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Okenite

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Lorenz Oken
Formula:
Ca10Si18O46 · 18H2O
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
White to slightly ...
Hardness:
4½ - 5
Name:
Named in 1828 in honor of the German biologist Lorenz Oken (Lorenz Ocken) (August 1, 1779 Bohlsbach (now part of Offenburg), Ortenau, Baden, Germany - August 11, 1851 Zurich, Switzerland), professor at University of Munich, Germany and later professor at University of Zürich, Switzerland. The original name, ockenite, was later shortened to okenite. On September 11, 1802, "Lorenz Oken came up with a new system of animal classification that demonstrated the path of evolution." (From Cell Theory Timeline, http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/71438) In 1805, Oken was the first to recognize the significance of biological cell structure: "All living organisms originate from and consist of cells" (Lefalophodon: Welcome to NCEAS | NCEAS. Web. 04 Oct. 2011.) His full birth-name was Lorenz Okenfuss.
WARNING: Many colourful specimens of Okenite, said to be from China or India, are currently available for sale. These are fake, the bright colours are artificial dyes added to the okenite.

Classification of Okenite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.EA.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
A : Single nets of tetrahedra with 4-, 5-, (6-), and 8-membered rings
72.3.2.5

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
3 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
14.5.18

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca
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Type Occurrence of Okenite

Year of Discovery:
1828

Occurrences of Okenite

Geological Setting:
Amygdules in basalts

Physical Properties of Okenite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
White to slightly yellow, blue
Hardness (Mohs):
4½ - 5
Tenacity:
Elastic
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001}
Density:
2.28 - 2.33 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.33 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Okenite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.69(1) Å, b = 7.28(1) Å, c = 22.02(4) Å
α = 92.7°, β = 100.1°, γ = 110.9°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.331 : 1 : 3.025
Z:
2
Morphology:
Bladed crystals to laths. Commonly as fibers.
Twinning:
About [010], composition plane {102}, lamellar

Optical Data of Okenite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.512 - 1.532 nβ = 1.514 - 1.535 nγ = 1.515 - 1.542
2V:
Measured: 60° , Calculated: 68° to 70°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.003 - 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Okenite

Formula:
Ca10Si18O46 · 18H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Sr,Na,K

Relationship of Okenite to other Species

9.EA.05CuprorivaiteCaCu[Si4O10]
9.EA.05GillespiteBaFe2+[Si4O10]
9.EA.05EffenbergeriteBaCu[Si4O10]
9.EA.05WesselsiteSrCu[Si4O10]
9.EA.10Ekanite(Ca,Fe2+,Pb)2(Th,U)[Si8O20]
9.EA.15Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
9.EA.15Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
9.EA.15Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2O
9.EA.20MagadiiteNa2Si14O29 · 11H2O
9.EA.25DalyiteK2ZrSi6O15
9.EA.25DavaniteK2TiSi6O15
9.EA.30Sazhinite-(Ce)Na3Ce[Si6O15] · 6H2O
9.EA.30Sazhinite-(La)Na3La[Si6O15] · 2H2O
9.EA.35ArmstrongiteCaZr[Si6O15] · 3H2O
9.EA.45NekoiteCa3Si6O15·7H2O
9.EA.50CavansiteCa(VO)Si4O10 · 4H2O
9.EA.55PentagoniteCa(VO)Si4O10 · 4H2O
9.EA.60PenkvilksiteNa4Ti2Si8O22 · 4H2O
9.EA.60TumchaiteNa2Zr(Si4O11) · 2H2O
9.EA.65NabesiteNa2BeSi4O10 · 4H2O
9.EA.70Ajoite(K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
9.EA.75ZeravshaniteNa2Cs4Zr3[Si18O45]*2H2O
9.EA.80Bussyite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)3(Na,H2O)6MnSi9Be5(O,OH)30F4
9.EA.85PlumbophyllitePb2Si4O10 · H2O
14.5.1WollastoniteCaSiO3
14.5.2Wollastonite-7T
14.5.3Wollastonite-2MCaSiO3
14.5.4RankiniteCa3Si2O7
14.5.5KilchoaniteCa6(SiO4)(Si3O10)
14.5.6LarniteCa2SiO4
14.5.7BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
14.5.8HatruriteCa3(SiO4)O
14.5.9RosenhahniteHCa3[Si3O9(OH)]
14.5.10DellaiteCa6(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2
14.5.11AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
14.5.12XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
14.5.13FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
14.5.14HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2
14.5.15JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6
14.5.16SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2O
14.5.17KillalaiteCa6.4(H0.6Si2O7)2(OH)2
14.5.19RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2O
14.5.20TrabzoniteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
14.5.21GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2O
14.5.22FoshallasiteCa3[Si2O7] · 3H2O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
14.5.24Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
14.5.25NekoiteCa3Si6O15·7H2O
14.5.26Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)
14.5.27JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O

Other Names for Okenite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Okenite

Reference List:
von Kobell, F. (1828): Ueber den Ockenit, eine neue Mineralspecies. Archiv für die Gesammte Naturlehre, 14, 333-337.

Gard, John Alan & H.F.W. Taylor (1956): Okenite and nekoite: Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 5-20.

Mamedov, K.S. and Belov, N.V. (1958): Crystal structure of mica-like hydrous calcium silicates: okenite, nekoite, truscottite, and gyrolite - New silicate radical [Si6O15]. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 121, 713-716.

Merlino, S. (1983): Okenite, Ca10Si18O46.18H2O: the first example of a chain and sheet silicate. American Mineralogist 68, 614-622.

Internet Links for Okenite

Specimens:
The following Okenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Okenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Mawson Glacier
Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.184.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Burnie district
      • Ridgley
R Bottrill coll.
    • Central Plateau
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Moina District (Middlesex District)
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Leonora Shire
      • Leinster
Grguric, B.A., Nickel, E.H. (2005) Okenite from the Perseverance nickel mine, Western Australia: a first Australian occurrence. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 11, pg. 25-26.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
"Aus der Tiefe der Vulkane", Fritz-Jandl-Postl (2011)
    • Frohnleiten
      • Kirchdorf
Kolitsch, U. et al. (2008)
Azerbaijan
 
  • Qobustan District (Gobustan; Kobustan)
    • Caspian Sea
Novgorodova M.I., Mamedov Yu.G.. Native aluminium from mud volcano at the Bulla island (caspian Sea), - Lithology and Mineral Resourses,1996,N4,p. 339-349
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Kings Co.
      • Bay of Fundy
Walker, T.L. and Parsons, A.L., "The Zeolites of Nova Scotia", Contributions to Canadian Mineralogy, University of Toronto Press, pp. 13-73, 1922.
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Saint-Joseph-de-Coleraine
Horváth Collection XRD ID
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
Grice, J.D. and Williams, R. (1979): Famous mineral localities: The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 10(2):69-80
Chile
 
  • Maule Region
    • José María Linares Province
Tschernich, Rudy W. (1992) Zeolites of the World
Costa Rica
 
  • San José Province
    • Bajo Chacones
Micro Probe Volume VII Number 7 Spring 1993
Denmark
 
  • Faroe Islands
Merlino, S. (1983): Okenite, Ca10Si18O46 *18H2O: the first example of a chain and sheet silicate. American Mineralogist, 66:614-622
Schmitter, F. J. (2008): Zeolithe aus dem Hohen Norden: Sammeltouren auf den Faroer-Inseln. Lapis, 33 (2): 29-35
Zeolite collection of Volker Betz
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Fichtelgebirge
        • Marktredwitz
          • Pechbrunn
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Maroldsweisach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Lower Saxony
    • Göttingen
      • Adelebsen
Koritnig, S. (1972). Gyrolith, Okenit und Tacharanit als metasomatische Reaktionsprodukte aus dem Basaltvorkommen der Bramburg bei Göttingen, Deutschland. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 35, 293-301. (in German); Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Greenland
 
  • Qaasuitsup
[Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages, p. 3499
Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Mineral species first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special publication no. 8., p.78.
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p. 349)
      • Queertarsuaq (Godhavn)
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p. 349)
von Kobell, F. (1828): Ueber den Ockenit, eine neue Mineralspecies, Archiv für die Gesammte Naturlehre, 14, 333-337; Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Mineral species first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special publication no. 8., p.78.
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages, p. 349
Hungary
 
  • Fejér Co.
    • Szár Hill
      • Kőszárhegy
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995; Fehér, B. & Sajó, I. E. (2000): Okenite and nekoite from the Szár Hill, Polgárdi, Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica (Szeged), XLI, Suppl., 40.
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Balaton Uplands
      • Bazsi
        • Prága Hill
KOVÁCS-PÁLFFY, P. et al. (2005): A Karikás-tető (Prága-hegy, Balaton-felvidék) bazaltjának üregkitöltő ásványai [The cavity filling minerals of the basalt from Karikás-tető (Prága Hill, Balaton Highland, Transdanubia)]. A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése, 95-118. [http://www.mafi.hu/microsites/EJ_digi/EJ_2005PDF/Kovacs_Palffy.pdf]
      • Tapolcai Basin
        • Uzsa (Uzsabánya)
Kovács, I. et al. (2009): Guide to the Bakony-Balaton Volcanic Highland, Field Trip 1, 7th September 2009. MinPet2009 field trip booklet, 23 pp.
Iceland
 
  • Capital Region
Selbekk, R. S. & Mattsson, H. (2004): Zeolitt mineraliseringer i Hvalfjördur, Island. STEIN 31 (1), 28-33
  • Eastern Region
    • Suður-Múlasýsla
Volker Betz (1981) Famous Mineral Localities: Zeolites From Iceland and the Faeroe Islands. Mineralogical Record 12:5-26
India
 
  • Maharashtra
    • Ahmadnagar District (Ahmednagar District; Ahmed Nagar District)
http://www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com/jhbnyc/mineralmuseum/picshow.php?id=32586
    • Mumbai District (Bombay District)
      • Mumbai (Bombay)
Moore, T. (2002) What's New in Minerals?. Tucson Show 2002. Mineralogical Record. 33: 274
        • Ward 38
          • Malad
Many specimens in many collections. Original analysis done by Dr. W. Wise, U. of CA at Santa Barbara
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Wise, W.S. (1978): Yugawaralite from Bombay, India. Mineralogical Record 9 (5): 296; No reference listed
[Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
    • Nashik District (Nasik District)
P Haas collection
Rob Lavinsky
Reiner Mielke
      • Talegaon
Praszkier, T. (2009): Cavansit und Pentagonit aus Indien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (6), 16-25.
      • Wagholi
        • Wagholi quarries
Enrico Bonacina
Israel
 
  • Negev
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
Italy
 
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Campagnano di Roma
• Stoppani, F.S. & Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
  • Veneto
    • Padova Province
      • Euganei Hills
        • Faedo
Passaglia E. and Taglavini A. (1995): Erionite from Faedo, Colli Euganei, Italy. N.Jb.Miner.Mh.,4, pagg.185-191.
      • Galzignano Terme
        • Euganei Hills
Zorzi F. and Boscardin M. (2014): Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Cierre Ed.. Sommacampagna (VR), p. 332.
    • Vicenza province
Boscardin, M., Mietto, P., Pegoraro, S., Orlandi, P., Secco, L.(2000):
Mexico
 
  • Zacatecas
    • Mun. de Mazapil
      • Noche Buena
Panczner (1987): 100-378.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Northland
      • Kaipara
        • Aranga
Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection
Norway
 
  • Nordland
    • Fauske
      • Sulitjelma
Nordrum, F.S. (2004): Mineralene i Sulitjelma kobbergruver, Fauske. STEIN 31 (3): 3-25
Peter Andresen collection
Nordrum, F.S. (2004): Mineralene i Sulitjelma kobbergruver, Fauske. STEIN 31 (3): 3-25
Romania
 
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S., Almási, E., Köllı, A., Sajó, I., Vezzalini, G. (2006): New data about the minerals of the copper ore deposit at Balan (East Carpathians) and of limestone xenolithes from basalt at Racosu de Jos (Persani Mts.), Romania. Acta Mineral.-Petrogr., Abstr. Ser. 5, p. 112. [http://www.mineral.hermuz.hu/acta_05/pdf/szakalls1.pdf]; Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Brad
www.minerals-of-the carpathians.eu (2009)
Szakall, S. (editor)(2002): Minerals of the Carpathians. Granit, Prague 2002, 450p. (p.52)
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
Spiridonov, E.M., Gritsenko, Y.D., and Ponomarenko, A.I. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 755-762.
            • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
Sergei F. Sluzhenikin data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Northern Karelia
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/vuori.htm
UK
 
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Larne
Tilley, C. E., & Alderman, A. R. (1934). Progressive metasomatism in the flint nodules of the Scawt Hill contact-zone. Mineral Mag, 23, 513-518.
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Bakhchisaray area
        • Trudolyubovka Village
Karpenko V., Ignatenko K. Babingtonite form the Pervomaiskii quarry in the Crimea // Novye dannye o mineralakh (New Data on Minerals), 1991, #37, 58 - 63 (in Russ.) Getling R.V. Datolith of the Bodrak area in the Crimea and some features of his genesis // ZVMO, 1960, vol. 89, #1, 102 - 106 (in Russ.)
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 316; Shannon, D.M. (1983b), Zeolites and associated minerals from Horseshoe Dam, AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 115-117.
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
        • Crestmore quarries
          • Sky Blue Hill
Eakle, Arthur Starr (1917), Minerals associated with the crystalline limestone at Crestmore, Riverside County, California: University of California Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 10: 327-360; Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 366.
  • Idaho
    • Idaho Co.
      • Skookumchuck Creek
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • Georgetown
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • North Carolina
    • Durham Co.
      • Durham
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Kenny Gay message 15.09.2005; Mineralogical Magazine 1977 41 : 394-395
    • Rowan Co.
      • Woodleaf
The Adams Collection
  • Oregon
    • Columbia Co.
      • Goble
Micro Probe Vol. 7 No. 2 Fall 1990; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 116
Micro Probe Vol. 6 No. 5 Fall 1987; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 117
    • Deschutes Co.
      • East Lake
aragonite; Mineralogy of 10 Geothermal boreholes drilled in and around the Newberry Caldera U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Issue 1578 By Keith E. Bargar, Terry E. C. Keith 1999
  • Pennsylvania
    • Berks Co.
      • Birdsboro
        • Gickerville (Gibralter)
Colflesh, S. (2010) Mineral News, 26, #5, 2. EDS and XRD confirmation by Lance Kearns.
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Bingham District (West Mountain District)
James R. Wilson (1995) A Collector's Guide to Rock, Mineral, & Fossil Localities of Utah UGS Miscellaneous Publication 95-4; North, Jerry (2010) Displays of Nature : History, Minerals & Crystals of Utah's Bingham Canyon Copper Mine.
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Fairfax Co.
      • Culpeper Basin
        • Centreville
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Washington
    • Douglas Co.
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
    • Thurston Co.
      • Bucoda
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, ; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 71
  • Wyoming
    • Park Co.
      • Yellowstone National Park
Bargar, K.E.; Beeson, M.H. & Keith, T.E.C. (1981): Zeolites in Yellowstone National Park. Mineralogical Record 12, 29-38
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