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Nitratine

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Formula:
NaNO3
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Colourless, white, ...
Hardness:
1½ - 2
Name:
In allusion to the composition, being a NITRATe.
Isostructural with:
Nitratine, sodium nitrate, is found as an efflorescence in hot dry regions.

Chemically it is the Na-analogue of niter.

Classification of Nitratine

Approved
5.NA.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
N : NITRATES
A : Without OH or H2O
Dana 7th ed.:
18.1.1.1
18.1.1.1

18 : NORMAL NITRATES
1 : AXO3·xH2O, where x can equal zero
13.1

13 : Nitrates
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Type Occurrence of Nitratine

Year of Discovery:
1821

Occurrences of Nitratine

Geological Setting:
Surficial deposits in arid regions; efflorescences on soils, or in sheltered environments.

Physical Properties of Nitratine

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, lightly tinted by impurities (red-brown, grey, yellowish); colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2
Tenacity:
Sectile
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {1011} perfect; on {0112} and {0001} reported as imperfect.
Parting:
Twin gliding noted with K1 {0112}, K2 {0111}.
Fracture:
Conchoidal

Crystallography of Nitratine

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3c
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.06Å, c = 16.82Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 3.324
Unit Cell Volume:
V 372.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals rhombohedral {1011}. Massive granular, incrustations.
Twinning:
1. On {0112}, often elongated along the common rhombohedral edge; 2. On {0001}, as penetration twins; 3. On {0221}, as aggregates of three or six individuals at times; 4. On {1011}, rare.

Epitaxial Relationships of Nitratine

Epitaxial Minerals:
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
CalciteCaCO3
BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2
Epitaxy Comments:
Forms overgrowths on calcite quite readily. The crystal axes of the two phases ordinarily parallel. Also oriented growths on the additional species listed.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Nitratine

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.330 - 1.336 nε = 1.580 - 1.587
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.250
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of Nitratine

Formula:
NaNO3
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Nitratine to other Species

13.2NiterKNO3
13.3GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3
13.4NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
13.5NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O
13.6NitrobariteBa(NO3)2
13.7ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
13.8SveiteKAl7(NO3)4(OH)16Cl2 · 8H2O
13.9DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2O
13.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O
13.11Mbobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
13.12Hydrombobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2O
13.13Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2O

Other Names for Nitratine

Other Information

Magnetism:
Diamagnetic
Thermal Behaviour:
Melting Point 306.8°C. Thermal conductivity greatest parallel to [0001].
Other Information:
Slightly deliquescent. Readily soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Nitratine

Reference List:
M. de Rivero (1821) Annales des mines: 6: 596 (as Soude nitratée native).

Breithaupt, A. (1823) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 1st. ed.: 171 (as Zootinsalz)

Brooke (1823) Annals of Philosophy, London: 21: 452.

Mohs (1824): 2: 671 (as Saltpetersaures Natron).

Leonhard, K.C. (1826) Handbuch der Oryktognosie, second edition, Heidelberg: 246 (as Natronsalpeter).

Naumann, C.F. (1828) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, Berlin: 262.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1930): 154.

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. ed.: 27 (as Natron-Nitrat).

Haidinger, Wm. (1845a) Handbuch der bestimmenden Mineralogie. Vienna: 488 (as Nitratin).

Scrauf (1860) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzber., Vienna: 41: 787.

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 8 (as Natronitrite).

Tschermak (1882) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 4: 118.

Wulff (1895) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der): 717.

Wulff (1896) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der): 137

Mügge (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 123.

Mügge (1902) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 355.

Mügge (1903) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 16: 389.

Barker (1906) Transactions of the Chem. Society, London: 89: 1123.

Kreutz (1909) Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 233.

Haigh (1912) American Chemical Society Journal: 34: 1137.

Doelter, C. (1913) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3[1]: 264.

Johnsen (1914) Jahrb. Radioakt. Und Elektronik: 11: 246.

Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 2677.

Singewald and Miller (1916) Economic Geology: 11: 103.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 6: 78.

Whitehead (1920) Economic Geology: 15: 187.

Wyckoff (1920) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 16: 149.

Stöber (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 61: 315.

Wetzel (1928) Chemie Erde: 3: 385, 411.

Merwin (1930) Int. Crit. Tables: 7: 26.

Settele (1930) Jb Min., Beil.-Bd.: 61: 227.

Mansfield and Boardman (1932) USGS Bulletin 838 (US occurrences).

Heintze (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 241.

Royer (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 205: 1418.

Finch and Whitmore (1939) Transactions of the Faraday Society: 34: 640.

France and Wolfe (1941) Journal of Physical Chemistry: 45: 395 (artif. crystals & impurities).

Willems (1943) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 105: 53.

West (1945) Journal of the Opt. Society of America: 35: 26.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 300-302 (as Soda-Niter).

American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 1500.

Internet Links for Nitratine

Localities for Nitratine

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Argentina
 
  • Buenos Aires
    • Coronel Suaréz
      • D'Orbigny
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=7714
Bahamas
 
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Onac B.P., Mylroie J.E., White W.B. (2001): Mineralogy of cave deposits on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Carbonates and Evaporites, 16, 1, 8-16.; Onac B.P., Sumrall J., Mylroie J.E., Kearns J. (2009): Cave minerals of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. The University of South Florida karst studies series, 1, 70 pp.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Canchas
American Mineralogist: 79: 1003-1008.
      • Reventon District
        • Paposo
[AmMIn 85:1843]
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/AmMin/TOC/Articles_Free/1998/Cooper_p390-399_98.pdf
British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
No reference listed
Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD-analysis)
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.; R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
RRUFF Specimen ID: R060822
    • Tocopilla Province
http://www.albumdesierto.cl/aleman/1melena.htm
  • Atacama Region
    • Chañaral Province
      • Caballo Muerto district
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
Nat. Bur. Standards Circ. 539/6 (1956), 50
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Challacollo
maurzi
      • Oficina Victoria
Am. Min.1989, V74, 1207-1214.
British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
      • Pozo Almonte
collected by Reynaldo Contreira
Personally collected by Reynaldo Contreira in 2006
American Mineralogist: 79: 1003-1008.
    • Iquique Province
      • Chanabaya
Chukanov, N.V., Zubkova, N.V., Mohn, G., Pekov, I.V., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu., Zadov, A.E. (2015): Chanabayaite, Cu2(N3C2H2)2Cl(NH3Cl,H2О,□)4 a new mineral containing triazolate anion. Zapiski RMO, 144(2), 36-47.
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
        • Kumtag basin
Wensheng Ge (2008): Presented at the 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo (Norway), August 6-14, 2008.; Guoqing Liu, Xianxiao Xiong, Hongzhou Guo, Zhenmin Liu, and Boyun Li (2005): Geology of Chemical Minerals 27(2), 91-95
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Italy
 
  • Apulia
    • Bari Province
      • Molfetta
        • Pulo di Molfetta
Zimmerman E.A.G. (1789): Viaggio alla nitriera di Molfetta nella terra di Bari in Puglia. Opuscoli scelti, 12, 289-306. Zimmerman E.A.G. (1789): Voyage à la Nitrière naturelle de Molfetta, dans la Terre de Bari en Pouille. Chez Barrois, Libraire, Paris, 49 pp. (abstract: Journal de Physique, 36 (1790), 109-117). Onac B.P., Forti P. (2011): Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview. International Journal of Speleology, 40, 2, 79-98.
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Parma Province
      • Berceto
        • Corchia mine
Adorni F., Guelfi F. (1997) - La miniera di Fe e Cu di Corchia, Berceto, Appennino Parmense. - Riv. Min. It. N 3, 217-250.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Campagnano di Roma
• Stoppani, F.S. & Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Utsunomiya
Akira Kato (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 35.
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Bakhchisaray area
        • Skalistoye Village
Dvoichenko P.A. The minerals of Crimea (1914) - Zapiski Krymskogo obshchestva estestvoispytatelei (Proceeding of the Crimea Society of Naturalistes), 1914, vol. 4, p. 1-208 (Rus.) - Popov S.P. Mineralogy of the Crimea (1938). - M.-L., AN SSSR, 1938, 352 p. (Rus.)
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
        • Bondarenkovo Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • Calhoun Co.
      • Weaver Station
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Morgan Co.
      • Trinity
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
Rolf Luetcke
    • Maricopa Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 314.
    • Mohave Co.
      • Artillery Mts
Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 55.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Gila River Indian Reservation
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 314; Wilson, E.D. (1969), Mineral deposits of the Gila River Indian Reservation, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 179.
  • California
    • Imperial Co.
      • Niland
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1912a), Nitrate deposits: USGS Bulletin 523: 27; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341.
      • Salton Sea
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1912a), Nitrate deposits: USGS Bulletin 523: 27; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    • Inyo Co.
      • China Ranch (Morrison Ranch)
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 165-174; Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Death Valley
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 169; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279, 341.
        • Furnace Creek
Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 69; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
        • Dublin Hills
          • Shoshone
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 71; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279, 341.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341.
    • Merced Co.
Hilgard, Eugene Woldemar (1892), Alkali lands, irrigation and drainage in their mutual relations: Report University of California, College of Agriculture, Appendix for 1890: 25-26; Laizure, Clyde McK (1925), San Francisco field division: California Mining Bureau. Report 21: 182.; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Humbug Mountain
Kohler-Antablin, S. (1994): Mineral Land Classification of the Eastern Half of Riverside County, CA. In: Open File Report 94 -11.
      • Orocopia Mts
Kohler-Antablin, S. (1994): Mineral Land Classification of the Eastern Half of Riverside County, CA. In: Open File Report 94 –11, No 589.
      • Vivet Eye
Turner, Henry Ward (1907), The sodium nitrate deposits of the Colorado: Mining and Scientific Press: 94: 634-636; Ingalls, Walter Renton, ed. (1908) The Mineral Industry, Its Statistics, Technology and Trade during 1907, Vol. XVI, Hill Publishing Co., New York & London: 833; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 54; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
Williams, A., Jr. (1883), Mineral resources of the United States: Mineral Resources US, 1882, XI, 813 pp.: 599; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342.
      • Coolgardie District
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Danby Dry Lake
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 310.; Ericksen & Mrose (1970) American Mineralogist 55:1500-1517
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 342.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 342.
      • Owlshead Mts
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Slate Range
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Turtle Mts
        • Vidal
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Twenty-Nine Palms
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10-32; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
    • Tulare Co.
Hilgard, Eugene Woldemar (1892), Alkali lands, irrigation and drainage in their mutual relations: Report University of California, College of Agriculture, Appendix for 1890: 25-26; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342.
  • Colorado
    • Mesa Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Idaho
    • Owyhee Co.
Ream, Lanny R. (2004) Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.
Anderson (1994) Kentucky Geol. Survey Ser. XI Spec. Pub 20
    • Edmonson Co.
      • Mammoth Cave National Park
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Lake District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302; Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication 31, Minerals of Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Charleston District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Leadville District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Olinghouse District
Econ Geol (1994) 89:1614-1622
  • New Mexico
    • Doña Ana Co.
      • Organ Mts
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Hidalgo Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Luna Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
NSS Bull. 43:127-132
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Valencia Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.; American Mineralogist (1926) 11:189-190
    • Presidio Co.
BEG Min Res Circ 73
Venezuela
 
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
Mineral and/or Locality  
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