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Olivenite

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Formula:
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
System:MonoclinicColour:Olive green to yellow or ...
Hardness:3
Member of:Olivenite Group
Name:Originally named arseniksaures kupfererz by Martin Klaproth in 1786 in reference to the chemical composition. Named olivenerz by Abraham G. Werner in 1789 in allusion to its olive-green color. Robert Jameson changed the ending "erz" to "ite" in 1920. Synonyms include: "holzkupfererz" (Bournon, 1801) and "pharmacochalzite" (Hausmann, 1813).


Olivenite Group. Adamite-Olivenite Series. Libethenite-Olivenite Series.
The copper analogue of Adamite.

May be confused with Zincolivenite which is a chemically and structurally distinct species with a defined ratio of Zn:Cu.
Note: The designations 'Zincolivenite' or 'Zinc-olivenite' were also used for Zn-bearing olivenites with unspecified Zn:Cu ratios prior to the recognition and approval of zincolivenite as a distinct species.

A relatively common, thermodynamically very stable secondary copper mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits containing arsenic-bearing phases, especially Tennantite, Enargite and others.

Classification of Olivenite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/B.06-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.BB.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 about 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:41.6.6.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : A2(XO4)Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:20.1.2

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Olivenite

Type Locality:Carharrack Mine, St Day United Mines (Poldice Mines), Gwennap, Camborne - Redruth - St Day District, Cornwall, England, UK
Year of Discovery:1786
Geological Setting of type material:Oxidized zone of a copper deposit

Occurrences of Olivenite

Geological Setting:Commonly found in the oxidized zone of arsenic-bearing copper deposits.

Physical Properties of Olivenite

Lustre:Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Silky, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Comment:Pearly to silky when it is fibrous.
Colour:Olive green to yellow or brown, gray-green, grayish white; light green in transmitted light.
Comment:Straw yellow if fibrous.
Streak:Olive green to brown
Hardness (Mohs):3
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
Indistinct on {101} and {110}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):4.46 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.45 g/cm3

Crystallography of Olivenite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/m
Cell Parameters:a = 8.5844(3) Å, b = 8.2084(3) Å, c = 5.9258(2) Å
β = 90.130(3)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.046 : 1 : 0.722
Unit Cell Volume:V 417.56 ų
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals elongated [100]; also short prismatic to acicular [001]; tabular on {011}, {100}, or {001}, less common. Occurs as globular or reniform masses with a fibrous structure with the fibers straight and divergent, rarely irregular; curved lamellar; massive, granular to earthy; nodular.
Twinning:On {010}
Crystal Atlas:
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Olivenite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Olivenite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Burns P C Hawthorne F C (1995) Rietveld refinement of the crystal structure of olivenite: A twinned monoclinic structure. The Canadian Mineralogist 33:885-888.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
5.91 (70)
4.82 (90)
4.19 (60)
2.98 (100)
2.65 (60)
2.47 (70)
2.39 (70)
Comments:Handbook of Mineralogy, v. 4

Optical Data of Olivenite

Type:Biaxial (+/-)
RI values: nα = 1.747 - 1.780 nβ = 1.788 - 1.820 nγ = 1.829 - 1.865
2V:Measured: 80° to 90°, Calculated: 46° to 84°
Birefringence:0.084
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.082 - 0.085

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:strong r > v or r < v moderate
Optical Extinction:Y=c
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:In green and yellow.
Absorption Y > X, Z.

Chemical Properties of Olivenite

Formula:
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Essential elements:As, Cu, H, O
All elements listed in formula:As, Cu, H, O
Common Impurities:Fe,P

Relationship of Olivenite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Adamite (see here)
Forms a series with Libethenite (see here)
Member of:Olivenite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Adamite
Zn
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Auriacusite
Fe
3+
 
Cu
2+
 
(AsO
 
4
)O
Eveite
Mn
2+
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Libethenite
Cu
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
Zincolibethenite
CuZn(PO
 
4
)(OH)
Zincolivenite
CuZn(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
Common Associates:
ScoroditeMalachiteLimoniteEnargiteAzurite
Adamite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.BB.05Amblygonite
LiAl(PO
 
4
)F
8.BB.05Montebrasite
LiAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.05Tavorite
LiFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.10Triplite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(F,OH)
8.BB.10Zwieselite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)F
8.BB.15Sarkinite
Mn
2+
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.15Triploidite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.15Wagnerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)F
8.BB.15Wolfeite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.15Stanĕkite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)O
8.BB.15Joosteite
Mn
2+
 
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)(PO
 
4
)O
8.BB.15Hydroxylwagnerite
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.20Holtedahlite
Mg
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.20Satterlyite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH,O)
8.BB.25Althausite
Mg
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,O)(F,☐)
8.BB.30Adamite
Zn
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Eveite
Mn
2+
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Libethenite
Cu
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Zincolibethenite
CuZn(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Zincolivenite
CuZn(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.30Auriacusite
Fe
3+
 
Cu
2+
 
(AsO
 
4
)O
8.BB.35Paradamite
Zn
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.35Tarbuttite
Zn
 
2
(PO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.40Barbosalite
Fe
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Hentschelite
CuFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Lazulite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Scorzalite
Fe
2+
 
Al
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.40Wilhelmkleinite
ZnFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.45Trolleite
Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH)
 
3
8.BB.50Namibite
Cu(BiO)
 
2
(VO
 
4
)(OH)
8.BB.55Phosphoellenbergerite
Mg
 
14
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(HPO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
8.BB.60Urusovite
CuAl(AsO
 
4
)O
8.BB.65Theoparacelsite
Cu
 
3
(As
 
2
O
 
7
)(OH)
 
2
8.BB.70Turanite
Cu
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
8.BB.75Stoiberite
Cu
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
8.BB.80Fingerite
Cu
 
11
(VO
 
4
)
 
6
O
 
2
8.BB.85Averievite
Cu
 
6
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
2
Cl
 
2
8.BB.90Lipscombite
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
8.BB.90Richellite
CaFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
8.BB.90Zinclipscombite
ZnFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
20.1.1Lammerite
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
20.1.3Clinoclase
Cu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
20.1.4Cornwallite
Cu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.5Cornubite
Cu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7Geminite
Cu(HAsO
 
4
) · H
 
2
O
20.1.8Euchroite
Cu
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)(OH) · 3H
 
2
O
20.1.9Strashimirite
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
4
· 5H
 
2
O
20.1.10Arhbarite
Cu
 
2
Mg(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
20.1.11Lindackerite
CuCu
 
4
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(HAsO
 
4
)
 
2
· 8-9H
 
2
O
20.1.12Conichalcite
CaCu(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
20.1.13Liroconite
Cu
 
2
Al(AsO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
20.1.14Ceruleite
Cu
 
2
Al
 
7
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
13
· 11.5H
 
2
O
20.1.15Chenevixite
Cu
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
20.1.16Arthurite
CuFe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O

Other Names for Olivenite

Synonyms:
Acicular arseniate of copperLaurochalciteOlive Copper OreOlive-green Copper OrePharmacholzite
PharmacochalcitePharmacochalzitePharmakochalciteRight Prismatic Arsenate of CopperWood-Arsenate
Wood-Copper
Other Languages:
Catalan:Olivenita
Dutch:Oliveniet
French:Olivénite
Cuivre arseniaté en octaèdre aigus
Cuivre Arseniaté (of Bournon)
German:Arseniksaures Kupfererz
Holzkupfererz
Laurochalcit
Olivenerz
Olivenit
Olivenkupfer
Pharmacholzit
Pharmacochalcit
Pharmacochalzit
Pharmacolzit
Pharmakochalcit
Pharmakochalzit
Italian:Olivenite
Polish:Olivenit
Russian:Оливенит
Simplified Chinese:橄榄铜矿
Slovak:Olivenit
Spanish:Laurochalcita
Olivenita
Traditional Chinese:橄欖銅礦
Varieties:
Cobaltoan OliveniteLeucochalciteWood CopperZincian Olivenite

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent in UV
Other Information:Soluble in acids and in ammonia.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Olivenite

Reference List:

- +
Klaproth (1786) Schriften der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde in Berlin: 7: 160 (as Arseniksaures Kupfererz).

Werner (1789) Bergmaennusches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmannische Journal): 382, 385 (as Olivenerz).

Kirwan, R. (1796) Elements of Mineralogy. Second edition: 2: 151 (as Olive Copper Ore).

Rashleigh, P. (1797) Specimens of British Minerals Selected from the Cabinet of Phillip Rashleigh. London. Part 1: pl. 11, figure 2; part 2 (1802): pl. 6 (as Olive-green Copper Ore).

Bournon (1801) Transactions of the Royal Philosophical Society, London: 177 (as Cuivre arseniaté en octaèdre aigus).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 3: 1042 (as Pharmacochalzit).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 3: 1045 (as Olivenkupfer).

Jameson, R. (1820) A System of Mineralogy, third edition, 3 volumes: 2: 335.

Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition: 283.

Thomson, T. (1836) Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis. 2 volumes, London: 1: 614.

Hermann (1844) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 33: 291.

Damour (1845) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 13: 412.

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Second edition. Göttingen:
vol. 2, in two parts: 1025 (as Pharmacolzit).

Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 564.

Hillebrand (1884) Proceedings of the Colorado Scientific Society: 1: 113.

Hillebrand and Washington (1888) American Journal of Science: 35: 298.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 785.

Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 90.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 116.

Biehl (1919) Dissertation, Münster.

Biehl (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 62: 328.

Shannon, Earl V. (1926) “The Minerals of Idaho,” U.S. National Museum Bulletin 131: 425.

Winchell, A. (1933) Elements of Optical Mineralogy, part 2, ”Descriptions of Minerals,” third edition, 459 pp.: 132.

Strunz (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 94: 60 (Olivenite Group).

Heritsch (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 98: 351.

Heritsch (1938) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 99: 466.

Jarrell (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 632.

Heritsch (1940) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 102: 1 (Olivenite Group).

Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 453.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 859-861.

Canadian Mineralogist (1995): 33: 885-888.

Acta Crystallographica: B33: 2628-2631.

Li, C., H. Yang, & R.T.Downs: Redeteriminaton of olivenite from an untwinned single-crystal: Acta Crystallographica E64, i60-i61 (2008)

Mindat.org articles about Olivenite

Article entries:
Olivenite habits from Grube ClaraDominik Schläfli

Internet Links for Olivenite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Olivenite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Olivenite

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