (USA). Applied Geochemistry, 25, 302-320
  • New Jersey
    • Middlesex Co.
AmMin 10:152-155
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
Gunnar Farber
Mineral and/or Locality  
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