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Natron

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Formula:
Na2CO3 · 10H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless to white, ...
Hardness:
1 - 1½
Name:
In allusion to its sodium content (Latin = NATRium).
This page provides mineralogical data about Natron.

Classification of Natron

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5.CB.10

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
15.1.2.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)·xH2O
11.1.7

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Occurrences of Natron

Geological Setting:
In solution in soda lakes.

Physical Properties of Natron

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless to white, greyish, yellowish; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
1 - 1½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001} distinct; on {010} imperfect; on {110} in traces.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
1.478 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Natron

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.75Å, b = 9Å, c = 12.6Å
β = 115.85°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.417 : 1 : 1.4
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,301.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Occurs naturally only as crystalline, granular, and columnar crusts. Artificial crystals somewhat tabular {010} with varying development of the [100] and [001] zones.
Twinning:
On {001}.

Optical Data of Natron

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.405 nβ = 1.425 nγ = 1.440
2V:
Measured: 71° , Calculated: 80°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of Natron

Formula:
Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Effloresces rapidly in dry air, yielding thermonatrite, the monohydrate.

Relationship of Natron to other Species

5.CB.05ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
5.CB.15TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
5.CB.20MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2O
5.CB.25IkaiteCaCO3 · 6H2O
5.CB.30PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
5.CB.35GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
5.CB.40ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
5.CB.45BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
5.CB.50TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2O
11.1.1ZabuyeliteLi2CO3
11.1.2NatriteNa2CO3
11.1.3NahcoliteNaHCO3
11.1.4WegscheideriteNa5H3(CO3)4
11.1.5ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
11.1.6TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
11.1.8KaliciniteKHCO3
11.1.9ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
11.1.10NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.13PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
11.1.14GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
11.1.15BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
11.1.16FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.17BütschliiteK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.18Teschemacherite(NH4)HCO3

Other Names for Natron

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Natró
Dutch:Natron
Italian:Natron
Polish:Natron
Portuguese:Natrão
Simplified Chinese:泡碱
Spanish:Natrón
Traditional Chinese:泡鹼

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Melting Point: 34.5°.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Natron

Reference List:
de Lisle, Romé (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris: 1: 149 (as Cristaux d'alkali fixe minéral).

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol., Paris: 2: 374 (as Souda carbonatée).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: 832 (as Soda).

Brooke (1823) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 6: 287 (as Subcarbonate of Soda)

Mohs, F. (1824) Grundriss der Mineralogie. 2 volumes, Dresden: 2: 27 (as Hemiprismatisches Natronsalz).

Zippe, F.X.M. (1839) Physiographie des Mineralreichs. Vienna: 2: 29.

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 7 (as Natrit).

Goldschmidt, V. (1886) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes, vol. 3, 420p.: 139.

Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: I(3A): 2778.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 8: 63.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 230-231.

Acta Crystallographica (1969): B25: 2656-2658.

Internet Links for Natron

Localities for Natron

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Neusiedl am See
      • Seewinkel
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Nor Lípez Province
      • San Juan
USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Nicola Mining Division
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Qian Wu, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2013): Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 29(1), 36-44
Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
    • Hetian Prefecture (Khotan Prefecture; Hotan Prefecture; Hoten Prefecture)
      • Yutian Co. (Keriye Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Egypt
 
  • Western Desert
Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
Ethiopia
 
  • Oromia Province (Oromiya Province)
No reference listed
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Laach lake volcanic complex
        • Burgbrohl
Abandoned puzzolane quarries located in the Brohltal, north of Laach lake
Hungary
 
  • Bács-Kiskun Co.
    • Great Hungarian Plain
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
  • Csongrád Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
  • Hajdú-Bihar Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
  • Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Co.
    • Great Hungarian Plain
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231; www.dinet.it/Mineral-GMC/AMI/vesuvio.html.
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
SILICA-RICH DEPOSITS AND HYDRATED MINERALS AT GUSEV CRATER, MARS. M. S. Rice1, J. F.
Mongolia
 
  • Gobi Desert
    • Eastern Gobi Desert
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
PEKOV, I.V. & NIKOLAEV, A.P. (2013) Minerals of the pegmatites and hydrothermal assemblages of the Koashva deposit (Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogical Almanac 189(2), 7-65.
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
        • Lovozero Massif
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine; Umba Mine)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
          • Kedykverpakhk Mt
Mineralogical Record: 36(4): 397-416.
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 288.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just District
        • St Just
Bowell, R.J. (1992): Journal of the Russell Society 4(2), 51; Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Owens Valley
        • Olancha
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231; Chatard, T.M. (1890b), Natural soda; Its occurrence and utilization: USGS Bulletin 60: 75; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 277-278.
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 297; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 278.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
  • Colorado
    • Costilla Co.
      • San Luis Valley
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Soda Lake District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 231; NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
USBM Inf Circ 6941 (1938)
  • Oregon
    • Lake Co.
Am.Min.54:1034
  • Washington
www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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