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Nahcolite

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Formula:
NaHCO3
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, white, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
Name:
In allusion to the composition, containing sodium (NA), hydrogen (H), and carbonate (CO) + -lite.
This page provides mineralogical data about Nahcolite.

Classification of Nahcolite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5.AA.15

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
A : Alkali carbonates
13.1.1.1

13 : ACID CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
11.1.3

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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http://www.mindat.org/min-2831.html
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First Recorded Occurrence of Nahcolite

Year of Discovery:
1928
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
In a lava tunnel.
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Nahcolite

Geological Setting:
Precipitate from hot springs; as efflorescences around saline lakes and in brines; formed at a late stage in differentiated alkalic massifs; as tiny daughter crystals in fluid inclusions in a variety of hydrothermally formed mineral species.

Physical Properties of Nahcolite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, greyish; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {101} perfect; on {111} good; on {100} distinct.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
2.21 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.16 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Nahcolite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.47Å, b = 9.68Å, c = 3.48Å
β = 93.38°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.772 : 1 : 0.36
Unit Cell Volume:
V 251.20 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [001] with {110} and {010} dominant. Normally terminated by {101} and minor {111}; also by {111} and {101} in equal development. Porous masses, friable crystal aggregates.
Twinning:
Very common, with {101} as the twin and composition plane. Both contact and penetration twins, often as reticulated groups, and flattened {010}.

Optical Data of Nahcolite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.377 nβ = 1.503 nγ = 1.583
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.206
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r < v weak

Chemical Properties of Nahcolite

Formula:
NaHCO3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Readily soluble in water. Soluble in glycerine.

Relationship of Nahcolite to other Species

5.AA.05ZabuyeliteLi2CO3
5.AA.10NatriteNa2CO3
5.AA.10Gregoryite(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3
5.AA.20KaliciniteKHCO3
5.AA.25Teschemacherite(NH4)HCO3
5.AA.30WegscheideriteNa5H3(CO3)4
11.1.1ZabuyeliteLi2CO3
11.1.2NatriteNa2CO3
11.1.4WegscheideriteNa5H3(CO3)4
11.1.5ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
11.1.6TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
11.1.7NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
11.1.8KaliciniteKHCO3
11.1.9ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
11.1.10NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.13PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
11.1.14GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
11.1.15BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
11.1.16FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.17BütschliiteK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.18Teschemacherite(NH4)HCO3

Other Names for Nahcolite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Nahcolit
Simplified Chinese:苏打石
Spanish:Nahcolita
Traditional Chinese:蘇打石

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in water and glycerine.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Nahcolite

Reference List:
Playfair and Joule (1845) Mem. Chem. Soc.: 2: 401.

Schabus (1855) Best. Krystallgest., Preiss. Ak. Wien: 97.

Stolba (1866) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 97: 503.

Schröder (1878) Ber.: 11: 2018.

Groth, P. (1908) Chemische Krystallographie. Leipzig. 5 volumes: vol. 2: 191.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 134.

Bannister (1928) Mineralogical Magazine: 22: 53.

Merwin in: Winchell (1931): 198.

Zachariasen (1933) Journal of Chemical Physics, Lancaster, PA: 1: 634.

Foshag, William Frederick (1938), Sodium bicarbonate from Searles Lake, California …(abstract): American Mineralogist: 23: 169.

Foshag, William Frederick (1940), Sodium bicarbonate (nahcolite) from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 25: 769-778.

Ertle (1947) American Minealogist: 32: 117.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 134-136.

Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 564.

Internet Links for Nahcolite

Localities for Nahcolite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Muhs, D.R. (1990) Antarctic Journal of the United States, 24 (5), 63-65.; Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
Belgium
 
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Bastogne
      • Mardasson
A. Darimont et al., Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 321-330.
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Montréal
TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
    • Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
      • Le Fjord-du-Saguenay RCM
        • Saint-Honoré
Fournier, A. (1993)
FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Chile
 
  • Tarapacá Region
    • Iquique Province
      • Santa Rosa-Huantajaya District
Schlüter, J. and Pohl, D.- N. Jb. MH. 182/1. 2005, 11-14
China
 
  • Henan Province
    • Nanyang Prefecture
      • Tongbai Co.
        • Biyang basin
Qingtang Yang (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(1), 87-92; Jiping Wang, Youxun Zhang, Qingtang Yang, Jianmin Zhou, and Xiulian Ma (1991): Geological Review 56(1), 42-50
Youxun Zhang (1983): Mineral Deposits 2(3), 69-71
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Delhi Co. (Delingha Co.)
        • Yashatu
Shiqing Luo, Jian'an Lu, Liben Wang, and Jingqing Zhu (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(2), 97-101
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad; Carlsbad)
Cílek, V., Vylita, T., Filippi, M.: Mineralogie karlovarské vřídelní desky a jejího podloží. Minerál, 2006, 14, 1, 3-10.
Egypt
 
  • Western Desert
Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
http://gac.esd.mun.ca/gac_2004/search_abs/sub_program.asp?sess=98&form=10&abs_no=136
France
 
  • Auvergne
    • Allier
      • Bellerive-sur-Allier
        • Abrest
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Grane Reservoir
No reference listed
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
Greenland
 
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
Soerensen, H. (2001): The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland: status of mineralogical research with new results, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 190, GEUS; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Bannister F.A. (1928): Nature, 122, 866; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
    • Gregory Rift
G. Périnet, J.J. Tiercelin, C.E. Barton : "Présence de kanémite dans les sédiments récents du lac Bogoria, Rift Gregory, Kenya", Bull. Minéral., 1982, 105, 633-639.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
    • South Rift Valley
Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 404
Mexico
 
  • Coahuila
Levresse, G., Tritlla, J., Villareal, J., Gonzalez-Partida, E., 2006. The “el pilote” fluorite skarn: a crucial deposit to understand the origin and mobilizacion of the F from northern Mexico deposits Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 89, 1-3, 205-209.
Mozambique
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
Mineralogical Magazine, Feb. 2002, V. 66, N° 1, pp. 201-213.
Namibia
 
  • Kunene Region
    • Damaraland District
      • Kalkfeld
American Mineralogist, Vol. 84, pp. 1117-1125, 1999.; New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 50-64
Romania
 
  • Harghita Co.
    • Ditrău (Ditró)
http://www.geol.vt.edu/research/gsrs/gsrs2005/Abstracts/afall%201115AM%20F.doc
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Sweden
 
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 287.
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
    • Pamir Mts
      • Rangkul' Highlands
Thomas, R., Davidson, P. (2010): Hambergite-rich melt inclusions in morganite crystals from the Muiane pegmatite, Mozambique and some remarks on the paragenesis of hambergite. - Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 3-4, 227-23
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
Tunisia
 
  • Al Kåf Governorate (El Kef; Le Kef)
    • Tajerouine
      • Garn Alfaya (Jebel Garn Halfaya; Djebel Garn Halfaya; Djebel Gueurn Halfaya; Jabal Qarn 'alfåyah; Djebel Gulurn Halfaya)
Mlayah, A., Ferreira da Silva, E., Rocha, F., Hamza, C. B., Charef, A., & Noronha, F. (2009). The Oued Mellègue: Mining activity, stream sediments and dispersion of base metals in natural environments, North-western Tunisia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 102(1), 27-36.
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Ankara Province
Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Deep Springs Valley
Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Hardie, L.A. and Eugster, H.P. (1970) The evolution of closed-basin brines. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3: 232; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 205, 207.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Foshag, William Frederick (1940), Sodium bicarbonate (nahcolite) from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 25: 769; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
  • Colorado
Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 98943
      • Rifle
Ertle (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 117; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 135.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Mesa Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Rio Blanco Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Piceance Basin
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
        • Green River Formation
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Piceance Creek Basin
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Utah
    • Duchesne Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_45510.htm.
Am Min 45:188-199
Am Min 58:211-217; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Open-File Report 96-0729
    • Uintah Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Am Min 41:672
Am Min 46:379-393
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River Basin
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Green River Formation
Am Min 48:400-403
Am Min 48:400-403
Am Min 48:400-403
Mineral and/or Locality  
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