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Nitratine

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Formula:
NaNO
 
3
System:TrigonalColour:Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:1½ - 2
Name:In allusion to the composition, being a NITRATe.
Isostructural with:Calcite


Nitratine, sodium nitrate, is found as an efflorescence in hot dry regions.

Chemically it is the Na-analogue of niter.

Classification of Nitratine

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/A.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.NA.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
N : NITRATES
A : Without OH or H2O
Dana 7th edition ID:18.1.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:18.1.1.1

18 : NORMAL NITRATES
1 : AXO3·xH2O, where x can equal zero
Hey's CIM Ref.:13.1

13 : Nitrates
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Type Occurrence of Nitratine

Type Locality:Tarapacá Region, Chile
Year of Discovery:1821
Associated Minerals at type locality:
PolyhaliteLautariteHaliteGypsumGlauberite
DietzeiteDarapskiteBlöditeAnhydrite

Occurrences of Nitratine

Geological Setting:Surficial deposits in arid regions; efflorescences on soils, or in sheltered environments.

Physical Properties of Nitratine

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless, white, lightly tinted by impurities (red-brown, grey, yellowish); colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):1½ - 2
Tenacity:Sectile
Cleavage:Perfect
On {1011} perfect; on {0112} and {0001} reported as imperfect.
Parting:Twin gliding noted with K1 {0112}, K2 {0111}.
Fracture:Conchoidal

Crystallography of Nitratine

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:R3c
Cell Parameters:a = 5.06Å, c = 16.82Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 3.324
Unit Cell Volume:V 372.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals rhombohedral {1011}. Massive granular, incrustations.
Twinning:1. On {0112}, often elongated along the common rhombohedral edge; 2. On {0001}, as penetration twins; 3. On {0221}, as aggregates of three or six individuals at times; 4. On {1011}, rare.

Epitaxial Relationships of Nitratine

Epitaxial Minerals:
Muscovite
KAl
 
2
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2
Dolomite
CaMg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Calcite
CaCO
 
3
Barytocalcite
BaCa(CO
 
3
)
 
2
Epitaxi Comments:Forms overgrowths on calcite quite readily. The crystal axes of the two phases ordinarily parallel. Also oriented growths on the additional species listed.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Nitratine

Type:Uniaxial (-)
RI values: nω = 1.330 - 1.336 nε = 1.580 - 1.587
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.250

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate

Chemical Properties of Nitratine

Formula:
NaNO
 
3
Simplified for copy/paste:NaNO3
Essential elements:N, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:N, Na, O

Relationship of Nitratine to other Species

Common Associates:
NitrocalciteNiterMirabiliteHaliteGypsum
Epsomite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.NA.10Niter
KNO
 
3
5.NA.15Gwihabaite
(NH
 
4
,K)NO
 
3
5.NA.20Nitrobarite
Ba(NO
 
3
)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
13.2Niter
KNO
 
3
13.3Gerhardtite
Cu
 
2
(NO
 
3
)(OH)
 
3
13.4Nitromagnesite
Mg(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
13.5Nitrocalcite
Ca(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
13.6Nitrobarite
Ba(NO
 
3
)
 
2
13.7Buttgenbachite
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
13.8Sveite
KAl
 
7
(NO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
13.9Darapskite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(NO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
13.10Humberstonite
Na
 
7
K
 
3
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
13.11Mbobomkulite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
((NO
 
3
)
 
2
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
13.12Hydrombobomkulite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
((NO
 
3
)
 
2
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 13-14H
 
2
O
13.13Nickelalumite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
,(NO
 
3
)
 
2
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Nitratine

Synonyms:
Chile SaltpeterCubic NiterCubic NitreNatronitreNatronitrite
Natron-NitratNatronsalpeterNitrate of SodaNitratiteSoda Niter
Soda Nitre
Other Languages:
French:Niter cubique
Soude nitratée native
German:Chilesalpeter
Chilisalpeter
Nitratin
Nitronatrit
Salpetersaures Natron
Zootinsalz
Russian:Нитратин
Simplified Chinese:钠硝石
Spanish:Azufrado
Caliche
Nitro
Salitre sodico
Traditional Chinese:鈉硝石

Other Information

Magnetism:Diamagnetic
Thermal Behaviour:Melting Point 306.8°C. Thermal conductivity greatest parallel to [0001].
Other Information:Slightly deliquescent. Readily soluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Nitratine

Reference List:

- +
M. de Rivero (1821) Annales des mines: 6: 596 (as Soude nitratée native).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed.: 171 (as Zootinsalz)

Brooke (1823) Annals of Philosophy, London: 21: 452.

Mohs (1824): 2: 671 (as Saltpetersaures Natron).

Leonhard, K.C. (1826) Handbuch der Oryktognosie, second edition, Heidelberg: 246 (as Natronsalpeter).

Naumann, C.F. (1828) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, Berlin: 262.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1930): 154.

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. ed.: 27 (as Natron-Nitrat).

Haidinger, Wm. (1845a) Handbuch der bestimmenden Mineralogie. Vienna: 488 (as Nitratin).

Scrauf (1860) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzber., Vienna: 41: 787.

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 8 (as Natronitrite).

Tschermak (1882) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 4: 118.

Wulff (1895) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der): 717.

Wulff (1896) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der): 137

Mügge (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 123.

Mügge (1902) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 355.

Mügge (1903) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 16: 389.

Barker (1906) Transactions of the Chem. Society, London: 89: 1123.

Kreutz (1909) Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 233.

Haigh (1912) American Chemical Society Journal: 34: 1137.

Doelter, C. (1913) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3[1]: 264.

Johnsen (1914) Jahrb. Radioakt. Und Elektronik: 11: 246.

Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 2677.

Singewald and Miller (1916) Economic Geology: 11: 103.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 6: 78.

Whitehead (1920) Economic Geology: 15: 187.

Wyckoff (1920) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 16: 149.

Stöber (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 61: 315.

Wetzel (1928) Chemie Erde: 3: 385, 411.

Merwin (1930) Int. Crit. Tables: 7: 26.

Settele (1930) Jb Min., Beil.-Bd.: 61: 227.

Mansfield and Boardman (1932) USGS Bulletin 838 (US occurrences).

Heintze (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 241.

Royer (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 205: 1418.

Finch and Whitmore (1939) Transactions of the Faraday Society: 34: 640.

France and Wolfe (1941) Journal of Physical Chemistry: 45: 395 (artif. crystals & impurities).

Willems (1943) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 105: 53.

West (1945) Journal of the Opt. Society of America: 35: 26.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 300-302 (as Soda-Niter).

American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 1500.

Internet Links for Nitratine

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Nitratine details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Localities for Nitratine

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Buenos Aires
    http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=7714
    Bahamas
     
    • San Salvador District
      • San Salvador Island
    Carb.&Evap. v.16 no.1 (2001)
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Canchas
    American Mineralogist: 79: 1003-1008.
        • Reventon District
          • Paposo
    [AmMIn 85:1843]
          • Caracoles
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
    http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/AmMin/TOC/Articles_Free/1998/Cooper_p390-399_98.pdf
    British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
    No reference listed
    Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD-analysis)
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.; R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
    RRUFF Specimen ID: R060822
      • Tocopilla Province
    http://www.albumdesierto.cl/aleman/1melena.htm
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • Caballo Muerto district
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    Nat. Bur. Standards Circ. 539/6 (1956), 50
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Challacollo
    maurzi
        • Oficina Victoria
    Am. Min.1989, V74, 1207-1214.
    British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
        • Pozo Almonte
    collected by Reynaldo Contreira
    Personally collected by Reynaldo Contreira in 2006
    American Mineralogist: 79: 1003-1008.
    China
     
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
    Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
        • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
          • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
    Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
          • Kumtag basin
    Wensheng Ge (2008): Presented at the 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo (Norway), August 6-14, 2008.; Guoqing Liu, Xianxiao Xiong, Hongzhou Guo, Zhenmin Liu, and Boyun Li (2005): Geology of Chemical Minerals 27(2), 91-95
    Italy
     
    • Emilia-Romagna
      • Parma Province
        • Berceto
          • Corchia mine
    Adorni F., Guelfi F. (1997) - La miniera di Fe e Cu di Corchia, Berceto, Appennino Parmense. - Riv. Min. It. N 3, 217-250.
    • Latium
      • Rome Province
        • Campagnano di Roma
    • Stoppani, F.S. & Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Tochigi Prefecture
          • Utsunomiya
    Akira Kato (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 35.
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Cerna valley
    Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Bakhchisaray area
          • Skalistoye Village
    Dvoichenko P.A. The minerals of Crimea (1914) - Zapiski Krymskogo obshchestva estestvoispytatelei (Proceeding of the Crimea Society of Naturalistes), 1914, vol. 4, p. 1-208 (Rus.) - Popov S.P. Mineralogy of the Crimea (1938). - M.-L., AN SSSR, 1938, 352 p. (Rus.)
        • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
          • Bondarenkovo Village area
    Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
    USA
     
    • Alabama
      • Calhoun Co.
        • Weaver Station
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Morgan Co.
        • Trinity
    Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Arizona
      • Maricopa Co.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 314.
      • Mohave Co.
        • Artillery Mts
    Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 55.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Gila River Indian Reservation
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 314; Wilson, E.D. (1969), Mineral deposits of the Gila River Indian Reservation, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 179.
    • California
      • Imperial Co.
        • Niland
    Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1912a), Nitrate deposits: USGS Bulletin 523: 27; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341.
        • Salton Sea
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
    Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1912a), Nitrate deposits: USGS Bulletin 523: 27; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Inyo Co.
        • China Ranch (Morrison Ranch)
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 165-174; Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Death Valley
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 169; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279, 341.
          • Furnace Creek
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 69; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
          • Dublin Hills
            • Shoshone
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 71; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279, 341.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341.
      • Merced Co.
    Hilgard, Eugene Woldemar (1892), Alkali lands, irrigation and drainage in their mutual relations: Report University of California, College of Agriculture, Appendix for 1890: 25-26; Laizure, Clyde McK (1925), San Francisco field division: California Mining Bureau. Report 21: 182.; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Riverside Co.
        • Vivet Eye
    Turner, Henry Ward (1907), The sodium nitrate deposits of the Colorado: Mining and Scientific Press: 94: 634-636; Ingalls, Walter Renton, ed. (1908) The Mineral Industry, Its Statistics, Technology and Trade during 1907, Vol. XVI, Hill Publishing Co., New York & London: 833; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 54; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • San Bernardino Co.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
    Williams, A., Jr. (1883), Mineral resources of the United States: Mineral Resources US, 1882, XI, 813 pp.: 599; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342.
        • Coolgardie District
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Danby Dry Lake
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 310.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 342.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 342.
        • Owlshead Mts
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Slate Range
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Turtle Mts
          • Vidal
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
        • Twenty-Nine Palms
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Tulare Co.
    Hilgard, Eugene Woldemar (1892), Alkali lands, irrigation and drainage in their mutual relations: Report University of California, College of Agriculture, Appendix for 1890: 25-26; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342.
    • Colorado
      • Mesa Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Idaho
      • Owyhee Co.
    Ream, Lanny R. (2004) Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.
    Anderson (1994) Kentucky Geol. Survey Ser. XI Spec. Pub 20
      • Edmonson Co.
        • Mammoth Cave National Park
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Lake District
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302; Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication 31, Minerals of Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Charleston District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
        • Leadville District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Olinghouse District
    Econ Geol (1994) 89:1614-1622
    • New Mexico
      • Doña Ana Co.
        • Organ Mts
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • Hidalgo Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Luna Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    NSS Bull. 43:127-132
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Valencia Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.; American Mineralogist (1926) 11:189-190
      • Presidio Co.
    BEG Min Res Circ 73
    Venezuela
     
    Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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