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Nahcolite

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© Rob Lavinksy




Formula:
NaHCO
 
3
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, ResinousHardness:
Name:In allusion to the composition, containing sodium (NA), hydrogen (H), and carbonate (CO) + -lite.
This page provides mineralogical data about Nahcolite.

Classification of Nahcolite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/B.01-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.AA.15

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
A : Alkali carbonates
Dana 8th edition ID:13.1.1.1

13 : ACID CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.1.3

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Type Occurrence of Nahcolite

Type Locality:Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy
Year of Discovery:1928
Geological Setting of type material:In a lava tunnel.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
ThenarditeHalite

Occurrences of Nahcolite

Geological Setting:Precipitate from hot springs; as efflorescences around saline lakes and in brines; formed at a late stage in differentiated alkalic massifs; as tiny daughter crystals in fluid inclusions in a variety of hydrothermally formed mineral species.

Physical Properties of Nahcolite

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, white, greyish; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Perfect
On {101} perfect; on {111} good; on {100} distinct.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.21 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.16 g/cm3

Crystallography of Nahcolite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 7.47Å, b = 9.68Å, c = 3.48Å
β = 93.38°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.772 : 1 : 0.36
Unit Cell Volume:V 251.20 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals prismatic [001] with {110} and {010} dominant. Normally terminated by {101} and minor {111}; also by {111} and {101} in equal development. Porous masses, friable crystal aggregates.
Twinning:Very common, with {101} as the twin and composition plane. Both contact and penetration twins, often as reticulated groups, and flattened {010}.

Optical Data of Nahcolite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.377 nβ = 1.503 nγ = 1.583
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.206

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r < v weak

Chemical Properties of Nahcolite

Formula:
NaHCO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:NaHCO3
Essential elements:C, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:C, H, Na, O
Analytical Data:Readily soluble in water. Soluble in glycerine.

Relationship of Nahcolite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.AA.05Zabuyelite
Li
 
2
CO
 
3
5.AA.10Natrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
5.AA.10Gregoryite
(Na
 
2
,K
 
2
,Ca)CO
 
3
5.AA.20Kalicinite
KHCO
 
3
5.AA.25Teschemacherite
(NH
 
4
)HCO
 
3
5.AA.30Wegscheiderite
Na
 
5
H
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.1.1Zabuyelite
Li
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.2Natrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.4Wegscheiderite
Na
 
5
H
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
11.1.5Thermonatrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
11.1.6Trona
Na
 
3
H(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
11.1.7Natron
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
11.1.8Kalicinite
KHCO
 
3
11.1.9Shortite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
11.1.10Nyerereite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12Zemkorite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.13Pirssonite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
11.1.14Gaylussite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
11.1.15Baylissite
K
 
2
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
11.1.16Fairchildite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.17Bütschliite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.18Teschemacherite
(NH
 
4
)HCO
 
3

Other Names for Nahcolite

Synonyms:
Sodium BicarbonateThermokalite
Other Languages:
German:Nahcolit
Russian:Нахколит
Simplified Chinese:苏打石
Spanish:Nahcolita
Traditional Chinese:蘇打石

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in water and glycerine.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Nahcolite

Reference List:

- +
Playfair and Joule (1845) Mem. Chem. Soc.: 2: 401.

Schabus (1855) Best. Krystallgest., Preiss. Ak. Wien: 97.

Stolba (1866) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 97: 503.

Schröder (1878) Ber.: 11: 2018.

Groth, P. (1908) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 191.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 134.

Bannister (1928) Mineralogical Magazine: 22: 53.

Merwin in: Winchell (1931): 198.

Zachariasen (1933) Journal of Chemical Physics, Lancaster, PA: 1: 634.

Foshag, William Frederick (1938), Sodium bicarbonate from Searles Lake, California …(abstract): American Mineralogist: 23: 169.

Foshag, William Frederick (1940), Sodium bicarbonate (nahcolite) from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 25: 769-778.

Ertle (1947) American Minealogist: 32: 117.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 134-136.

Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 564.

Internet Links for Nahcolite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Nahcolite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Nahcolite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Buckley Island quadrangle
    Fitzpatrick, J.J., Muhs, D.R. (1990) Antarctic Journal of the United States, 24 (5), 63-65.; Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
    Belgium
     
    • Luxembourg Province
      • Bastogne
        • Mardasson
    A. Darimont et al., Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 321-330.
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Montréal
    TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
      • Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
        • Le Fjord-du-Saguenay RCM
          • Saint-Honoré
    Fournier, A. (1993)
    FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
    Chile
     
    • Tarapacá Region
      • Iquique Province
        • Santa Rosa-Huantajaya District
    Schlüter, J. and Pohl, D.- N. Jb. MH. 182/1. 2005, 11-14
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Jiuquan Prefecture
        • Yumen Co.
    Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Henan Province
      • Nanyang Prefecture
        • Tongbai Co.
          • Biyang basin
    Qingtang Yang (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(1), 87-92; Jiping Wang, Youxun Zhang, Qingtang Yang, Jianmin Zhou, and Xiulian Ma (1991): Geological Review 56(1), 42-50
    Youxun Zhang (1983): Mineral Deposits 2(3), 69-71
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad; Carlsbad)
    Cílek, V., Vylita, T., Filippi, M.: Mineralogie karlovarské vřídelní desky a jejího podloží. Minerál, 2006, 14, 1, 3-10.
    Egypt
     
    • Western Desert
    Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Savukoski
        • Tulppio
    http://gac.esd.mun.ca/gac_2004/search_abs/sub_program.asp?sess=98&form=10&abs_no=136
    France
     
    • Auvergne
      • Allier
        • Bellerive-sur-Allier
          • Abrest
    Germany
     
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Grane Reservoir
    No reference listed
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
    Soerensen, H. (2001): The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland: status of mineralogical research with new results, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 190, GEUS; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Bannister F.A. (1928): Nature, 122, 866; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
      • Gregory Rift
    G. Périnet, J.J. Tiercelin, C.E. Barton : "Présence de kanémite dans les sédiments récents du lac Bogoria, Rift Gregory, Kenya", Bull. Minéral., 1982, 105, 633-639.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
      • South Rift Valley
    Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 404
    Mexico
     
    • Coahuila
    Levresse, G., Tritlla, J., Villareal, J., Gonzalez-Partida, E., 2006. The “el pilote” fluorite skarn: a crucial deposit to understand the origin and mobilizacion of the F from northern Mexico deposits Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 89, 1-3, 205-209.
    Mozambique
     
    • Zambezia Province
      • Alto Ligonha District
    Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
    Mineralogical Magazine, Feb. 2002, V. 66, N° 1, pp. 201-213.
    Namibia
     
    • Kunene Region
      • Damaraland District
        • Kalkfeld
    American Mineralogist, Vol. 84, pp. 1117-1125, 1999.; New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 50-64
    Romania
     
    • Harghita Co.
      • Ditrău (Ditró)
    http://www.geol.vt.edu/research/gsrs/gsrs2005/Abstracts/afall%201115AM%20F.doc
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Sweden
     
    • Medelpad
      • Sundsvall
    Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
    Switzerland
     
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Bex
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 287.
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
      • Pamir Mts
        • Rangkul' Highlands
    Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
    Tanzania
     
    • Arusha Region
    Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Deep Springs Valley
    Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Hardie, L.A. and Eugster, H.P. (1970) The evolution of closed-basin brines. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3: 232; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 205, 207.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Foshag, William Frederick (1940), Sodium bicarbonate (nahcolite) from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 25: 769; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
    • Colorado
    Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 98943
        • Rifle
    Ertle (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 117; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Mesa Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Rio Blanco Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
        • Piceance Basin
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
          • Green River Formation
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
        • Piceance Creek Basin
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Utah
      • Duchesne Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_45510.htm.
    Am Min 45:188-199
    Am Min 58:211-217; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Open-File Report 96-0729
      • Uintah Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    Am Min 41:672
    Am Min 46:379-393
    • Wyoming
      • Sweetwater Co.
        • Green River Basin
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Green River Formation
    Am Min 48:400-403
    Am Min 48:400-403
    Am Min 48:400-403
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