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Natroalunite

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Formula:
NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
White, grayish, ...
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Name:
In allusion to the dominance of sodium (NATRium in Latin) in the composition and its relationship to ALUNITE.
This page provides mineralogical data about Natroalunite.

Classification of Natroalunite

Approved
7.BC.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
25.6.15

25 : Sulphates
6 : Sulphates of Al and Tl
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Type Occurrence of Natroalunite

Year of Discovery:
1902

Physical Properties of Natroalunite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Comment:
Somewhat pearly on {0001}.
Colour:
White, grayish, yellowish, reddish, red-brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:
White when pure.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {0001}, distinct; on {01_12}, traces.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery, Conchoidal
Density:
2.6 - 2.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
Values measured on massive material.

Crystallography of Natroalunite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.97Å, c = 16.74Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.402
Unit Cell Volume:
V 704.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Rarely in small crystals; as druses in massive material or as aggregates. Crystals tabular {0001} or terminated by flat vicinal rhombohedra; rhombohedral and commonly pseudo-cubic {01_12}. Lenticular based on distortion or vicinal development. Massive, granular to dense.

Optical Data of Natroalunite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.568 nε = 1.590
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of Natroalunite

Formula:
NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
K

Relationship of Natroalunite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe23+Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6
DorallchariteTlFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6
PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.05D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe23+Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.15Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3Cl
7.BC.20NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OCl
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2
7.BC.30EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3O
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OCl
7.BC.40PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)Cl
7.BC.45KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2
7.BC.50CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2
7.BC.65LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
7.BC.65SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(SO4)(OH)7
7.BC.80AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
25.6.1RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
25.6.2JurbaniteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
25.6.3KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2O
25.6.4Meta-aluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
25.6.5AluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
25.6.6Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
25.6.7AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
25.6.8FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2O
25.6.9Basaluminite
25.6.10HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
25.6.11ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
25.6.12TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.6.13MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
25.6.14Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
25.6.16KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O Not confirmed
25.6.17Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
25.6.18AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.6.19Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6
25.6.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O

Other Names for Natroalunite

Other Information

Electrical:
Strongly pyroelectric.
Other Information:
Insoluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Natroalunite

Reference List:
Hurlbutt (1894) American Journal of Science: 48: 130.

Calderón y Arana, S. (1910) Los minerales de España, 2 volumes, Madrid: 2: 203 (as Almeriite).

Schaller (1911) American Journal of Science: 32: 359.

Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [2]: 495 (as Natroalunit).

Westman (1931) Bol. Minero soc. nac. Mineria, Santiago de Chile: 43: 433 (as Alkanasul).

Laudermilk (1935) American Mineralogist: 20: 57 (as Soda-Alunite).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 556-560.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1982): 534-540.

Sato, E., Nakai, I., Miyawaki, R. & Matsubara, S. (2009): Crystal structures of alunite family minerals: beaverite, corkite, alunite, natroalunite, jarosite, svanbergite, and woodhouseite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen 185, 313-322.

Internet Links for Natroalunite

Localities for Natroalunite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • San Juan
    • Iglesia Department
Bengochea, L., Lara, R. y Mas, G., 1996. Kalinita y boyleita. Sulfatos secundarios del Área Valle del Cura; San Juan. 3ra Reunión de Mineralogía y Metalogenia. Instituto de Recursos Minerales, UNLP. Publicación 5: 63-66.
  • Santa Cruz
    • Macizo del Deseado
Jovic, S.M., Guido, D.M., Schalamuk, I.B., Ríos, F.J., Tassinari, C.C.G., Recio. C. (2011): Pingüino In-bearing polymetallic vein deposit, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina: characteristics of mineralization and ore-forming fluids. Mineralium Deposita, 46, 257-271.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Camden Co.
Wray, R.A.L. (2001): Alunite formation within silica stalactites from the Sydney Region, South-eastern Australia. International Journal of Speleology 40, 109-116.
  • Tasmania
    • Queenstown district
      • Mount Lyell Mines
Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Nepean
M. Jacobson, M. Calderwood, B. Grguric; Pegmatites of Western Australia; (Perth 2007)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559.
    • Leonora Shire
      • Ten Mile Outcamp
Nickel, E.H. (1982) Secondary minerals from the oxidized zone of the Teutonic Bore sulphide deposit. The Australian Mineralogist, No. 40, December 1982, pg. 219-223.
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Milgun Station
Peter Downes, WA Museum
Bolivia
 
  • Oruro Department
    • Cercado Province
[MinRec 32:476]
[MinRec 32:473]
  • Potosí Department
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Atocha-Quechisla District
        • Cerro Chorolque
Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Bulgaria
 
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
    • Chelopech
Georgieva, S. & Velinova, N. (2012): Alunite from the advanced argillic alterations in the Chelopech high-sulphidation epithermal Cu-Au deposit, Bulgaria: Chemistry, morphology and genetic significance. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology 49, 17-31.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Omenica Mining Division
      • Toodoggone River area
Duuring, P., Rowins, S.M., McKinley, B.S.M., Dickinson, J.M., Diakow, L.J., Kim, Y.-S., and Creaser, R.A. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 463-496.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
SABINA, A.P. (1976): Rocks & minerals for the collector: The Magdalen Islands, Quebec and the island of Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 75-36, 199p. Reissued in 2003 as Île de la Madeleine, Quebec, the Island of Newfoundland and Labrador. Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 58, 160-161.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
Sample analysed by Dr. Tony Kampf, Curator of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973; Samples analysed by Dr. Tony Kampf, Curator of LAC Mineralogical Museum, USA
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
  • Coquimbo Region
    • Choapa Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Pozo Almonte
Bouzari F, Clark AH (2002) Anatomy, evolution, and metallogenetic significance of the supergene orebody of the Cerro Colorado porphyry copper deposit, I Región, northern Chile. Econ. Geol. 97, 1701–1740.
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
LAPIS 24 (7/8) 1999; Wendel, W. and Markl, G. (1999) Lavrion: Mineralogische Klassiker und Raritäten für Sammler. LAPIS 24 (7/8):34-52
No reference listed
Hanke, H. (1998): Laurion - ein Rückblick auf die Funde der letzten drei Jahre. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (2), 37-45.
  • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
    • Évros Prefecture
      • Alexandroupoli (Alexandroupolis)
Vodouris, P. C. (2011): Conditions of formation of the Mavrokoryfi high-sulfidation epithermal Cu–Ag–Au–Te mineralization (Petrota Graben, NE Greece). Mineralogy and Petrology 101, 97-113.
    • Komotini Prefecture (Rodopi; Rhodope)
Voudouris, P. C., & Melfos, V. (2013). Aluminum-phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals in the sericitic-advanced argillic alteration zone of the Melitena porphyry-epithermal Mo-Cu Au Re prospect, western Thrace, Greece. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 190(1), 11-27.
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Carbonia
        • Barbusi
Baldoni etal (2013) in Mine Caves pp197-210; Sauro, F., De Waele, J., Onac, B. P., Galli, E., Dublyansky, Y., Baldoni, E., & Sanna, L. (2014). Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: the case of Corona'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy). Geomorphology, 211, 77-88.
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M., Russo, M. (2011): Vulcano - Tre secoli di mineralogia. AMI-Associazione Micromineralogica Italiana, Cremona, Italy, 344 pp.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Shizuoka Prefecture
        • Nishiizu
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559; Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
        • Numazu City
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
    • Kanto Region
      • Gunma Prefecture
Matsubara et al (1998) Mineralogical Journal, 20, 1-8; Mineralogical Journal Vol. 20 (1998) , No. 1 pp 1-8
    • Kinki Region
      • Kyoto Prefecture
        • Kameoka City
Alfredo Petrov specimens
  • Tokyo Metropolis
    • Izu Archipelago
      • Aogashima
        • Ikenosawa caldera
PXRD by John Attard, May 2014, on samples collected by Alfredo Petrov.
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Osh Oblast
    • Alai Range (Alay Range)
[Lapis 1993:11 p11-24]
      • Fergana Valley
[Lapis 11:11-24]
New Zealand
 
  • Kermadec Islands
de Ronde, C.E.J.; Hannington, M.D.; Stoffers, P.; Wright, I.C.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Reyes, A.G.; Baker, E.T.; Massoth, G.J.; Lupton, J.E.; Walker, S.L.; Greene, R.R.; Soong, C.W.R.; Ishibashi, J.; Lebon, G.T.; Bray, C.J.; Resing, J.A. 2005 Evolution of a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system : Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Economic geology, 100(6): 1097-1133
Muiruru F.G. (1985) Hot spring and rock samples from Curtis Island Volcano, Kermadec Group. Unpub. paper Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland
  • North Island
    • Waikato
      • Hauraki
        • Waihi
Simpson, Mauk, & Simmons, 2001, Hydrothermal Alteration and Hydrologic Evolution of the Golden Cross Epithermal Au-Ag Deposit, Economic Geology 96, pp773-796
      • Taupo
Unpublished drill log report to NZ Dept of Mines by sulphur mining operator
Cody, A.D. and Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z.J. Geol. Geophys., 22(4), 495-8.
Pacific Ocean
 
  • Kermadec-Tonga trench
A. G. Reyes, C.E.J. DE Ronde, and C. W. R. Soong (2004) a Submarine Magmatic-hydrothermal System at Brothers Volcano, Kermadecs. Proceedings 26th NZ Geothermal Workshop pp 46-52
Panama
 
  • Los Santos Province
I. Corral, E. Cardellach, A. Canals, M. Corbella, T. Martín-Crespo and E. Vindel (2010): Environment of Ore Deposition in the Cerro Quema Gold-Copper Deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama). Macla 13, 69-70; Corral, I., Griera, A., Gras, D. M. G., Corbella, M., i Sabaté, À. C., Piineda-Falconett, M., & i López, E. C. (2011). Geology of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama). Geologica acta: an international earth science journal, 9(3), 481-498.
Puerto Rico
 
  • Comerio
Raymond L. Parker (1962) Isomorphous substitution in natural and synthetic alunite. American Mineralogist, 47, 127-136.
Saint Lucia
 
  • Soufriere
Goff, F., & Vuataz, F. D. (1984). Hydrogeochemistry of the Qualibou Caldera geothermal system, St. Lucia, West Indies. Trans. Geotherm. Res. Council.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Žiar nad Hronom Co.
Ďuďa R., 1993 : Die mineralien der Gold und Silber - lagersttäte von Kremnitz ( Kremnica) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern,Nemecko/,5, s. 20 - 32
  • Košice Region
    • Košice Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
        • Dubník
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Bushmanland
      • Koenabib farm (Hotson 42 farm)
Schoch A E, Beukes G J, Praekelt H E (1985) A natroalunite - zaherite - hotsonite paragenesis from Pofadder, Bushmanland, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist 23, 29-34; G. J. Beukes, A. E. Schoch, H. de Bruiyn, W. A. van der Westhuizen and L. D. C. Bok (1984) A New Occurrence of the Hydrated Aluminium Sulphate Zaherite, from Pofadder, South Africa Mineralogical Magazine 48:131-135
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
Minerals of South Africa
Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Adra
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1964, LXXXVII, p. 288.
      • Sierra de Gádor
        • Benahadux
- Calvo, M (2003) Minerales y minas de España. Tomo I. Introducción y elementos. 219 pp.
  • Aragón
    • Teruel
      • Nogueras
Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza, 463 pags
    • Zaragoza
      • Morés
        • Purroy
Calvo, M. and Sevillano, E (1995). La mina "san Pedro", Purroy, Zaragoza. Revista de Minerales, 1995-2, 34-37
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Vallès Occidental
        • Montcada i Reixac
Rosell, J. & Garrido, J.L. (2006) The minerals of Montcada Hill Quarry. Mineral Up, 2006/2, 16-20.
Turkey
 
  • Black Sea Region
    • Samsun Province
http://www.odysseyresources.com/i/pdf/Curtis-AltintepeReport.pdf
  • Marmara Region
    • Çanakkale Province
      • Lapseki
Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • La Paz Co.
      • Buckskin Mts
        • Santa Maria District (Planet District; Swansea District; Bill Williams District)
          • Planet
            • Planet Mine group (New Planet Mine group; Great Central Mine)
John Sobolewski collection
      • Dome Rock Mts
        • Middle Camp-Oro Fino District
          • Sugarloaf Peak
Ref.: Keith, Stanton B. (1978) State of Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology, Geol. Sur. Br. Bull. 192, Index of Mining Properties in Yuma Co., Arizona: 161 (Table 4); Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
      • Quartzsite area
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 310; Omori, K. & P.F. Kerr (1963), Infrared studies of saline sulfate minerals, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 74: 709-734.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
Wherry, E.T. (1916), Notes on alunite, psilomelanite and titanite: US National Museum Proceedings: 51: 81-88; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559.
    • Mono Co.
[var: Strontian Natroalunite] Lemmon (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 939; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559.
      • White Mts
        • White Mountain Peak
[var: Strontian Natroalunite] Lemmon, Dwight Moulton (1937), Geology of the andalusite deposits in the northern Inyo Range, California. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University: 42-43; Gross, E.B. and Parwel, A. (1968) Rutile mineralization at the White Mountain andalusite deposit, California. Arkiv för Mineralogie och Geologi 4, No. 29: 493-497; Wise, W. S. (1977): Mineralogy of the Champion mine White Mountains, California. Mineralogical Record 8, 480; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 265.
    • Shasta Co.
      • Cascade Range
        • Lassen Volcanic National Park
Robert G. Lee, John H. Dilles, David A. John, Tanya L. Abela (2005) The mineralogy and origin of hydrothermally altered Quaternary volcanic rocks on the south flank of Lassen volcano, California: Interim report for USGS Mineral Resource External Research Program grant of $42,000 in FY 2005
  • Colorado
    • Conejos Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Custer Co.
      • Rosita District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559; Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Dolores Co.
      • Rico Mts
        • Rico District (Pioneer District)
          • Horse Creek
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559.
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Ouray Co.
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 344, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
        • Red Mountain
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559; Mineralogical Record (1986) 17: 229-236.
    • Rio Grande Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Hawaii
    • Maui Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559; American Mineralogist: 20: 57.
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Goldfield
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Sulphur District
        • Sulphur
Econ Geol (1997) 92:578-600
    • Storey Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • Bald Mountain District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
      • Carlsbad
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. Rev. Ed., 1996
Journ. of Cave & Karst Stud., April 1998
  • Oregon
    • Deschutes Co.
      • East Lake
Mineralogy of 10 Geothermal boreholes drilled in and around the Newberry Caldera U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Issue 1578 By Keith E. Bargar, Terry E. C. Keith 1999
  • Texas
    • Fannin Co.
      • Savoy
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    • Grayson Co.
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
  • Utah
    • Piute Co.
      • Marysvale District (Marysvale Uranium area)
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Sevier Co.
      • Antelope Range
        • Henry District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Gold Mountain District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Mineral and/or Locality  
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