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Olivenite

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Formula:
Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Olive green to yellow or ...
Hardness:
3
Member of:
Name:
Originally named arseniksaures kupfererz by Martin Klaproth in 1786 in reference to the chemical composition. Named olivenerz by Abraham G. Werner in 1789 in allusion to its olive-green color. Robert Jameson changed the ending "erz" to "ite" in 1920. Synonyms include: "holzkupfererz" (Bournon, 1801) and "pharmacochalzite" (Hausmann, 1813).
Olivenite Group. Adamite-Olivenite Series. Libethenite-Olivenite Series.
The copper analogue of Adamite.

May be confused with Zincolivenite which is a chemically and structurally distinct species with a defined ratio of Zn:Cu.
Note: The designations 'Zincolivenite' or 'Zinc-olivenite' were also used for Zn-bearing olivenites with unspecified Zn:Cu ratios prior to the recognition and approval of zincolivenite as a distinct species.

A relatively common, thermodynamically very stable secondary copper mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits containing arsenic-bearing phases, especially Tennantite, Enargite and others.

Classification of Olivenite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
8.BB.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 about 1:1
41.6.6.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : A2(XO4)Zq
20.1.2

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Olivenite

Year of Discovery:
1786
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidized zone of a copper deposit

Occurrences of Olivenite

Geological Setting:
Commonly found in the oxidized zone of arsenic-bearing copper deposits.

Physical Properties of Olivenite

Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Comment:
Pearly to silky when it is fibrous.
Colour:
Olive green to yellow or brown, gray-green, grayish white; light green in transmitted light.
Comment:
Straw yellow if fibrous.
Streak:
Olive green to brown
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Indistinct on {101} and {110}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
4.46 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.45 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Olivenite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.5844(3) Å, b = 8.2084(3) Å, c = 5.9258(2) Å
β = 90.130(3)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.046 : 1 : 0.722
Unit Cell Volume:
V 417.56 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals elongated [100]; also short prismatic to acicular [001]; tabular on {011}, {100}, or {001}, less common. Occurs as globular or reniform masses with a fibrous structure with the fibers straight and divergent, rarely irregular; curved lamellar; massive, granular to earthy; nodular.
Twinning:
On {010}

Crystallographic forms of Olivenite

Crystal Atlas:
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Olivenite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Olivenite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Burns P C Hawthorne F C (1995) Rietveld refinement of the crystal structure of olivenite: A twinned monoclinic structure. The Canadian Mineralogist 33:885-888.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.91 (70)
4.82 (90)
4.19 (60)
2.98 (100)
2.65 (60)
2.47 (70)
2.39 (70)
Comments:
Handbook of Mineralogy, v. 4

Optical Data of Olivenite

Type:
Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.747 - 1.780 nβ = 1.788 - 1.820 nγ = 1.829 - 1.865
2V:
Measured: 80° to 90°, Calculated: 46° to 84°
Birefringence:
0.084
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.082 - 0.085
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
strong r > v or r < v moderate
Optical Extinction:
Y=c
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
In green and yellow.
Absorption Y > X, Z.

Chemical Properties of Olivenite

Formula:
Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,P

Relationship of Olivenite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Adamite (see here)
Forms a series with Libethenite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)O
EveiteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.05AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
8.BB.05MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.05TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.10Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
8.BB.10Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15SarkiniteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Stanĕkite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(PO4)O
8.BB.15JoosteiteMn2+(Mn3+,Fe3+)(PO4)O
8.BB.15HydroxylwagneriteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20Satterlyite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)2(PO4)(OH,O)
8.BB.25AlthausiteMg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)
8.BB.30AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30EveiteMn22+(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)O
8.BB.35ParadamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.35TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.40BarbosaliteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40HentscheliteCuFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40Lazulite(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40WilhelmkleiniteZnFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.45TrolleiteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BB.50NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
8.BB.55PhosphoellenbergeriteMg14(PO4)6(HPO4,CO3)2(OH)6
8.BB.60UrusoviteCuAl(AsO4)O
8.BB.65TheoparacelsiteCu3(As2O7)(OH)2
8.BB.70TuraniteCu5(VO4)2(OH)4
8.BB.75StoiberiteCu5(VO4)2O2
8.BB.80FingeriteCu11(VO4)6O2
8.BB.85AverieviteCu6(VO4)2O2Cl2
8.BB.90LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.90RichelliteCaFe23+(PO4)2(OH,F)2
8.BB.90ZinclipscombiteZnFe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
20.1.1LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2
20.1.3ClinoclaseCu3(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.4CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.5CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7GeminiteCu(HAsO4) · H2O
20.1.8EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2O
20.1.9StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
20.1.10ArhbariteCu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.11LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 8-9H2O
20.1.12ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
20.1.13LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
20.1.14CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
20.1.15ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.16ArthuriteCuFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O

Other Names for Olivenite

Other Information

Not fluorescent in UV
Other Information:
Soluble in acids and in ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Olivenite

Reference List:
Klaproth (1786) Schriften der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde in Berlin: 7: 160 (as Arseniksaures Kupfererz).

Werner (1789) Bergmaennusches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmannische Journal): 382, 385 (as Olivenerz).

Kirwan, R. (1796) Elements of Mineralogy. Second edition: 2: 151 (as Olive Copper Ore).

Rashleigh, P. (1797) Specimens of British Minerals Selected from the Cabinet of Phillip Rashleigh. London. Part 1: pl. 11, figure 2; part 2 (1802): pl. 6 (as Olive-green Copper Ore).

Bournon (1801) Transactions of the Royal Philosophical Society, London: 177 (as Cuivre arseniaté en octaèdre aigus).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 3: 1042 (as Pharmacochalzit).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 3: 1045 (as Olivenkupfer).

Jameson, R. (1820) A System of Mineralogy, third edition, 3 volumes: 2: 335.

Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition: 283.

Thomson, T. (1836) Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis. 2 volumes, London: 1: 614.

Hermann (1844) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 33: 291.

Damour (1845) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 13: 412.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Second edition. Göttingen:
vol. 2, in two parts: 1025 (as Pharmacolzit).

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 564.

Hillebrand (1884) Proceedings of the Colorado Scientific Society: 1: 113.

Hillebrand and Washington (1888) American Journal of Science: 35: 298.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 785.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 90.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 116.

Biehl (1919) Dissertation, Münster.

Biehl (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 62: 328.

Shannon, Earl V. (1926) “The Minerals of Idaho,” U.S. National Museum Bulletin 131: 425.

Winchell, A. (1933) Elements of Optical Mineralogy, part 2, ”Descriptions of Minerals,” third edition, 459 pp.: 132.

Strunz (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 94: 60 (Olivenite Group).

Heritsch (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 98: 351.

Heritsch (1938) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 99: 466.

Jarrell (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 632.

Heritsch (1940) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 102: 1 (Olivenite Group).

Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 453.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 859-861.

Canadian Mineralogist (1995): 33: 885-888.

Acta Crystallographica: B33: 2628-2631.

Li, C., H. Yang, & R.T.Downs: Redeteriminaton of olivenite from an untwinned single-crystal: Acta Crystallographica E64, i60-i61 (2008)

Internet Links for Olivenite

Specimens:
The following Olivenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Olivenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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