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Nordmark (Nordmarksberg), Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden
© Kjell Gatedal
Cubic oxides of general formula AE2O4. These species are sub-divided into three series: Spinel series (E = Al), Magnetite series (E = Fe), and the Chromite series (E = Cr).
Compare also Thiospinel Group, a group of spinel-type non-oxides.
Classification of Spinel Group
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Chemical Properties of Spinel Group
Relationship of Spinel Group to other Species
Other Names for Spinel Group
|Health Warning:||No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.|
References for Spinel Group
Rinne (1928), Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 58: 43.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 687-689.
Navrotsky, A. and Kleppa, O.J. (1967), The thermodynamics of cation distributions in simple spinels. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry: 29: 2701-2714.
Hill, R.J., Craig, J.R., and Gibbs, G.V. (1979) Systematics of the spinel structure type. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 4: 317-339.
Essene, E.J. and Peacor, D.R. (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solutions and solvi. American Mineralogist: 68: 449-455.
Grimes, N.W., Thompson, P., and Kay, H.F. (1983) New symmetry and structure for spinel. Proceedings of the Royal Society: A386: 333-345.
O'Neill, H. St.C. and Navrotsky, A. (1983), Simple spinels: crystallographic parameters, cation radii, lattice energies, and cation distribution. American Mineralogist: 68: 181-194.
Navrotsky, A. (1986), Cation-distribution energetics and heats of mixing in MgFe2O4-MgAl2O4, ZnFe2O4-ZnAl2O4, and NiAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 spinels: study by high-temperature calorimetry. American Mineralogist: 71: 1160-1169.
Princivalle, F., Della Giusta, A., and Carbonin, S. (1989) Comparative crystal chemistry of spinels from some suites of ultramafic rocks. Mineralogy and Petrology: 40: 117-126.
O'Neill, H.St.C. and Dollase, W.A. (1994) Crystal structures and cation distribution in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4, and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 20: 541-555.
Hazen, R.M. and Yang, H. (1999), effects of cation substitution and order-disorder on P-V-T equations of state of cubic spinels. American Mineralogist: 84: 1956-1960.
Lavrentiev, M.Y., Purton, J.A., and Allan, N.L. (2003), Ordering in spinels - a Monte Carlo study. American Mineralogist: 88: 1522-1531.
Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., and Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.
Internet Links for Spinel Group
Localities for Spinel Group
The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.