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|Iridium, Osmium, Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, Ruthenium|
A group of six metallic elements: Iridium, Osmium, Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, and Ruthenium.
The platinum-group elements often occur in native form, often together and are often alloyed with each other and iron or other metals. They are frequently referred to in the literature as the PGE's.
Classification of Platinum-Group Elements
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Other Names for Platinum-Group Elements
|Health Warning:||No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.|
References for Platinum-Group Elements
Wöhler, L., Ewald, K., and Krall, H. (1933) The sulfides, selenides and tellurides of the six platinum metals. G. Ber. 66B: 1638-1652.
Cousins, C.A. (1973) Platinoids of the Witwatersrand system. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: 73: 184-199.
Harris, D.C. and Cabri, L.J. (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. Canadian Mineralogist: 12: 104-112.
Stumpfl, E.F. (1974) The genesis of platinum deposits: further thoughts. Minerals Sci. Engineering: 6: 120-141.
Cousins, C.A. and Kinloch, E.D. (1976) Some observations on textures and inclusions on alluvial platinoids. Economic Geology: 71: 1377-1398.
Page, N.J., Clark, A.L., Desborough, G.A., and Parker, R.L. (1973) Platinum-group metals. USGS Professional Paper 820: 537-545.
Yu, T.-H., Lin, S.-J., Cao, P., Fang, C.-S., and Huang, C.-S. (1974) A preliminary study of some new minerals of the platinum-group and another associated new one in platinum-bearing intrusions in a region of China. Acta Geologica Sinica: 2: 202-218 (in Chinese).
Cabri, L.J. and Feather, C.E. (1975) Platinum-iron alloys. Nomenclature based on a study of natural and synthetic alloys. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 117-126.
Cabri, L.J. and Harris, D.C. (1975) Zoning in Os-Ir alloys and relation of the geological and tectonic environment of the source rocks to the bulk Pt:Pt+Ir+Os ratio for placers. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 266-274.
Naldrett, A.J. and Cabri, L.J. (1976) Ultramafic and related mafic rocks: their classification and genesis with special reference to the concentration of nickel sulfides and platinum-group elements. Economic Geology: 71: 1131-1158.
Naldrett, A.J. and Duke, J.M. (1980) Platinum metals in magmatic sulfide ores. Science: 208: 1417-1424.
Berlincourt, L.E., Hummel, H.H., and Skinner, B.J. (1981) Phases and phase relations of the platinum-group elements. In Platinum-Group Elements: Mineralogy, Geology, Recovery (L.J. Cabri, Editor). Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, Petroleum, Spec. Vol. 23: 19-45.
Cabri, L.J. and Laflamme, J.H.G. (1981) nalyses of minerals containing platinum-group elements. In Platinum-Group Elements: Mineralogy, Geology, Recovery (L.J. Cabri, Editor). Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy, Petroleum, Spec. Vol. 23: 151-173.
Hudson, D.R. and Donaldson, M.J. (1981) Mineralogy of platnum-group elements in the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia. In Sulphide Deposits in Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks (D.L. Buchanan and M.J. Jones, editors). Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, U.K. (55-61).
Bowles, J.F.W. (1986) The development of platinum-group minerals in laterites. Economic Geology: 81: 1278-1285.
Bowles, J.F.W. (1990) Platinum-iron alloys, their structural and magnetic characteristics in relation to hydrothermal and low-temperature genesis. Mineralogy and Petrology: 43: 37-47.
Weiser, T.W. (1990) The quantitative proof of the existence of PGE-oxides. Sixth International Platinum Symposium (Perth), 52 (abstract).
Cabri, L.J. and Genkin, A.D. (1991) Re-examination of platinum alloys from lode and placer deposits, Urals. Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 419-425.
Fleet, M.E. and Stone, W.E. (1991) Partitioning of platinum-group elements in the Fe-Ni-S system and their fractionaton in nature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 55: 245-253.
Harris, D.C. and Cabri, L.J. (1991) Nomenclature of platinum-group-element alloys: review and revision. Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 231-237.
Stone, W.E., Crocket, J.H., and Fleet, M.E. (1993) Sulfide-poor platinum-group mineralization in komatiitic systems: Boston Creek flow, layered basaltic komatiite, Abitibi Belt, Ontario. Economic Geology: 88: 817-836.
Augé, T. and Legendre, O. (1994) Platinum-group element oxides from the Pirogues ophiolitic mineralization, New Caledonia: origin and significance. Economic Geology: 89: 1454-1468.
Bezmen, N.I., Asif, M., Brügmann, G.E., Romanenko, I.M., and Naldrett, A.J. (1994) Distribution of Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os and Au between sulfide and silicate melts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 58: 1251-1260.
Bowles, J.F.W. (1995) The development of platinum-group minerals (PGM) in laterites: mineral morphology. Chron. rech. minières: 520: 55-63.
Evstigneeva, T.L., Moh, G.H., and Tarkian, M. (1995) Hydrothermal recrystallization of PGE- and Fe-Ni-sulfide assemblages. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 149: 273-277.
Cabri, L.J., Harris, D.C., and Weiser, T.W. (1996) Mineralogy and distribution of platinum-group mineral (PGM) placer deposits of the world. Explor. Mining Geol.: 5: 73-167.
Larson, M.S., Stone, W.E., Morris, W.A., and rocket, J.H. (1998) Magnetic signature of magnetite-enriched rocks hosting platinum-group element mineralization within the Archean Boston Creek Flow. Geophysics: 63: 440-445.
Zhou, Mei-Fu, Sun, Min, Keays, R.R., and Kerrich, R.W. (1998) Controls on platinum-group elemental distributions of podiform chromitites: a case study of high-Cr and high-Al chromitites from Chinese orogenic belts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 62: 677-688.
Melcher, F. (2000) Base metal - platinum-group element sulfides from the Urals and the Eastern Alps: characterization and significance for mineral systematics. Mineralogy and Petrology: 68: 177-211.
Cawthorn, R.G. Merkle, R.K.W., and Viljoen, M.J. (2002a) Platinum-group element deposits in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. In The Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Beneficiation of Platinum-Group Elements (L.J. Cabri, editor) Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Special volume: 54: 389-429.
Makovicky, E. (2002) Ternary and quaternary phase systems with PGE. In The Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Beneficiation of Platinum-Group Elements (L.J. Cabri, editor) Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Special volume: 54: 131-175
Malitch, K.N. and Thalhammer, O.A.R. (2002) Pt-Fe nuggets from clinopyroxene-dunite massifs, Russia: a structural, compositional and osmium-isotope study. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 395-417.
Weiser, T.W. (2002) Platinum-group minerals (PGM) in placer deposits. In The Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Beneficiaition of Platinum-Group Elements (L.J. Cabri, editor) Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum Special Volume: 54: 721-756.
Melcher, F., Oberthür, T., and Lodziak, J. (2005) Modification of detrital platinum-group minerals from the Eastern Bushveld complex, South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1711-1734.
Oberthür, T. and Melcher, F. (2005) Behavior of PGE and PGM in the supergene environment: a case study of persistence and redistribution in the Main Slfide Zone of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. In Exploration for Platinum-Group Element Deposits (J.E. Mungall, editor). Mineralogical Association of Canada, Short Course Volume 35: 97-111.
Internet Links for Platinum-Group Elements
Localities for Platinum-Group Elements
The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.